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9780131707344

Intellectual Disabilities Across the Lifespan

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780131707344

  • ISBN10:

    0131707345

  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-03-27
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This book provides an introduction to intellectual disabilities that is highly readable, comprehensive, and reflective of the broad array of human stories associated with this condition. This volume is strongly based in human development and follows the development of individuals with intellectual disabilities from conception through birth, infancy, and early childhood, and then through the elementary school, adolescent, and adult years. Intellectual disabilities is a field in which this complete cycle of human life is important for a full understanding of the challenges and issues involved. The authors also examine intellectual disabilities from the perspective of many disciplines. It is important to examine collaboration among disciplines and its impact on the person with intellectual disabilities and his or her family. This edition has updated and expanded coverage of a number of growing areas related to the field of intellectual disabilities

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
Understanding Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 2
Chapter Previewp. 3
Advocating for Tommyp. 3
Historical Perspectivesp. 5
Disciplines and Professionsp. 7
Disciplinary Perspectives and Contributionsp. 7
Terminologyp. 8
Contributions of Biological and Medical Sciencesp. 12
Contributions of the Behavioral Sciencesp. 13
Contributions of Educationp. 15
Disciplinary Collaborationp. 15
Concepts, Definitions, and Classificationp. 17
Intellectual Disabilities as a Conceptp. 17
Intellectual Disabilities: A Definition in Transitionp. 18
Incidence and Prevalencep. 23
Classificationp. 26
Cross-Categorical Issuesp. 29
Purposes and Uses of Definitions and Classificationsp. 31
Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Measurementp. 33
Labelingp. 34
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 35
Chapter Reviewp. 40
Core Questionsp. 40
Roundtable Discussionp. 41
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 42
Referencesp. 43
Diversity Issuesp. 48
Chapter Previewp. 49
Denise's Dilemmasp. 49
Associated Influencesp. 51
Povertyp. 51
Cultural-Social Moresp. 54
Languagep. 56
Issues of Assessment and Interventionp. 57
Human Development and Multicultural Issuesp. 60
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 61
Core Questionsp. 62
Roundtable Discussionp. 63
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 63
Referencesp. 64
Identifying People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 69
Assessment Issues and Proceduresp. 70
Chapter Previewp. 71
The Beginning Evaluationp. 71
Issues and Conceptsp. 72
Assessment Usep. 72
Assessment Referencingp. 73
Formative and Summative Evaluationp. 78
Assessment Biasp. 78
Early Lifep. 80
Screening Conceptsp. 80
Early Life Assessmentp. 83
Preschool Yearsp. 91
Intellectual Functioningp. 92
Language Functioningp. 93
Perceptual-Motor Functioningp. 94
Social/Adaptive Behaviorp. 95
Elementary School Yearsp. 97
Intellectual Functioningp. 97
Achievementp. 97
Assessment Systemsp. 99
Adolescent and Adult Yearsp. 100
Intellectual Functioningp. 100
Vocational Functioningp. 100
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 101
Core Questionsp. 102
Roundtable Discussionp. 103
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 103
Referencesp. 104
Understanding Intelligence and Adaptive Skillsp. 110
Chapter Previewp. 111
Wanting the Best for Our Unbornp. 111
The Concept of Intelligencep. 115
Development of Intelligencep. 115
Measurement of Intelligencep. 118
Mental Age and Intelligencep. 124
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 127
Core Questionsp. 130
Roundtable Discussionp. 131
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 131
Referencesp. 132
Development and Causationp. 135
Basic Principles of Early Developmentp. 136
Chapter Previewp. 137
The Red Flagsp. 137
Human Development: Terminology, Concepts, and Theoryp. 139
Concepts and Termsp. 139
Developmental Theoriesp. 141
The Developmental Processp. 143
Continuity Versus Discontinuity of Growthp. 143
Critical Periods and Developmental Vulnerabilityp. 144
Prenatal Developmentp. 146
Birthp. 151
Neonatal Developmentp. 153
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 158
Core Questionsp. 159
Roundtable Discussionp. 160
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 160
Referencesp. 161
Early Influences and Causationp. 162
Chapter Previewp. 163
The Scary Risks of Pregnancyp. 163
Early Causation: The Fetus and Infant at Riskp. 165
Genetic Causationp. 165
Prenatal Causationp. 168
Perinatal and Postnatal Causationp. 177
Professional Interventionp. 182
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 184
Core Questionsp. 186
Roundtable Discussionp. 186
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 187
Referencesp. 187
Intellectual Disabilities: Preschool and School Yearsp. 191
Infancy and Early Childhoodp. 192
Chapter Previewp. 193
Helen and Joeyp. 193
Physical Developmentp. 194
Neuromotor Developmentp. 195
Effects of the Environmentp. 200
Professional and Parental Interventionp. 204
Language Developmentp. 207
Normal Language Developmentp. 207
Delayed Language Developmentp. 208
Cognitive Developmentp. 210
Theoriesp. 210
Implications for Professional Interventionp. 212
Psychosocial Developmentp. 213
Theoriesp. 213
Implications for Intellectual Functioningp. 215
Professional Interventionp. 216
