Industrial Photoinitiators: A Technical Guide

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2010-04-22
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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The use of photoinitiators in the UV curing process shows remarkable possibilities in myriad applications. Highlighting critical factors such as reactivity, cure speeds, and application details, Industrial Photoinitiators: A Technical Guide is a practical, accessible, industrially oriented text that explains the theory, describes the products, and outlines the practice in simple language for the novice and expert alike.The basics of UV lightThe book begins by examining the nature of UV light and the types of commercial UV lamps that are available. It discusses the light absorption process and the excited states that are produced by the photoinitiator prior to the production of radicals. Next, the book examines the structure of the photoinitiator and the mechanism by which a reactive species is formed, along with the deactivating processes that inhibit the various photophysical and photochemical steps that occur as radicals are produced.Commercial photoinitiatorsProviding a list of companies and suppliers, the author explores the distinct groups of commercial photoinitiators and the variations in their structure. He describes the factors that determine which photoinitiators should be chosen for a particular application and how the different types are used. He also explains the reasons why a cured coating may display yellowing and describes the use of stabilizers to reduce the yellowing effect.Cationic curingExploring a small but growing area of interest in the UV curing industry, the book concludes by discussing cationic curing and examines the different scope of parameters and different chemistry involved. It also describes factors that affect the use of cationic photoinitiators.Based on more than 30 years of experience working with photoinitiators, W. Arthur Green offers a unique resource that provides product developers and others working in industry with the practical information they need to fully understand the basics of this evolving field. 

