The Human Lineage

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-03-30
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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"This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in paleoanthropology courses, tackles a rather difficult task-that of presenting the substantial body of paleontological, genetic, geological and archaeological evidence regarding human evolution, and the associated scientific history, in a logical and readable way without sacrificing either clarity or detail... the sheer quality of the writing and explanatory synthesis in this book will undoubtedly make it a valuable resource for students for many years." - PaleoAnthropology, 2010This book focuses on the last ten million years of human history, from the hominoid radiations to the emergence and diversification of modern humanity. It draws upon the fossil record to shed light on the key scientific issues, principles, methods, and history in paleoanthropology. The book proceeds through the fossil record of human evolution by historical stages representing the acquisition of major human features that explain the success and distinctive properties of modern Homo sapiens.Key features: Provides thorough coverage of the fossil record and sites, with data on key variables such as cranial capacity and body size estimates Offers a balanced, critical assessment of the interpretative models explaining pattern in the fossil record Each chapter incorporates a "Blind Alley" box focusing on once prevalent ideas now rejected such as the arboreal theory, seed-eating, single-species hypothesis, and Piltdown man Promotes critical thinking by students while allowing instructors flexibility in structuring their teaching Densely illustrated with informative, well-labelled anatomical drawings and photographs Includes an annotated bibliography for advanced inquiryWritten by established leaders in the field, providing depth of expertise on evolutionary theory and anatomy through to functional morphology, this textbook is essential reading for all advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students in biological anthropology.

Author Biography

Matt Cartmill is a Professor in the Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy at Duke University. His areas of interest include: Bipedal locomotion, Gait analysis, and Origin and differentiation of primates in addition to several other subjects.

Fred H. Smith is a biological antrhopologist with specific interests in human paleontology and functional anatomy. He teaches courses in human paleontology, human osteology, introductory biological anthropology, and the paleolithis prehistory of Europe and Africa.

