Industrial/Organizational Psychology An Applied Approach

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-07-11
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Michael Aamodt's Fifth Edition of INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: AN APPLIED APPROACH appeals directly to students by incorporating a high degree of scholarship along with many real-world examples that make the excitement of this field obvious. This text integrates charts and tables to simplify such complicated issues as employment law, job satisfaction, work motivation and leadership. While striking a balance between research, theory and application, Aamodt introduces humor to make the student's reading more enjoyable. Students will be able to relate to industrial/organizational psychology by viewing such practical applications as how to write a resume, survive an employment interview, write a job description, create a performance appraisal instrument, and motivate employees.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Introduction to I/O Psychologyp. 1
The Field of I/O Psychologyp. 2
Differences Between I/O and Business Programsp. 2
Major Fields of I/O Psychologyp. 4
Brief History of I/O Psychologyp. 5
Employment of I/O Psychologistsp. 8
Educational Requirements and Types of Programsp. 9
Career Workshop: Getting into Graduate Schoolp. 10
Research in I/O Psychologyp. 11
Why Conduct Research?p. 11
Considerations in Conducting Researchp. 12
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Conducting Research at the Vancouver (British Columbia) International Airport Authority, Canadap. 27
Chapter Summaryp. 28
Questions for Reviewp. 28
Job Analysis and Evaluationp. 29
Job Analysisp. 30
Importance of Job Analysisp. 30
Writing a Good Job Descriptionp. 32
Employment Profilep. 33
Preparing for a Job Analysisp. 38
Conducting a Job Analysisp. 43
Using Other Job Analysis Methodsp. 49
Evaluation of Methodsp. 57
Job Evaluationp. 59
Determining Internal Pay Equityp. 59
Determining External Pay Equityp. 62
Sex and Race Equityp. 63
Career Workshop: Negotiating Salaryp. 65
On the Job: Applied Case Study: National Board of Veterinary Medical Examinersp. 66
Chapter Summaryp. 66
Questions for Reviewp. 67
Legal Issues in Employee Selectionp. 68
The Legal Processp. 69
Resolving the Complaint Internallyp. 69
Career Workshop: What to Do If You Feel You Are Being Discriminated Against at Workp. 70
Filing a Discrimination Chargep. 70
Outcomes of an EEOC Investigationp. 71
Determining Whether an Employment Decision Is Legalp. 73
Does the Employment Practice Directly Refer to a Member of a Federally Protected Class?p. 74
Employment Profilep. 78
Is the Requirement a BFOQ?p. 82
Has Case Law, State Law, or Local Law Expanded the Definition of Any of the Protected Classes?p. 83
Does the Requirement Have Adverse Impact on Members of a Protected Class?p. 84
Was the Requirement Designed to Intentionally Discriminate against a Protected Class?p. 85
Can the Employer Prove That the Requirement Is Job Related?p. 85
Did the Employer Look for Reasonable Alternatives that Would Result in Lesser Adverse Impact?p. 86
Harassmentp. 87
Types of Harassmentp. 87
Organizational Liability for Sexual Harassmentp. 89
Family Medical Leave Actp. 90
Affirmative Actionp. 91
Affirmative Action Strategiesp. 91
Reasons for Affirmative Action Plansp. 93
Legality of Preferential Hiring and Promotion Plansp. 93
Consequences of Affirmative Action Plansp. 97
Privacy Issuesp. 97
Drug Testingp. 98
Office and Locker Searchesp. 99
Psychological Testsp. 99
Canadian Employment Law by Provincep. 100
Electronic Surveillancep. 100
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Keystone RV Company, Goshen, Indianap. 101
Chapter Summaryp. 101
Questions for Reviewp. 102
Employee Selection: Recruiting and Interviewingp. 103
Job Analysisp. 104
Recruitmentp. 104
Media Advertisementsp. 105
Career Workshop: How to Respond to Newspaper Advertisementsp. 108
Situation-Wanted Adsp. 109
Point-of-Purchase Methodsp. 110
Recruitersp. 112
Employment Agencies and Search Firmsp. 112
Employee Referralsp. 113
Employment Profilep. 114
