Including Adolescents With Disabilities in General Education Classrooms

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-07-29
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Written by a best-selling author team, this book focuses on secondary inclusive classrooms and the instructional strategies that ensure the learning success of all middle and secondary students.   Focused on research-based strategies, Teaching Adolescents in Middle and Secondary Inclusive Classrooms, 1e,shows how to accommodate and modify instruction for secondary students with special needs. Organized in two parts, it explains the developmental differences, disabilities, and social skills deficits that can impact adolescents and then offers specific ways to improve instruction.   Learn more about strategies such as co-teaching, differentiated instruction, strategies instruction, and peer-assisted learning. Understand how to implement strategies specific to literacy, math, science, self-determination and social skills. Reflect on study questions, closing cases and activities that provide real-life, diversity-rich examples of strategies in action.

Author Biography

Dr. Tom Smith is currently Dean of the College of Education and Health Professions, University of Arkansas, and University Professor of Special Education.  Additionally, he has served as Executive Director of the Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children for 20 years.  Dr. Smith has authored and co-authored 27 textbooks, including a recently published sixth edition of Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings, co-authored with Ed Polloway, Jim Patton, and Carol Dowdy and published by Pearson.   He has also published more than 40 articles in referenced journals, primarily focusing on students with mild disabilities and legal issues related to special education. 


Dr. Barbara C. Gartin is 1982 graduate of the University of Georgia program in the Education of Exceptional Children and a University Professor of Special Education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Arkansas.  She has worked as a high school special education teacher in Georgia before joining the University of Arkansas faculty.  Dr. Barbara Gartin has published numerous articles on issues related to behavior management, inclusion, and special education law.  In 2002, she co-authored How to use differentiated instruction with students with developmental disabilities in the general education classroom for the Division on Developmental Disabilities (Council for Exceptional Children) with Nikki Murdick, Marcia Imbeau, and Darlene Perner.  With Nikki Murdick and Terry Crabtree, she co-authored the first edition of Special Education Law in 2002 and the second edition in 2007, both published by Pearson Education.  In 2006, she co-authored Families and Children with Special Needs: Parent and Professional Partnerships with Tom Smith, Nikki Murdick and Alan Hilton, which was also published by Pearson Education.  Her research interests include legal issues in the provision of appropriate services for students with special needs, the educational implications of disability, especially rare syndromes, and issues of parent advocacy.  She has served as the President of the Educational Division of AAIDD and as the President of the Division of Autism and Developmental Disabilities.


Dr. Nikki Murdick is a professor of Special Education in the Department of Educational Studies in the College of Public Services at Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO. Throughout her career she has worked as a classroom teacher, clinical behavior specialist, curriculum developer, parent advocate, and University professor. Dr. Murdick has published numerous articles on issues related to behavior management, inclusion, and special education legal concerns of students with cognitive and behavioral disabilities. She has co-authored a monograph on differentiated instruction, a text on Special Education Law, and a text on Families and Children with Special Needs: Parent and Professional Partnerships. Her research interests include legal issues in the provision of appropriate services for students with special needs, parent advocacy, and educational implications of disability that impact the educational success of students.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1:      Adolescents with Disabilities


Types of Development

            Intellectual Development

            Physical Development

            Emotional/Psychological Development

            Social Development

            Moral/Ethical Development

Adolescents with Disabilities

            Intellectual Disability

            Learning Disabilities

            Behavioral/Emotional Disorders

            Autism Spectrum Disorders: Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome

            Low-Incidence Categories

            Cerebral Palsy

            Traumatic Brain Injury






Chapter 2:      Services for Adolescents with Disabilities in Middle and Secondary Schools



Secondary Public Education

            Organization of Secondary Education

            Purpose of Secondary Schools

            Secondary School Curricula

            Diversity in Secondary Schools

            Challenges in Secondary Schools

            Teaching in Secondary Schools

Special Education Services in Secondary Schools

            Traditional Services for Adolescents with Disabilities in Middle and Secondary Schools

            Current Programming Models

Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Secondary Schools

             The Inclusion Movement

              Rationale Supporting Inclusion

              Advantages and Disadvantages of Inclusion

              Parent and Teacher Support for Inclusion

Legal Basis for Special Education Services

              Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

              Section 504 and the ADA

              Litigation and Special Education

Goals for Adolescents with Disabilities in Middle and Secondary Schools

Issues Facing Secondary Special Education

              Dropping Out of School

              Increasing Accountability

              Role of Teachers






Chapter 3:      The Special Education Process in Middle/Secondary Schools




                Behaviors Suggesting Referral

                Legal Requirements

                Referral Meeting

                Teacher’s Role in the Referral Process

                Response to Intervention


                Legal Requirements

                Types of Assessment

                Norm-References Tests

                Criterion-Referenced Tests

                Other Forms of Assessment

                Selecting Types of Assessment

                Teacher’s Role in the Assessment Process

Determining Eligibility

Individualized Educational Programming

                Legal Requirements

                The IEP Process

Behavior Intervention Planning

                Legal Requirements

Transition Planning

                Legal Requirements

                Transfer of Rights

Facilitating IEP Participation

                Facilitating Parental Involvement

                Facilitating Student Involvement

                Teacher’s Role in the IEP Process

Least Restrictive Environment

                Legal Requirements

                Continuum of Placement Options

Due Process

Role of Special Education and Classroom Teachers in the Special Education Process