Author Biography

Based on more than 30 years of experience working with photoinitiators, W. Arthur Green offers a unique resource that provides product developers and others working in industry with the practical information they need to fully understand the basics of this evolving field.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Let there be lightp. 1
The electromagnetic spectrump. 1
The generation of UV energyp. 2
The medium-pressure mercury lampp. 3
The standard mercury arc lampp. 3
The electrodeless microwave-powered UV lampp. 5
Wavelength output of the medium-pressure mercury lampp. 7
Doped lampsp. 8
The low-pressure mercury lampp. 10
The high-pressure mercury lamp or capillary lampp. 10
Flash lampsp. 10
Fluorescent lampsp. 11
Excimer lampsp. 11
Light emitting diodesp. 11
Lasersp. 12
The light absorption processp. 13
UV safety and ozonep. 15
Referencesp. 15
A little chemistryp. 17
Free radical chemistryp. 17
The chromophore and absorption of UV energyp. 18
The generation of radicalsp. 18
The polymerization processp. 20
Type I photoinitiators: Mechanism of the scission processp. 22
Alpha-scissionp. 22
Beta-scissionp. 23
Type II photoinitiators: Mechanism of the abstraction processp. 24
Hydrogen abstraction from a donor moleculep. 24
Intramolecular ┐-hydrogen abstraction: The Norrish Type II reactionp. 25
The influence of molecular substitution on absorption and photoactivityp. 26
Type I photoinitiators: Substitution effectsp. 27
Type II photoinitiators: Substitution effectsp. 28
Commercial photoinitiatorsp. 30
Photobleachingp. 31
Diverse mechanisms: Variations on the Type I and Type II processp. 33
Acyloximino estersp. 33
Anthraquinonesp. 34
BCIM and the lophyl radicalp. 35
Benzoylformate estersp. 36
Substituted maleimides as photoinitiatorsp. 37
Phosphine oxides and secondary scissionp. 38
Photo-acid generationp. 39
Photo-base generationp. 41
Anthracene peroxy radicalsp. 42
The thiol-ene photopolymerizationp. 43
Referencesp. 45
Academics unlimitedp. 47
Triplet lifetimes and monomer quenching reactionsp. 48
Modification of hydroxyacetophenonesp. 49
Alkylaminoacetophenones and wavelength selectionp. 50
Phosphine oxides: Reactivity and solvolytic stabilityp. 53
Benzophenone and thioxanthone triplet reactionsp. 54
Substituted benzophenonesp. 58
Substituted thioxanthonesp. 60
Novel photoinitiatorsp. 64
Radical reactionsp. 66
Primary radical reactionsp. 67
Recombination reactionsp. 67
Rearrangement reactionsp. 68
Disproportionation reactionsp. 69
Oxygen effects and chain transferp. 70
Termination reactionsp. 71
Identification of radicals and excited statesp. 71
Referencesp. 72
Commercial photoinitiatorsp. 75
Type I photoinitiators (see Tables A.1 and A.2)p. 75
Hydroxyacetophenonesp. 75
Alkylaminoacetophenonesp. 77
Benzil ketals and dialkoxyacetophenonesp. 78
Benzoin ethersp. 79
Phosphine oxidesp. 80
Specialtiesp. 82
Acyloximino estersp. 82
BCIM and HABIsp. 82
Photoacid generatorsp. 83
Alphahaloacetophenonesp. 84
Trichloromethyl-S-triazinesp. 84
Photobase generatorsp. 85
Type II photoinitiatorsp. 86
Benzophenonesp. 86
Substituted benzophenonesp. 87
Thioxanthonesp. 88
Anthraquinonesp. 89
Benzoylformate estersp. 90
Camphorquinonep. 91
Blends of photoinitiatorsp. 91
Migration and polymeric photoinitiatorsp. 93
Migration of low-molecular weight speciesp. 93
Polymeric photoinitiatorsp. 95
Polymeric Type I photoinitiatorsp. 98
Polymeric Type II photoinitiatorsp. 98
Polymeric aminobenzoate hydrogen donorsp. 99
The "NestlÚ list"p. 99
Visible light curingp. 99
Titanocenesp. 101
Dibenzylidene ketonesp. 101
1,2-Diketonesp. 101
Ketocoumarinsp. 102
Dye sensitized photoinitiationp. 102
Dye plus coinitiatorp. 102
Dye plus borate saltp. 103
Dye plus HABIsp. 103
Dye plus S-triazinep. 103
Water-based UV curingp. 103
Hydrogen donorsp. 105
Tertiary aminesp. 106
Alpha-amino acidsp. 108
Other types of hydrogen donorp. 108
References and further readingp. 109
Factors affecting the use of photoinitiatorsp. 115
Matching the photoinitiator absorption to the UV sourcep. 115
Absorption propertiesp. 115
Formulating for LED UVp. 116
Type I photoinitiator LED systemsp. 117
Type II photoinitiator LED systemsp. 117
The use of ITX as a sensitizer for LEDsp. 118
Oxygen inhibitionp. 118
Radical-oxygen interactionp. 118
Nitrogen and carbon dioxide inertionp. 119
The effect of viscosity on curep. 121
Film thickness, surface and depth cure, shrinkage and adhesionp. 123
Surface and depth curep. 123
Shrinkage and adhesionp. 127
Sensitization and synergyp. 128
Sensitizationp. 128
Synergyp. 130
The effect of pigments on the UV curing processp. 131
Pigment absorption and the pigment window: Choice of photoinitiatorp. 131
Replacing ITXp. 133
Titanium dioxide whites and carbon blacksp. 134
References and further readingp. 136
Photoproducts and the yellowing of coatingsp. 139
Intrinsic color, photoyellowing, and oxidation productsp. 139
The formation of photoproductsp. 139
Photoproducts from Type I photoinitiatorsp. 140
Photoproducts from Type II photoinitiatorsp. 145
Referencesp. 147
Cationic chemistryp. 149
The light absorption process and the generation of acidp. 150
Triphenylsulphonium saltsp. 150
Diphenyliodonium saltsp. 151
Epoxy polymerization and the dark reactionp. 153
The polymerization processp. 153
The effect of alcohols and chain transferp. 154
Hybrid curep. 155
Triarylsulphonium salts (see Tables A.7 and A.8)p. 155
Sulphonium salts that may release benzenep. 156
Sulphonium salts that are "benzene free"p. 157
Dialkylphenacylsulphonium saltsp. 160
Diaryliodonium saltsp. 160
Iodonium salts that may produce benzenep. 162
Iodonium salts that are "benzene free"p. 162
Ferrocenium saltsp. 164
References and further readingp. 165
Factors affecting the use of cationic photoinitiatorsp. 167
The influence of the anionp. 167
Photochemical radical decomposition of onium saltsp. 168
Sensitization of the cationic photoinitiatorp. 169
Extension of absorption wavelength by a sensitizerp. 169
Sensitizers for cationic photoinitiatorsp. 170
The influence of temperature on the polymerizationp. 170
The effect of water on polymerizationp. 172
References and further readingp. 172
Tables and absorbance graphsp. 175
Further informationp. 279
Indexp. 283
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