Intercultural Communication : A Discourse Approach

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-01-03
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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This newly revised edition is both a lively introduction and practical guide to the main concepts and challenges of intercultural communication. Grounded in interactional sociolinguistics and discourse analysis, this work integrates theoretical principles and methodological advice, presenting students, researchers, and practitioners with a comprehensive and unified resource. Features new original theory, expanded treatment of generations, gender and corporate and professional discourse Offers improved organization and added features for student and classroom use, including advice on research projects, questions for discussion, and references at the end of each chapter Extensively revised with newly added material on computer mediated communication, sexuality and globalization

Author Biography

Ron Scollon (1939-2009) was a Professor of Linguistics at Georgetown University. His publications include Professional Communication in International Settings, co-authored with Yuling Pan and Suzanne Wong Scollon (Blackwell 2001), Discourses in Place: Language and the Material World co-authored with Suzie Wong Scollon (2003), and Nexus Analysis: Discourse and the Emerging Internet co-authored with Suzie Wong Scollon (2004).

Suzanne Wong Scollon is an independent researcher in the North Pacific Rim. She has written extensively on intercultural communication, holding academic positions in North American universities as well as in Taiwan, South Korea, and Hong Kong. She also acted as a consultant, along with Ron Scollon, with over fifty governmental and corporate organizations in North America, Asia, and Europe.

Rodney H. Jones is the Associate Head of the Department of English at City University of Hong Kong. He has published widely in international journals and is co-editor of Discourse in Action: Introducing Mediated Discourse Analysis (with S. Norris 2005), Advances in Discourse Studies (with V. K. Bhatia and J. Flowerdew 2007), and author of Noticing, Exploring and Practicing: Functional Grammar in the ESL Classroom (with G. Lock 2010), and Discourse Analysis: A Resource Book for Students (2012).