Chapter 4:      Transition Programming for Adolescents with Disabilities



Vertical Transition

                        Transitions Within Secondary School

                        Transitions out of School

Student-Centered Planning

Transition Curriculum

                        Postsecondary Education Goal

                        Vocational Goal

                        Postsecondary Independent Living Goal

Legal Requirements for Transition of Students with Disabilities

Transition Assessment for Planning

The Transition Planning Team

The Transition Plan

                        Age of Majority






Chapter 5:      Home/Family Collaboration Communication in a Middle/Secondary Inclusive Classroom




                        Impact of Family Involvement

                        Standards and Family Involvement

                        Legal Mandate for Family Involvement

The Family

                        Characteristics of Families

                        Tips for Communicating with Families

Impact of a Child with Disabilities on the Family

                        Parents and Stress

                        Siblings and Stress

                        Extended Family and Stress

                        Professionals and Family Stress

Families from Diverse Backgrounds

                        Diversity in Family Structure

                        Tips for Working with Families with Diverse Family Structures

                        Diversity in Culture and Language

                        Tips for Working with Families with Culture and Language Differences

                        Developing a Culturally Sensitive Classroom

School and Family Collaboration

                        Encouraging Parental Participation






Chapter 6:      Classroom Management and Adolescents with Disabilities



Components of Classroom Management

                        Organization of Classroom Space

                        Seating Arrangement

                        Classroom Climate

                        Classroom Norms

                        Developing Classroom Rules and Procedures

Planning and Conducting Instruction

                        Learning and Instructional Time

Maintaining Appropriate Behaviors

                        Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)

                        School-Wide Positive Behavioral Support

                        Empowering Students

                        Modeling Appropriate Behaviors

                        Reinforcing Appropriate Behaviors

Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors

                        Responding to Minor Inattention and Misbehavior

Behavior Intervention Planning

                        Determining Underlying Causes







Chapter 7:      Co-Teaching



Cooperative Teaching Model

                        Benefits of Co-Teaching

                        Research Base for Co-Teaching

                        Before Beginning a Co-Teaching Model

                        Strengthening Co-Teaching Relationships

Co-Teaching Models


                        One Teaching, One Observing

                        One Teaching, One Assisting

                        Station Teaching

                        Parallel Teaching

                        Alternative Teaching

Role of School Personnel in Co-Teaching

                        Role of Paraprofessionals

                        Role of Administration

                        Role of Other Professionals

Strategies Used in Implementing Co-Teaching

Evaluating Cooperative Teaching






Chapter 8:      Differentiated Instruction



Evidence-Based Practices on Content Area Strategies

Differentiated Instruction

Key Concepts in Using Differentiation of Instruction





                        Learning Environment

Implementing Differentiation of Instruction in Middle and Secondary Classrooms






Chapter 9:      Strategies Instruction



Teaching Students How to Use Strategies

                        The Strategic Instruction Model (SIM)

Student-Focused Interventions–Learning Strategies

                        Strategies to Acquire Information

                        Strategies for Storing and Retrieving Information

                        Strategies for Expressing Learned Materials





Chapter 10:    Strategies for Teaching Content to Adolescents with Disabilities:

                        Reading and Language Arts



Instruction in Reading

                        Phonics and Phonemic Awareness




Instruction in Writing

                        Mechanics of Writing


                        Written Expression

Guiding Principles for Literacy Instruction

Strategies to Enhance Content Literacy

                        Phonics and Phonemic Awareness


                        DR-TA (Directed Reading-Thinking Activity)

                        Directed Reading Activity (DRA)



                        Question-Answer-Relationship (QAR)

                        Cluster Strategies

                        Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA)

                        Context-Structure-Sound-Reference (CSSR)

Language Arts and English

Instruction in Social Studies






Chapter 11     Strategies for Teaching Content to Adolescents with Disabilities:

                        Math and Science



Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities

                        Math Standards

                        Math Instructional Ideas

                        General Math Accommodations

                        Assessing Math Skills

Teaching Science to Students with Disabilities

                        Traditional Science Teaching Approaches

                        Other Science Teaching Methods

                        Accessibility and Science Labs

Connecting Math and Science Instruction

                        Integrated Curriculum





Chapter 12:    Strategies for Teaching Social Skills to Adolescents with Disabilities



Importance of Social Skills

Social Skills and Individuals with Disabilities

                        Social Skills Deficits

                        Importance of Social Skills for Students with Disabilities

Social Skills Instruction

                        Assessment of Social Skills

                        Social Skills and Culture

Strategies to Teach Social Skills

                        Level 1–Structuring a Classroom Community

                        Level ii–Specific Strategies and Curriculum for Promoting Social Competence

                        Level III–Targeted Individual Interventions

Planning and Implementing Social Skills Interventions






Chapter 13:    Strategies for Teaching Self-Determination Skills to Adolescents with Disabilities




Components of Self-Determination

Need for Self-Determination Skills

Teaching Self-Determination Skills

                        Self-Determination Preparation Programs

Student Involvement in the Educational Process

Age of Majority

                        Self-Determination Supports in Postsecondary Educational Settings






Chapter 14:    Vocational/Technical Education for Adolescents with Disabilities




            Vocational Rehabilitation

            Special Education

            Developmental Disabilities

            Employment Services

            Civil Rights

Assessing Vocational Needs of Adolescents with Disabilities

            Vocational Assessment: Data Gathering

            Vocational Assessment: Future Environments

Application of Academic Content to Real-Life Situations

Vocational Programs for Adolescents with Disabilities

            School-Based Vocational Training

            Postsecondary Education





Name Index

Subject Index

Rewards Program

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