Improving Transparency, Integrity, and Accountability in Water Supply and Sanitation : Action, Learning, Experiences

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-03-23
  • Publisher: World Bank

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More than 1 billion people around the world live without access to safe, potable water, in part because of poor governance and corruption. Illegal connections and substantial losses caused by deferred maintenance have eroded the revenues of water utilities, leading to a downward spiral in performance. Embezzlement of funds, bribes for access to illegal water connections, manipulation of meter counters, and collusion in public contracts add to the litany of corrupt practices.'Improving Transparency, Integrity, and Accountability in Water Supply and Sanitation' is a useful tool for diagnosing, analyzing, and remedying systemic corruption in the water supply and sanitation sectors. It will serve as a practical guide for governments; utility regulators, managers, and staff; civil society organizations; contractors; and citizens in their quest for a model of service provision that responds to the pressing needs of people in the developing world.The book aims to increase the involvement of civil society by engaging all stakeholders in setting priorities and monitoring performance; help water and sanitation delivery contribute to poverty reduction by increasing the service quality and coverage provided by service delivery organizations to poorer communities on an equitable basis; provide a tool that promotes the financial sustainability of service delivery organizations, thus building stakeholders' confidence in those institutions' ability to expand and improve service; and raise ethical standards among all stakeholders, especially service delivery organizations, thereby instilling a sense of public service in these organizations.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
About the Authorsp. xix
Abbreviationsp. xxi
The Nature of Corruption in the Water Sectorp. 1
Introductionp. 3
Contextp. 6
What Is Corruption?p. 12
Case Study: Corruption in the Water Sector in South Asiap. 19
A Framework for Analyzing Corruptionp. 28
Impact of Corruptionp. 36
Sector Restructuring and Corruptionp. 39
Concluding Activityp. 43
Notesp. 44
Diagnosing Corruption in the Water Sector: Tools and Impact Indicatorsp. 45
Introductionp. 47
Overview of Tools and Instrumentsp. 50
External Diagnostic Toolsp. 54
Internal Diagnostic Toolsp. 63
The Role of Regulatory Authoritiesp. 77
Concluding Activityp. 80
Notesp. 81
Tools for Addressing Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sectorp. 83
Introductionp. 85
Identifying the Right Toolsp. 87
Selected Toolsp. 90
Concluding Activityp. 119
Notesp. 120
Case Studies in Addressing Corruption in the Water and Sanitation Sectorp. 121
Introductionp. 123
Phnom Water Supply Authority: Cambodiap. 126
Promoting Transparency in the Panama Canal Authority, the Largest Water Company in Panamap. 131
The Public Utilities Board in Singaporep. 135
Notesp. 140
Action Planning to Address Corruption and Improve Transparency, Accountability, and Access to Information in the Water Sectorp. 141
Introductionp. 143
Contextp. 145
Developing an Action Planp. 151
Concluding Activityp. 158
Notesp. 159
Referencesp. 161
Indexp. 165
Common Forms of Corruptionp. 12
Klitgaard's Corruption Formulap. 16
Is Petty Corruption Really "Petty"? An Illustration from the Power Sector in Bangladeshp. 22
The Use of Citizen Report Cards in Bangalore, Indiap. 57
Participatory Corruption Appraisal in Indonesiap. 59
Examples of Questions Covered in a Utility Checklistp. 64
Examples of Questions Covered in a Vulnerability Assessmentp. 67
Benchmarking: Service and Performance Indicatorsp. 69
Benchmarking: Efficiency and Financial Indicatorsp. 70
Benchmarking: Process Indicatorsp. 72
Using India's Right to Information Act to Enforce Rights to Water and Sanitationp. 93
Example: The Importance of Site Selection and Targeting as a Tool in Malawip. 98
Example: Improving Transparency at Large Facilities, Kerala, Indiap. 99
Examples: Results of Citizens' Action Promoted by WaterAid in Asiap. 102
Example: Citizens' Voice in South Africap. 103
Participatory Budgeting in Brazilp. 105
Example: Money Diverted from Education in Ugandap. 108
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