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 217
Core Questionsp. 219
Roundtable Discussionp. 219
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 220
Referencesp. 220
The Elementary School-Age Child with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 224
Chapter Previewp. 225
Including Scottp. 225
Cognitive Developmentp. 226
Learning Characteristicsp. 227
Memoryp. 227
Self-Regulationp. 228
Distribution of Practicep. 229
Learning Concrete and Abstract Conceptsp. 229
Learning Sets and Generalizationp. 229
Educational Achievementp. 230
Adaptive Skillsp. 230
Motivationp. 232
Physical and Health Characteristicsp. 233
Physical Differencesp. 233
Health Differencesp. 233
Educational Programs and Servicesp. 234
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)p. 234
Inclusion in General Education Settingsp. 238
Full-Time Special Education Classes and Schoolsp. 246
Instructional Approachesp. 247
Teaching Academic Skillsp. 247
Teaching Adaptive Skillsp. 248
Using Assistive Technologyp. 249
Educating the Culturally Different Child with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 250
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 251
The No Child Left Behind Act and IDEA 2004p. 251
Highly Qualified Special Education Teachersp. 252
Core Questionsp. 253
Roundtable Discussionp. 253
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 254
Referencesp. 254
The Adolescent with Intellectual Disabilities and the Transitional Yearsp. 258
Chapter Previewp. 259
Including Penelope in School and Community Lifep. 259
Expected Outcomes of Secondary Education Programsp. 260
Employment Preparationp. 261
Legislative Mandates for Employment Trainingp. 261
Career Educationp. 263
Work Experiencep. 264
Community-Referenced Employment Preparationp. 264
Teaching Adaptive Skillsp. 269
Socializationp. 269
Self-Determination and Personal Managementp. 269
Recreation, Sports, and Leisurep. 274
Teaching Academic Skillsp. 274
Transition Planningp. 275
Coordinating Transition Planningp. 276
Determining Individual Needp. 277
Developing an Individualized Transition Planp. 277
Involving Students and Parents in Transition Planningp. 278
Promoting Inclusion with Peers in High School Programsp. 279
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 281
Core Questionsp. 281
Roundtable Discussionp. 282
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 282
Referencesp. 283
Adulthood and Agingp. 285
The Adult Yearsp. 286
Chapter Previewp. 287
Giving Steve a Chance to Work, Live, and Play in the Communityp. 287
Community Livingp. 289
Making Adult Choices: Competence and Self-Determinationp. 289
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)p. 291
Supported Residential Livingp. 293
Living with Parents and Siblingsp. 296
Recreation and Leisure in a Community Settingp. 297
Marriage and Sexualityp. 298
Research on Adjustment to Community Livingp. 299
Institutional Livingp. 302
Community Employmentp. 303
Employment with No Support Servicesp. 305
Employment with Time-Limited Training and Support Servicesp. 305
Employment with Ongoing Support Services: The Supported Employment Modelp. 305
Supported Employment Within the Framework of Community Livingp. 307
Structural Features of Supported Employmentp. 308
Supported Employment Modelsp. 309
Sheltered Employmentp. 311
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 312
Core Questionsp. 313
Roundtable Discussionp. 314
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 314
Referencesp. 315
The Older Person with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 318
Chapter Previewp. 319
Moving Is Frighteningp. 319
Aging: What Does It Mean? Who Is an Old Person?p. 320
Research on Aging and Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 321
Methodological Problemsp. 321
Identifying the Older Person with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 323
Characteristics of the Older Person with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 324
Mental Functioningp. 324
Social and Personal Functioningp. 330
Programming and Future Researchp. 333
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 335
Core Questionsp. 337
Roundtable Discussionp. 337
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 337
Referencesp. 338
Family and Social Issuesp. 343
Familiesp. 344
Chapter Previewp. 345
My Child Is NOT Retarded!-Part Ip. 345
Impact of the Child with Intellectual Disabilities on the Familyp. 346
From Awareness to Acceptancep. 347
Denialp. 348
Projecting Blamep. 348
Fearp. 349
Guiltp. 350
Grief and Mourningp. 350
Withdrawalp. 350
Rejectionp. 351
Searching for a Causep. 352
Acceptancep. 353
Supporting the Familyp. 353
Formal and Informal Family Support Networksp. 353
Providing Information to Parentsp. 355
The Role of Parent and Professional Associationsp. 355
Building a Parent-Professional Partnership in the Schoolsp. 358
Family Support Programsp. 359
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 360
Core Questionsp. 361
Roundtable Discussionp. 362
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 362
Referencesp. 363
Social and Ethical Issuesp. 364
Chapter Previewp. 365
"Martha, Your Unborn Baby Has Down Syndrome"p. 365
Backgroundp. 366
Ethical Issues Throughout the Life Cyclep. 370
The Prenatal Periodp. 370
The Early Yearsp. 371
The School Yearsp. 375
The Adult Yearsp. 377
Research and Professional Ethicsp. 380
New Issues and Future Directionsp. 381
Core Questionsp. 381
Roundtable Discussionp. 382
Parent and Professional Organization Positions on Key Issues in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disabilitiesp. 382
Referencesp. 383
Name Indexp. 391
Subject Indexp. 401
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