How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-03-01
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Co
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This text provides a comprehensive introduction to educational research. Each step in the research process is described and discussed in detail, and thorough coverage of the most widely-used research methodologies in education is provided. New to this edition is an expanded focus on qualitative methods. New Parts V and VI provide an expanded introduction to qualitative methods, and take a close look at different qualitative methodologies. Also new is an enhanced chapter on Action Research. Examples of key concepts and ideas in all chapters highlight the texts practicability, and step-by-step analyses of real research studies, and. End-of-chapter Problem Sheets, comprehensive coverage of data analysis, and how to prepare research proposals and reports make the text appropriate both for courses that focus on doing research and for those that stress how to read and understand research. To keep students engaged, the authors' writing is simple and direct. Clarifying examples, summarizing charts, tables and diagrams, numerous illustrations of key concepts and ideas, and a friendly two-color design enhance the content. This is the only copiously illustrated educational research text available. Packaged with the text are an Interactive Student CD-Rom and Student Workbook that provide practice opportunity and resources.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxiii
Introduction to Researchp. 1
The Nature of Researchp. 2
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 3
Some Examples of Educational Concernsp. 3
Why Research Is of Valuep. 4
Ways of Knowingp. 4
Types of Researchp. 7
General Research Typesp. 14
Critical Analysis of Researchp. 16
A Brief Overview of the Research Processp. 19
Main Pointsp. 21
Key Termsp. 22
For Discussionp. 23
Notesp. 23
p. 24
p. 24
The Basics of Educational Researchp. 25
The Research Problemp. 26
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 27
What Is a Research Problem?p. 27
Research Questionsp. 27
Characteristics of Good Research Questionsp. 29
Research Questions Often Investigate Relationshipsp. 34
Main Pointsp. 35
Key Termsp. 35
For Discussionp. 35
p. 37
p. 37
Variables and Hypothesesp. 38
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 39
The Importance of Studying Relationshipsp. 39
Variablesp. 40
Hypothesesp. 46
Main Pointsp. 50
Key Termsp. 50
For Discussionp. 51
p. 52
p. 52
Ethics and Researchp. 53
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 54
Some Examples of Unethical Practicep. 54
A Statement of Ethical Principlesp. 54
Protecting Participants from Harmp. 56
Ensuring Confidentiality of Research Datap. 56
Should Subjects Be Deceived?p. 57
Three Examples Involving Ethical Concernsp. 58
Research with Childrenp. 60
Regulation of Researchp. 61
Main Pointsp. 63
For Discussionp. 64
Notesp. 64
p. 65
p. 65
Review of the Literaturep. 66
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 67
The Value of a Literature Reviewp. 67
Types of Sourcesp. 67
Steps Involved in a Literature Searchp. 68
Doing a Computer Searchp. 76
Writing the Literature Review Reportp. 86
Main Pointsp. 87
Key Termsp. 88
For Discussionp. 88
Notesp. 89
p. 90
p. 90
Samplingp. 91
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 92
What Is a Sample?p. 92
Random Sampling Methodsp. 95
Nonrandom Sampling Methodsp. 98
A Review of Sampling Methodsp. 102
Sample Sizep. 103
External Validity: Generalizing from a Samplep. 104
Main Pointsp. 107
Key Termsp. 107
For Discussionp. 109
p. 110
p. 110
Instrumentationp. 111
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 112
What Are Data?p. 112
Means of Classifying Data-Collection Instrumentsp. 118
Examples of Data-Collection Instrumentsp. 118
Types of Scoresp. 137
Norm-Referenced Versus Criterion-Referenced Instrumentsp. 138
Measurement Scalesp. 139
Preparing Data for Analysisp. 142
Main Pointsp. 144
Key Termsp. 145
For Discussionp. 146
Notesp. 147
p. 148
p. 148
Validity and Reliabilityp. 149
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 150
