Infancy: Development from Birth to Age 3

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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Infancyprovides students with enough detail, without overwhelming them, in order to understand methodological issues, explore both practically and theoretically important topics, and engage students in thinking critically about development from birth to age 3.. Students understand the role of infant development research and how they may apply it to their own lives as well as the broader implications upon public policies. Students also understand the relevant historical information in many of the chapters to provide a broader perspective and highlight how far wers"ve come in our understanding of the first 3 years of life. Issues of diversity and multicultural experience are also incorporated into virtually every chapter, illustrating how nature and nurture work together. Conception and Birth, Infant Development, Infant Cognition, Physical Development, Socio-emotional Development, Child Care and Intervention Infant Development, Theories of Development, and Early Childhood Development

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Beliefs About Babies: Historical Perspectives on Children and Childhoodp. 1
Why Do We Study Infants?p. 2
Development as Transformationp. 2
Impact of Early Experiencep. 3
Research Methods and Toolsp. 4
Interdisciplinary Collaborationp. 4
Recurring Themes in the Study of Child Developmentp. 4
The Path of Development: Stages versus Continuous Changep. 4
Heredity and the Environmentp. 5
Active or Passive Development?p. 7
Normal and Atypical Developmentp. 7
Culture and Contextp. 7
Historical Perspectives on Infancy and Early Childhoodp. 9
Historical Studies of Children and Childhoodp. 10
Views of Childrenp. 13
Family Lifep. 19
Educationp. 24
The Development of Child Developmentp. 26
G. Stanley Hallp. 27
James Mark Baldwinp. 28
John B. Watsonp. 29
Arnold Gesellp. 30
Child Research Institutes: Investigation and Disseminationp. 30
Child Development after World War IIp. 31
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 32
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 33
Key Wordsp. 34
Research Methodsp. 35
Research Settingsp. 36
Naturalistic Studiesp. 36
Laboratory Studiesp. 41
Research Designsp. 44
Case Studies and Single-Subject Researchp. 44
Quasi-Experimental Studiesp. 45
Experimental Studiesp. 46
Research Designs for Studying Developmentp. 47
Longitudinal Researchp. 48
Cross-Sectional Researchp. 50
Microgenetic Researchp. 50
Research Measuresp. 51
Behavioral Responsesp. 51
Parental Reportsp. 55
Archival Researchp. 55
Issues in Research with Infantsp. 56
Behavioral Statep. 56
Inference and Interpretationp. 58
Ethical Concernsp. 59
Where Do Babies Come From?p. 60
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 60
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 61
Key Wordsp. 62
Genetics, Conception, and Prenatal Developmentp. 65
Genetics and the Human Genomep. 67
Genetics and Diseasep. 68
Genetics and Prenatal Developmentp. 71
Conceptionp. 72
Twins and Other Multiplesp. 74
Sex Chromosome Abnormalitiesp. 74
Infertility and Assisted Reproductionp. 74
Prenatal Developmentp. 77
The Germinal Stage, Fertilization to 2 Weeksp. 77
The Embryonic Stage, 2 to 8 Weeksp. 79
The Fetal Stage, 8 Weeks to Birth (38 Weeks)p. 82
Birth Defectsp. 84
Neural Tube Defectsp. 85
Congenital Heart Defectsp. 86
Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatmentp. 87
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)p. 88
Ultrasoundp. 89
Maternal Blood Screeningp. 89
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)p. 90
Amniocentesisp. 90
Fetal Echocardiographyp. 91
Fetal Therapyp. 91
Prenatal Influencesp. 93
Nutritionp. 93
Alcohol and Drugsp. 94
Diseasep. 99
Stressp. 101
Environmental Hazardsp. 103
Paternal Influencesp. 104
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 105
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 106
Key Wordsp. 107
Birth and the Newbornp. 109
The Birth Process: Stages of Childbirthp. 110
The First Stage: Contractions, Dilatation, and Effacementp. 111
The Second Stage: Delivery of the Infantp. 112
The Third Stage: Placental Expulsionp. 112
Complications of Childbirthp. 113
Failure to Progressp. 113
Breech Presentationp. 114
Preterm Birthp. 114
Low Birthweightp. 118
Postdate Birthp. 119
Twins and Other Multiple Birthsp. 120
Childbirth Optionsp. 122
Medical Interventionsp. 122
Hospital, Home, or Birth Center?p. 128
Neonatal Assessmentp. 132
Assessment at Birthp. 133
Reflexesp. 134
Sensory Abilitiesp. 134
Adaptations during the Neonatal Periodp. 135
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 135
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 138
Key Wordsp. 139
Physical Growth, Health, and Nutritionp. 141
Physical Growthp. 142
Measuring and Predicting Growthp. 143
Failure to Thrivep. 144
Tooth Developmentp. 145
Brain Developmentp. 146
Maltreatment and the Brainp. 149
Shaken Baby Syndromep. 151
Health and Safetyp. 151
Newborn Screeningp. 152
Screening for Lead Poisoningp. 152
Infant Mortalityp. 154
Common Illnessesp. 156
Accidental Injuriesp. 159
Sudden Infant Death Syndromep. 162
Nutrition and Feedingp. 165
Nutritional Requirements in Infancyp. 165
Nutritional Requirements in Toddlerhood and Early Childhoodp. 171
The Problem of Malnutritionp. 172
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 174
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 175