Table of Contents

The Fossil Record
Changing Ideas about the Changing Earth
Neptune vs. Vulcan
A Brief Guide to Sedimentology
Dating the Rocks
The Succession of Faunas
Radiation-Based Dating Techniques
Other Dating Techniques
Dating Based on the Cycles of the Earth
The Problem of Orogeny
Continental Drift
Life: The First Three Billion Years
Multicellular Life
The Cambrian Revolution
Jaws, Fins, and Feet
The Reptilian Revolutions
The Two Great Extinctions
The Mammals Take Over
Analyzing Evolution
Parsimony and Pigeons
Darwin's Theory
Problems with Darwinism
The Concept of Species
Evidence for Anagenesis and Cladogenesis
The Tempo of Speciation
Semispecies, Hybrids, and Isolating Mechanisms
Species and Fossils
Microevolution and Macroevolution
The Politics of Macroevolution
Reconstructing the Tree of Life
Sources of Error in Phylogenetics
Linnaean Classification
Evolutionary Systematics
Phenetics and Cladistics
Pros and Cons of Phylogenetic Systematics
People As Primates
Early Mammals
Allometry and Early Mammals
Death and Molar Occlusion
Allometry, Motherhood, and Milk
Respiration and the Palate
The Tribosphenic Molar
Live Birth and Placentation
Cretaceous Mammals
The Order Primates
The Living Strepsirrhines
Anthropoid Apomorphies: Ears, Eyes, and Noses
Platyrrhines: The New World Anthropoids
Cercopithecoids: The Old World Monkeys
Hominoids: The Living Apes
Pongids and Hominids
Bonobos and Chimpanzees
Humans vs. Apes: Skulls and Teeth
Primate Origins: The Crown Group
Fossil Primates: The Stem Group
The First Fossil Euprimates
Eocene "Lemurs" and "Tarsiers"
The First Anthropoids
Anthropoid Radiations
The Bipedal Ape
Being Human vs. Becoming Human
The Taung Child
Australopithecus Grows Up
Bipedal Posture and the Vertebral Column
Bipedal Posture and the Pelvis
Bipedal Locomotion: Knees
Bipedal Locomotion: The Hip Joint
Bipedal Locomotion: Feet
Australopithecus Stands Up
The Skull of Australopithecus africanus.
Australopithecus robustus
Man-Apes, Just Plain Apes, or Weird Apes?
Postcranial Peculiarities
Louis Leakey and East Africa
Olduvai Gorge
Sahelanthropus: The Oldest Hominin?
Mio-Pliocene Enigmas: Orrorin and Ardipithecus.
Australopithecus anamensis
Australopithecus afarensis
Lucy's Locomotion: The View from Stony Brook
Lucy's Locomotion: The Rebuttal
Lucy's Locomotion: Persistent Questions
Australopithecus bahrelghazali?
Australopithecus platyops?
Australopithecus garhi
Australopithecus aethiopicus
Australopithecus boisei
Fitting in South Africa: The Problem(s) of Sterkfontein
Fitting in South Africa: Some robustus Questions
The Phylogeny of Australopithecus
What Did Australopithecus Eat?
Australopithecus and the Ecosystem
Two Species or Two Sexes?
Hunting, Gathering, and Dimorphism
Dinichism: A Possible Synthesis
Explaining Hominin Origins
Primitive Homo-Or "Advanced" Australopithecus?
Dating and Geological Context of the Habilines from Olduvai, Omo, and Koobi Fora
Habiline Skulls
Habiline Teeth
Habiline Postcranial Remains
Advanced Australopithecus: The Frustrations of Variation
Advanced Australopithecus: Back to South Africa
Advanced Australopithecus or Early Homo? Phylogenetic Issues
The Migrating Ape: Homo erectus and Human Evolution
The "Muddle in the Middle"
A Brief History of Homo erectus: 1889-1950
Later Discoveries in Africa and Eurasia
Erectine Chronology and Geographic Distribution
Cranial Vault Morphology of Homo erectus
Cranial Capacity and the Brain
Faces and Mandibles of Asian Homo erectus
The Erectine Dentition
Erectine Postcranial Remains
Early African Erectine Skulls and the Ergaster Question
Early African Erectine Postcranial Morphology
Early Erectine Adaptations: Anatomy and Physiology
Early Erectine Adaptations: The Archaeological Evidence
Patterns of Development and Evolutionary Change in Erectines
Early Erectine Radiations in Africa
Out of Africa I: The Erectine Radiation
Indonesian Erectines and the Specter of "Meganthropus"
Chinese Erectines
Dmanisi-Humans at the Periphery of Europe
The Initial Occupation of Europe
Major Issues: A Summing Up
Dates and Additional Evidence
Evolutionary Patterns
The Big-Brained Ape: Regional Variation and Evolutionary Trends in the Middle Pleistocene
Of "Archaic Homo sapiens" and Homo heidelbergensis
Early Models of Later Human Evolution
The Recent African Origin Model
The Multiregional Evolution Model
European Heidelbergs
Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos
Other European Heidelbergs
African Heidelbergs
Bodo and Ndutu
African Heidelberg Mandibles
Other African Heidelbergs
North Africans
Asian Heidelbergs?
Mugharet El-Zuttiyeh
Other West Asian Candidates
South Asia
East Asia
Liang Bua
Supraorbital Tori, Chins, and Projecting Faces
Major Issues: Speciation, Migration, and Regional Continuity
Talking Apes: The Neandertals
Neandertals-Early Discoveries and Ideas (1829-1909
Ideas about Neandertals-From Boule to the 21st Century
Neandertal Chronology and Distribution
Neandertal Morphology-The Cranial Vault
Frontal Bones
Occipital Bones
Temporal Bones
Neandertal Faces
External Nose
Internal Nose
Neandertal Mandibles
Neandertal Dentition
Body Size and Proportions
Neck and Upper Limb
Pelvis and Lower Limb
Neandertal Life History
Neandertal Genetics
Neandertal Technology
Diet and Subsistence Behavior
Neandertals and Language
Symbolic Behavior
Early European Neandertals
Wûrm Neandertals from Western Europe
Western and Central Asian Neandertals
Late Neandertals
Major Issues
The Symbolic Ape: The Origin of Modern Humans
A "Creative Explosion"?
Modern Human Anatomy-The Skull
Modern Human Anatomy-Cranial Capacity
Modern Human Anatomy-The Postcranial Skeleton
The Geochronology of Modern Human Origins
The African Transition: Background and Dating
The African Transition: Vault Morphology
The African Transition: Facial Morphology
The African Transition: Additional Bones, Archaeology, and Other Matters
East Asian Archaic Humans: Background and Context
East Asian Archaic Sites and Specimens
Other Cranial Pieces
East Asian Archaics: Continuity or Someone New?
Early Modern Humans: The East African Record
Out of (East) Africa: Early Modern People in North and South Africa
The First Modern People Outside Africa: The Near Eastern Evidence
African and Circum-Mediterranean Gene Flow and Modern Human Origins
Modern Human Origins in East Asia
Modern Human Origins in Australasia
Europe: The Last Frontier
Recent Human Genetics and Modern Human Origins
Ancient DNA in Early Modern Humans
Modern Human Origins: The Models vs. the Facts
The Recent African Origin Model
Alternative Views-Multiregional Evolution
Alternative Views-The Assimilation Model
Assimilation and Interactions Between Modern and Archaic Humans
Appendix: Cranial Measurements
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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