The Importance of Valid Instrumentsp. 150
Validityp. 150
Reliabilityp. 157
Main Pointsp. 165
Key Termsp. 165
For Discussionp. 166
Notesp. 166
p. 167
p. 167
Internal Validityp. 168
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 169
What Is Internal Validity?p. 169
Threats to Internal Validityp. 170
How Can a Researcher Minimize These Threats to Internal Validity?p. 182
Main Pointsp. 183
Key Termsp. 184
For Discussionp. 184
Notep. 185
p. 186
p. 186
Data Analysisp. 187
Descriptive Statisticsp. 188
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 189
Statistics Versus Parametersp. 189
Two Fundamental Types of Numerical Datap. 189
Techniques for Summarizing Quantitative Datap. 191
Techniques for Summarizing Categorical Datap. 210
Main Pointsp. 215
Key Termsp. 217
For Discussionp. 217
p. 218
p. 218
Inferential Statisticsp. 219
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 220
What Are Inferential Statistics?p. 220
The Logic of Inferential Statisticsp. 221
Hypothesis Testingp. 228
Practical Versus Statistical Significancep. 229
Inference Techniquesp. 231
Main Pointsp. 242
Key Termsp. 243
For Discussionp. 244
p. 245
p. 245
Statistics in Perspectivep. 246
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 247
Approaches to Researchp. 247
Comparing Groups: Quantitative Datap. 248
Relating Variables within a Group: Quantitative Datap. 252
Comparing Groups: Categorical Datap. 257
Relating Variables within a Group: Categorical Datap. 259
A Recap of Recommendationsp. 259
Main Pointsp. 261
Key Termsp. 262
For Discussionp. 262
p. 263
p. 263
Quantitative Research Methodologiesp. 265
Experimental Researchp. 266
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 267
The Uniqueness of Experimental Researchp. 267
Essential Characteristics of Experimental Researchp. 268
Control of Extraneous Variablesp. 270
Group Designs in Experimental Researchp. 270
Control of Threats to Internal Validity: A Summaryp. 281
Evaluating the Likelihood of a Threat to Internal Validity in Experimental Studiesp. 284
Control of Experimental Treatmentsp. 286
An Example of Experimental Researchp. 288
Research Reportp. 289
Analysis of the Studyp. 298
Main Pointsp. 300
Key Termsp. 302
For Discussionp. 302
Notesp. 303
p. 304
p. 304
Single-Subject Researchp. 305
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 306
Essential Characteristics of Single-Subject Researchp. 306
Single-Subject Designsp. 306
Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Subject Researchp. 312
An Example of Single-Subject Researchp. 318
Research Reportp. 319
Analysis of the Studyp. 330
Main Pointsp. 332
Key Termsp. 333
For Discussionp. 333
Correlational Researchp. 334
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 335
The Nature of Correlational Researchp. 335
Purposes of Correlational Researchp. 336
Basic Steps in Correlational Researchp. 342
What Do Correlation Coefficients Tell Us?p. 344
Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Researchp. 344
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Studiesp. 348
An Example of Correlational Researchp. 350
Research Reportp. 351
Analysis of the Studyp. 364
Main Pointsp. 366
Key Termsp. 367
For Discussionp. 368
Notesp. 368
Causal-Comparative Researchp. 369
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 370
What Is Causal-Comparative Research?p. 370
Steps Involved in Causal-Comparative Researchp. 373
Threats to Internal Validity in Causal-Comparative Researchp. 374
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Causal-Comparative Studiesp. 376
Data Analysisp. 377
Associations Between Categorical Variablesp. 379
An Example of Causal-Comparative Researchp. 380
Research Reportp. 380
Analysis of the Studyp. 391
Main Pointsp. 393
For Discussionp. 394
Notep. 395
Survey Researchp. 396
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 397
What Is a Survey?p. 397
Why Are Surveys Conducted?p. 398
Types of Surveysp. 398
Survey Research and Correlational Researchp. 399
Steps in Survey Researchp. 399
Nonresponsep. 409
Problems in the Instrumentation Process in Survey Researchp. 411
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Survey Researchp. 411