Direct Mailp. 115
Internetp. 116
Job Fairsp. 118
Incentivesp. 119
Nontraditional Populationsp. 119
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Recruitment Strategiesp. 119
Realistic Job Previewsp. 121
Effective Employee Selection Techniquesp. 122
Employment Interviewsp. 123
Types of Interviewsp. 123
Advantages of Structured Interviewsp. 124
Problems with Unstructured Interviewsp. 125
Creating a Structured Interviewp. 128
Conducting the Structured Interviewp. 131
Job Search Skillsp. 132
Successfully Surviving the Interview Processp. 132
Writing Cover Lettersp. 134
Writing a Resumep. 136
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Recruitment at the Borgata Hotel Casino and Spap. 141
Chapter Summaryp. 141
Questions for Reviewp. 142
Employee Selection: References and Testingp. 143
Predicting Performance Using References and Letters of Recommendationp. 144
Reasons for Using References and Recommendationsp. 144
Career Workshop: Asking for Letters of Recommendationp. 145
Ethical Issuesp. 153
Predicting Performance Using Applicant Training and Educationp. 155
Predicting Performance Using Applicant Knowledgep. 156
Predicting Performance Using Applicant Abilityp. 156
Cognitive Abilityp. 157
Perceptual Abilityp. 158
Psychomotor Abilityp. 158
Physical Abilityp. 158
Employment Profilep. 164
Predicting Performance Using Applicant Skillp. 164
Work Samplesp. 164
Assessment Centersp. 165
Predicting Performance Using Prior Experiencep. 167
Experience Ratingsp. 167
Biodatap. 168
Predicting Performance Using Personality, Interest, and Characterp. 171
Personality Inventoriesp. 171
Interest Inventoriesp. 173
Integrity Testsp. 174
Graphologyp. 175
Predicting Performance Limitations Due to Medical and Psychological Problemsp. 176
Drug Testingp. 176
Psychological Examsp. 177
Medical Examsp. 178
Comparison of Techniquesp. 178
Validityp. 178
Legal Issuesp. 178
Rejecting Applicantsp. 180
On the Job: Applied Case Study: City of New London, Connecticut, Police Departmentp. 182
Chapter Summaryp. 182
Questions for Reviewp. 182
Evaluating Selection Techniques and Decisionsp. 184
Characteristics of Effective Selection Techniquesp. 185
Reliabilityp. 185
Career Workshop: Evaluating Testsp. 190
Validityp. 190
Cost-efficiencyp. 195
Establishing the Usefulness of a Selection Devicep. 196
Taylor-Russell Tablesp. 197
Proportion of Correct Decisionsp. 198
Lawshe Tablesp. 201
Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser Utility Formulap. 202
Determining the Fairness of a Testp. 205
Adverse Impactp. 205
Single-Group Validityp. 206
Differential Validityp. 206
Employment Profilep. 207
Making the Hiring Decisionp. 208
Unadjusted Top-Down Selectionp. 208
Rule of 3p. 208
Passing Scoresp. 208
Bandingp. 211
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Philadelphia Transit Policep. 212
Chapter Summaryp. 213
Questions for Reviewp. 213
Evaluating Employee Performancep. 214
Determine the Reason for Evaluating Employee Performancep. 216
Determining Salary Increasesp. 216
Making Promotion Decisionsp. 216
Providing Employee Training and Feedbackp. 217
Making Termination Decisionsp. 217
Conducting Personnel Researchp. 217
Identify Environmental and Cultural Limitationsp. 217
Determine Who Will Evaluate Performancep. 218
Supervisorsp. 219
Peersp. 219
Subordinatesp. 220
Customersp. 220
Self-Appraisalp. 220
Select the Best Appraisal Methods to Accomplish Your Goalsp. 222
Focus of the Appraisal Dimensionsp. 222
Should Dimensions Be Weighted?p. 224
Use of Employee Comparisons, Objective Measures, or Ratingsp. 224
Evaluation of Performance Appraisal Methodsp. 233
Train Ratersp. 235
Observe and Document Performancep. 235
Evaluate Performancep. 239
Obtaining and Reviewing Objective Datap. 239
Reading Critical-Incident Logsp. 239
Completing the Rating Formp. 239
Employment Profilep. 240
Communicate Appraisal Results to Employeesp. 246
Prior to the Interviewp. 247
During the Interviewp. 248
Career Workshop: Getting Good Performance Ratingsp. 249
Terminate Employeesp. 249
Employment-at-Will Doctrinep. 249
Legal Reasons for Terminating Employeesp. 251
The Termination Meetingp. 253