Key Wordsp. 175
Sensation, Perception, and Motor Developmentp. 177
Sensory Abilities and Perceptual Developmentp. 178
Theories of Infant Perceptionp. 180
Visionp. 182
Hearingp. 191
Touchp. 192
Tastep. 194
Smellp. 195
Intermodal and Cross-Modal Perceptionp. 196
Other Sensesp. 198
Motor Developmentp. 199
Reaching, Grasping, and Manipulating Objectsp. 201
Crawling and Walkingp. 203
The Role of Experience: Implications for Parents and Caregiversp. 205
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 207
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 208
Key Wordsp. 208
Cognition, Learning, and Intelligencep. 210
The Development of Playp. 212
Play with Objectsp. 212
Social Playp. 214
Pretend/Symbolic Playp. 215
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 217
Sensorimotor Intelligence: Constructing Knowledge through Actionp. 218
Six Stages of Sensorimotor Developmentp. 218
Evaluating Piaget's Theory of Sensorimotor Intelligencep. 221
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theoryp. 230
The Zone of Proximal Developmentp. 230
Guided Participation: Learning as a Social Activityp. 232
Evaluating Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theoryp. 233
Cognitive Science Perspectives on Early Learning and Memoryp. 234
The Development of Attentionp. 235
The Development of Memoryp. 236
Categorizationp. 241
Defining and Testing Intelligence in Infancyp. 243
Traditional Tests of Infant Intelligencep. 244
Information Processing Assessments of Infant Intelligencep. 244
Wrapping Things Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 245
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 247
Key Wordsp. 247
Language and Communicationp. 250
Why Language Mattersp. 251
Studying Language Developmentp. 252
Prelinguistic Communicationp. 255
Receptivity to Languagep. 255
Speech Perceptionp. 257
Early Production: Babblingp. 260
Gestural Communicationp. 260
Semantic Developmentp. 262
Milestones in the Acquisition of Meaningp. 262
One-Word Utterancesp. 264
Individual Differences: The Role of Language Experiencep. 266
Cultural and Linguistic Influencesp. 267
Explaining Early Word Learningp. 269
The Acquisition of Grammarp. 274
Multiword Utterancesp. 274
Grammatical Morphemesp. 275
Overregularizationp. 277
Individual Differences in Early Grammarp. 277
Cross-Linguistic Studies of the Acquisition of Grammarp. 278
Atypical Language Developmentp. 279
Measuring Language Developmentp. 279
Early Language Delayp. 280
Language and Communication in Children with Autismp. 281
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 283
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 284
Key Wordsp. 285
Relationships and Social Developmentp. 287
Infant-Caregiver Relationshipsp. 288
Patterns of Care and Interaction: Beliefs about Infantsp. 289
Cross-cultural Differences in Mothers' Involvementp. 294
Father-Infant Caregiving and Interactionp. 295
Cross-cultural Differences in Fathers' Involvementp. 296
Disturbances in Infant-Caregiver Relationshipsp. 298
Maternal Depressionp. 299
Maltreatment: Abuse and Neglectp. 301
Early Institutionalization and Social Deprivationp. 302
Developing Trust, Becoming Attachedp. 305
Bowlby's Theory of Infant-Caregiver Attachmentp. 305
Assessing Attachment Relationshipsp. 307
Attachment and Subsequent Developmentp. 312
Sibling Relationshipsp. 314
Becoming a Siblingp. 315
How Siblings Contribute to Developmentp. 316
Peer Relationships and Friendshipp. 317
Peer Interactionsp. 318
Friendshipp. 318
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 319
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 320
Key Wordsp. 320
Temperament, Emotions, and the Selfp. 322
Temperamentp. 324
Defining and Measuring Temperamentp. 324
Temperament and Neurophysiological Responsesp. 329
Temperament and Attachmentp. 331
Temperament and Personalityp. 333
Emotionsp. 335
Expressing Emotionsp. 335
Perceiving Emotionsp. 338
Communicating with Emotionsp. 340
Regulating Emotionsp. 343
Developing and Using Social Emotionsp. 346
The Selfp. 349
Recognizing the Selfp. 349
Evaluating the Selfp. 352
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 353
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 354
Key Wordsp. 355
Building Better Babies: Child Care and Early Interventionp. 357
Child Carep. 358
Parental Leave Policiesp. 359
Maternal Employmentp. 365
Child Care Arrangementsp. 365
Effects of Child Care on Infants and Toddlersp. 369
Including Children with Disabilities in Child Carep. 375
Early Interventionp. 377
Early Intervention through Child Care and Preschoolp. 378
Early Head Startp. 379
Poverty as a Risk Factor: Implications for Prevention and Interventionp. 380
Measuring the Impact of Early Childhood Interventionp. 382
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 384
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 385
Key Wordsp. 385
Babies of Today and Tomorrow: Music, Media, and Computersp. 387
Musicp. 389
Listening to Musicp. 390
Making Musicp. 394
The Mozart Effectp. 398
Mediap. 399
Television for Infants and Toddlersp. 400
Barney & Friendsp. 406
Computersp. 407
Computers in the Homep. 407
Computers in Early Childhood Classroomsp. 408
Interactive Books and Toysp. 409
Wrapping It Up: Summary and Conclusionp. 411
Think About It: Questions for Reading and Discussionp. 413
Key Wordsp. 413
Glossaryp. 415
Referencesp. 423
Indexp. 485
Photo Creditsp. 497
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