Data Analysis in Survey Researchp. 412
An Example of Survey Researchp. 412
Research Reportp. 412
Analysis of the Studyp. 421
Main Pointsp. 423
Key Termsp. 424
For Discussionp. 424
Notesp. 425
Introduction to Qualitative Researchp. 427
The Nature of Qualitative Researchp. 428
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 429
What Is Qualitative Research?p. 429
General Characteristics of Qualitative Researchp. 430
Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative Researchp. 431
Postmodernismp. 432
Steps in Qualitative Researchp. 433
Approaches to Qualitative Researchp. 435
Generalization in Qualitative Researchp. 440
Internal Validity in Qualitative Researchp. 441
Ethics and Qualitative Researchp. 441
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Reconsideredp. 442
Main Pointsp. 444
Key Termsp. 445
For Discussionp. 445
Notesp. 446
Observation and Interviewingp. 448
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 449
Observationp. 449
Interviewingp. 455
Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Researchp. 462
An Example of Qualitative Researchp. 463
Research Reportp. 464
Analysis of the Studyp. 476
Main Pointsp. 478
Key Termsp. 480
For Discussionp. 480
Notesp. 481
Content Analysisp. 482
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 483
What Is Content Analysis?p. 483
Some Applicationsp. 484
Categorization in Content Analysisp. 485
Steps Involved in Content Analysisp. 485
An Illustration of Content Analysisp. 491
Using the Computer in Content Analysisp. 492
Advantages of Content Analysisp. 494
Disadvantages of Content Analysisp. 494
An Example of a Content Analysis Studyp. 495
Research Reportp. 495
Analysis of the Studyp. 505
Main Pointsp. 506
Key Termsp. 508
For Discussionp. 508
Notesp. 508
Qualitative Research Methodologiesp. 509
Ethnographic Researchp. 510
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 511
What Is Ethnographic Research?p. 511
Ethnographic Conceptsp. 513
Sampling in Ethnographic Researchp. 515
Do Ethnographic Researchers Use Hypotheses?p. 515
Data Collection in Ethnographic Researchp. 516
Data Analysis in Ethnographic Researchp. 520
Roger Harker and His Fifth-Grade Classroomp. 522
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethnographic Researchp. 523
An Example of Ethnographic Researchp. 524
Research Reportp. 525
Analysis of the Studyp. 539
Main Pointsp. 540
Key Termsp. 542
For Discussionp. 542
Notesp. 542
Historical Researchp. 544
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 545
What Is Historical Research?p. 545
Steps Involved in Historical Researchp. 546
Data Analysis in Historical Researchp. 551
Generalization in Historical Researchp. 551
Advantages and Disadvantages of Historical Researchp. 552
An Example of Historical Researchp. 553
Research Reportp. 554
Analysis of the Studyp. 560
Main Pointsp. 562
Key Termsp. 563
For Discussionp. 563
Notesp. 564
Research by Practitionersp. 565
Action Researchp. 566
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 567
What Is Action Research?p. 567
Types of Action Researchp. 568
Steps in Action Researchp. 570
Similarities and Differences Between Action Research and Formal Quantitative and Qualitative Researchp. 573
The Advantages of Action Researchp. 573
Some Hypothetical Examples of Practical Action Researchp. 575
An Example of Action Researchp. 580
A Published Example of Action Researchp. 581
Research Reportp. 581
Analysis of the Studyp. 588
Main Pointsp. 590
Key Termsp. 591
For Discussionp. 597
Notesp. 591
Writing Research Proposals and Reportsp. 593
Preparing Research Proposals and Reportsp. 594
Interactive and Applied Learningp. 595
The Research Proposalp. 595
The Major Sections of a Research Proposal or Reportp. 595
Sections Unique to Research Reportsp. 602
A Sample Research Proposalp. 606
Main Pointsp. 618
For Reviewp. 678
Key Termsp. 679
For Discussionp. 679
Notesp. 679
Appendixesp. A-1
Portion of a Table of Random Numbersp. A-2
Selected Values from a Normal Curve Tablep. A-3
Chi-Square Distributionp. A-4
Using SPSSp. A-5
Glossaryp. G-1
Indexp. I-1
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