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Firing an Employee at Kohl's Department Storep. 254
Chapter Summaryp. 254
Questions for Reviewp. 254
Additional Types of Rating Scalesp. 256
Designing and Evaluating Training Systemsp. 262
Determining Training Needsp. 263
Organizational Analysisp. 264
Task Analysisp. 265
Person Analysisp. 266
Developing a Training Programp. 268
Establishing Goals and Objectivesp. 268
Motivating Employeesp. 268
Choosing the Best Training Methodp. 273
Conducting Classroom Trainingp. 274
Initial Decisionsp. 274
Employment Profilep. 276
Preparing for Classroom Trainingp. 278
Delivering the Training Programp. 279
Career Workshop: Audience Etiquettep. 280
Using Case Studies to Apply Knowledgep. 281
Using Simulation Exercises to Practice New Skillsp. 282
Practicing Interpersonal Skills through Role Playp. 283
Increasing Interpersonal Skills through Behavior Modelingp. 283
Providing Individual Training through Distance Learningp. 284
Programmed Instruction Using Books, Videos, or Interactive Videop. 285
Computer-Based or Web-Based Programmed Instructionp. 285
Conducting On-the-Job Trainingp. 286
Learning by Modeling Othersp. 287
Learning through Job Rotationp. 288
Learning through Apprentice Trainingp. 289
Learning through Coaching and Mentoringp. 289
Ensuring Transfer of Trainingp. 291
Putting It All Togetherp. 292
Evaluation of Training Resultsp. 294
Research Designs for Evaluationp. 294
Evaluation Criteriap. 296
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Training at Pal's Sudden Servicep. 298
Chapter Summaryp. 298
Questions for Reviewp. 299
Employee Motivationp. 300
Is an Employee Predisposed to Being Motivated?p. 301
Self-Esteemp. 301
Intrinsic Motivationp. 304
Needs for Achievement and Powerp. 305
Have the Employee's Values and Expectations Been Met?p. 305
Job Expectationsp. 306
Job Characteristicsp. 306
Needs, Values, and Wantsp. 307
Do Employees Have Achievable Goals?p. 311
Specificp. 311
Employment Profilep. 312
Measurablep. 312
Difficult but Attainablep. 312
Relevantp. 314
Time-Boundp. 314
Employee Participationp. 314
Are Employees Receiving Feedback on Their Goal Progress?p. 314
Career Workshop: Providing Feedbackp. 315
Self-Regulation Theoryp. 315
Are Employees Rewarded for Achieving Goals?p. 316
Timing of the Incentivep. 317
Contingency of Consequencesp. 318
Type of Incentive Usedp. 318
Individual Versus Group Incentivesp. 322
Expectancy Theoryp. 327
Reward Versus Punishmentp. 329
Are Rewards and Resources Given Equitably?p. 329
Are Other Employees Motivated?p. 331
Integration of Motivation Theoriesp. 331
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Faster Service at Taco Bueno Restaurantsp. 333
Chapter Summaryp. 333
Questions for Reviewp. 333
Employee Satisfaction and Commitmentp. 334
Why Should We Care About Employee Attitudes?p. 335
What Causes Employees to Be Satisfied with and Committed to Their Jobs?p. 337
What Individual Differences Affect Job Satisfaction?p. 338
Are Employees' Job Expectations Being Met?p. 341
Is the Employee a Good Fit with the Job and the Organization?p. 342
Are the Tasks Enjoyable?p. 342
Do Employees Enjoy Working with Supervisors and Coworkers?p. 343
Are Coworkers Outwardly Unhappy?p. 343
Are Rewards and Resources Given Equitably?p. 344
Is There a Chance for Growth and Challenge?p. 346
Integration of Theoriesp. 348
Career Workshop: What to Do If You Are Unhappy with Your Jobp. 350
Measuring Job Satisfaction and Commitmentp. 351
Commonly Used Standard Inventoriesp. 351
Employment Profilep. 354
Custom-Designed Inventoriesp. 356
Consequences of Dissatisfaction and Other Negative Work Attitudesp. 356
Absenteeismp. 356
Turnoverp. 362
Counterproductive Behaviorsp. 365
Lack of Organizational Citizenship Behaviorsp. 366
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Reducing Turnover at Bubba Gump Shrimp Co.p. 366
Questions for Reviewp. 366
Organizational Communicationp. 367
Types of Organizational Communicationp. 368
Upward Communicationp. 368
Employment Profilep. 371
Downward Communicationp. 372
Business Communicationp. 374
Career Workshop: Phone Etiquettep. 375
Informal Communicationp. 377
Interpersonal Communicationp. 379
Intended Message Versus Message Sentp. 380
Message Sent Versus Message Receivedp. 381
Message Received Versus Message Interpretedp. 390
Improving Employee Communication Skillsp. 395
Interpersonal Communication Skillsp. 395
Written Communication Skillsp. 396
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Reducing Order Errors at Hardee's and McDonald'sp. 398
Chapter Summaryp. 399
Questions for Reviewp. 399
Leadershipp. 401
An Introduction to Leadershipp. 402
Personal Characteristics Associated with Leadershipp. 402
Leader Emergencep. 403
Leader Performancep. 405
Interaction between the Leader and the Situationp. 410
Situational Favorabilityp. 410
Organizational Climatep. 412
Subordinate Abilityp. 414
Relationships with Subordinatesp. 416
Specific Leader Skillsp. 417
Leadership through Decision Makingp. 418
Leadership through Contact: Management by Walking Aroundp. 419
Employment Profilep. 420
Leadership through Powerp. 420
Leadership through Vision: Transformational Leadershipp. 421
Leadership through Persuasionp. 424
Cultural Differences in Leadership: Project Globep. 425
Leadership: Where Are We Today?p. 428
Career Workshop: Obtaining Leadership Skillsp. 431
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Developing Leaders at Claim Jumper Restaurantsp. 432
Chapter Summaryp. 432
Questions for Reviewp. 432
Group Behavior, Teams, and Conflictp. 434
Group Dynamicsp. 435
Definition of a Groupp. 435
Reasons for Joining Groupsp. 436
Factors Affecting Group Performancep. 439
Group Cohesivenessp. 439
Groupthinkp. 449
Individual Versus Group Performancep. 449
Teamsp. 451
What Is a Work Team?p. 451
Types of Teamsp. 453
How Teams Developp. 455
Why Teams Don't Always Workp. 456
Group Conflictp. 458
Types of Conflictp. 459
Causes of Conflictp. 460
Career Workshop: Tips for Being a Good Group Memberp. 463
Conflict Stylesp. 464
Employment Profilep. 465
Resolving Conflictp. 468
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Conflict at Workp. 470
Chapter Summaryp. 470
Questions for Reviewp. 471
Organization Developmentp. 472
Managing Changep. 473
Sacred Cow Huntsp. 473
Employee Acceptance of Changep. 474
Implementing Changep. 478
Career Workshop: Coping with Changep. 479
Organizational Culturep. 480
Employment Profilep. 482
Emplowermentp. 485
Making the Decision to Empowerp. 485
Levels of Employee Inputp. 489
Empowerment Chartsp. 492
Consequences of Empowermentp. 493
Downsizingp. 494
Reducing the Impact of Downsizingp. 494
Effects of Downsizingp. 498
Work Schedulesp. 499
Compressed Workweeksp. 499
Moonlightingp. 501
Flexible Work Hoursp. 501
Peak-Time Payp. 504
Job Sharingp. 504
Work at Homep. 505
Shift Workp. 506
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Managing Change at Carlson Restaurantsp. 509
Chapter Summaryp. 509
Questions for Reviewp. 509
Stress Management: Dealing with the Demands of Life and Workp. 511
Stress Definedp. 512
Predisposition to Stressp. 513
Stress Personalitiesp. 514
Gender, Ethnicity, and Racep. 514
Stress Sensitizationp. 515
Sources of Stressp. 515
Personal Stressorsp. 515
Occupational Stressorsp. 517
Organizational Stressorsp. 518
Stressors in the Physical Work Environmentp. 520
Other Sources of Stressp. 527
Consequences of Stressp. 528
Personal Consequencesp. 528
Organizational Consequencesp. 530
Managing Stressp. 532
Planning for Stressp. 532
Career Workshop: Dealing with Stressp. 536
Stress Reduction Interventions Related to Life/Work Issuesp. 537
Easing the Child-Care Burdenp. 537
Easing the Elder-Care Burdenp. 540
Easing the Daily-Chore Burdenp. 540
Employment Profilep. 541
Providing Rest through Paid Time Offp. 542
Measuring Stressp. 542
Workplace Violencep. 543
Perpetrators of Workplace Violencep. 545
Reducing Workplace Violencep. 545
On the Job: Applied Case Study: Reducing Stress at a Manufacturing Companyp. 547
Chapter Summaryp. 548
Questions for Reviewp. 548
Working Conditions and Human Factorsp. 549
Glossaryp. 556
Referencesp. 576
Name Indexp. 618
Subject Indexp. 626
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