Table of Contents

List of Figuresp. xi
Series Editor's
Prefacep. xiii
Preface to the First Editionp. xiv
Preface to the Second Editionp. xvii
Preface to the Third Editionp. xviii
What Is a Discourse Approach?p. 1
The Problem with Culturep. 2
Culture is a verbp. 5
Discoursep. 7
Discourse systemsp. 8
What Is Communication?p. 10
Language is ambiguous by naturep. 11
We must draw inferences about meaningp. 14
Our inferences tend to be fixed, not tentativep. 15
Our inferences are drawn very quicklyp. 15
Interdiscourse communication and English as a global languagep. 16
What This Book Is Notp. 17
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 18
Four processes of ethnographyp. 19
Four types of data in ethnographic researchp. 20
Choosing a site of investigationp. 21
Discussion Questionsp. 23
References for Further Studyp. 24
How, When, and Where to Do Things with Languagep. 25
Sentence Meaning and Speaker's Meaningp. 27
Speech Acts, Speech Events, and Speech Situationsp. 27
Grammar of Contextp. 29
Seven main components for a grammar of contextp. 30
Scenep. 31
Keyp. 34
Participantsp. 35
Message formp. 36
Sequencep. 37
Co-occurrence patterns, marked and unmarkedp. 38
Manifestationp. 38
Variation in context grammarp. 39
"Culture" and Contextp. 39
High context and low context situationsp. 40
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 42
Using the "grammar of context" as a preliminary ethnographic auditp. 42
Discussion Questionsp. 43
References for Further Studyp. 44
Interpersonal Politeness and Powerp. 45
Communicative Style or Registerp. 45
Facep. 46
The "self" as a communicative identityp. 47
The Paradox of Face: Involvement and Independencep. 48
Politeness strategies of involvement and independencep. 49
Linguistic strategies of involvement: some examplesp. 51
Linguistic strategies of independence: some examplesp. 51
Face Systemsp. 52
Three Face Systems: Deference, Solidarity, and Hierarchyp. 53
Deference face system (-P, +D)p. 54
Solidarity face system (-P, -D)p. 54
Hierarchical face system (+P, +/-D)p. 55
Miscommunicationp. 56
Variations in Face Systemsp. 59
Social Organization and Face Systemsp. 60
Kinshipp. 61
The concept of the selfp. 62
Ingroup-outgroup relationshipsp. 64
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaftp. 65
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 66
Exploring the interaction orderp. 66
Discussion Questionsp. 67
References for Further Studyp. 68
Conversational Inference: Interpretation in Spoken Discoursep. 69
How Do We Understand Discourse?p. 70
Cohesive Devices: Lexical and Grammaticalp. 71
Referencep. 72
Verb formsp. 72
Conjunctionp. 72
The causal conjunction "because"p. 73
Cognitive Schemata and Scriptsp. 74
World knowledgep. 75
Adjacency sequencesp. 76
Prosodic Patterning: Intonation and Timingp. 77
Intonationp. 77
Timingp. 79
Metacommunicationp. 82
Non-sequential processingp. 84
Interactive Intelligencep. 86
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 88
Collecting and analyzing spoken datap. 88
Reconfiguring default settingsp. 89
Discussion Questionsp. 90
References for Further Studyp. 90
Topic and Face: Inductive and Deductive Patterns in Discoursep. 92
What Are You Talking About?p. 92
Topic, Turn Exchange, and Timingp. 94
The call-answer-topic adjacency sequencep. 94
The callp. 95
The answerp. 95
The Introduction of the caller's topicp. 95
Deductive Monologuesp. 96
The Inductive Patternp. 97
Inside and outside encountersp. 98
Hierarchical relationships and topic introductionp. 98
The false east-west dichotomyp. 99
Face: Inductive and Deductive Rhetorical Strategiesp. 100
Topics and face systemsp. 101
Face Relationships in Written Discoursep. 103
Essays and press releasesp. 104
The press release: implied writers and implied readersp. 105
The essay: a deductive structurep. 106
Limiting Ambiguity: Power in Discoursep. 106
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 107
Collecting and analyzing written datap. 107
Discussion Questionsp. 109
References for Further Studyp. 109
Ideologies in Discoursep. 110
Three Concepts of Discoursep. 110
The Utilitarian Discourse Systemp. 113
The Enlightenment: reason and freedomp. 114
Bentham and Mill's Utilitarianismp. 115
Forms of discourse in the Utilitarian discourse systemp. 117
The Panopticon of Benthamp. 118
Face systems in the Utilitarian discourse systemp. 120
Internal face systems: liberté, égalité, fraternitép. 120
The institutions of the Utilitarian discourse systemp. 121
Outside discoursep. 122
Multiple discourse systemsp. 123
The Confucian discourse systemp. 123
"Conversations"p. 126
What "Counts" as an Ideology?p. 128
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 130
The relationship between small d discourse and big D Discoursesp. 130
Discussion Questionsp. 134
References for Further Studyp. 134
Forms of Discoursep. 136
Functions of Languagep. 136
Information and relationshipp. 136
Negotiation and ratifi cationp. 137
Group harmony and individual welfarep. 138
Clarity, Brevity, and Sincerity Revisitedp. 139
Theories of communication in the Utilitarian discourse systemp. 139
Kant's view of the "public" writerp. 147
Plagiarism and ideologyp. 148
Modes, Media, and the Materiality of Discoursep. 152
Modep. 152
Mediap. 154
Emplacementp. 156
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 157
Discussion Questionsp. 158
References for Further Studyp. 159
Socializationp. 161
The Individual and "Culture"p. 161
Socializationp. 162
Education, enculturation, acculturationp. 162
Primary and secondary socializationp. 163
Socialization as legitimate peripheral participationp. 164
Theories of the person and of learningp. 165
Socialization in the Utilitarian Discourse Systemp. 168
Education vs. socializationp. 168
Socialization and face systemsp. 169
Socialization and the "Historical Body"p. 171
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 173
An outline guide for the study of discourse systemsp. 175
Discussion Questionsp. 176
References for Further Studyp. 177
Corporate and Professional Discoursep. 178
Voluntary and Involuntary Discourse Systemsp. 178
Five key discourse systems in corporate and professional lifep. 179
The Corporate Discourse System (Corporate Culture)p. 180
Ideologyp. 181
Socializationp. 186
Forms of discoursep. 192
Face systemsp. 198
The size and scope of corporate discourse systemsp. 201
Professional Discourse Systemsp. 201
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 203
Discussion Questionsp. 204
References for Further Studyp. 205
Generational Discoursep. 206
Involuntary Discourse Systemsp. 206
The Ideologies of Individualism in the United Statesp. 208
Six generations of North Americansp. 210
The shifting ground of U.S. individualismp. 225
Communication between generationsp. 226
Six Generations of Chinesep. 227
The changing nature of collectivismp. 227
The shifting ground of Chinese collectivismp. 236
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 237
Discussion Questionsp. 238
References for Further Studyp. 239
Gender and Sexuality Discoursep. 240
Gender and Sexualityp. 240
Gender Discourse Systemsp. 241
Directness or indirectness?p. 242
Who talks more?p. 244
Forms of discourse; functions of languagep. 245
Face systemsp. 247
The origin of difference: ideology and paradoxp. 248
The maintenance of difference: socializationp. 250
Problems with the "difference" approachp. 251
Compromise: "communities of practice"p. 252
Sexualityp. 253
Sexuality and genderp. 255
Performativityp. 256
Discourse systems and imagined communitiesp. 256
"Gay Culture" and the Utilitarian Discourse Systemp. 257
Ideologyp. 259
Face systemsp. 260
Forms of discoursep. 260
Socializationp. 260
The "Tongzhi Discourse System"p. 261
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 264
Discussion Questionsp. 265
References for Further Studyp. 266
Doing "Intercultural Communication"p. 267
Discourse Systems and the Individualp. 267
Intersystem communicationp. 270
Cultural ideology and stereotypingp. 271
Negative stereotypesp. 273
Positive stereotypes, the lumping fallacy, and the solidarity fallacyp. 274
Otheringp. 276
Differences Which Make a Difference: Discourse Systemsp. 276
Intercultural Communication as Mediated Actionp. 278
Avoiding Miscommunicationp. 279
Researching Interdiscourse Communicationp. 281
Discussion Questionsp. 283
References for Further Studyp. 283
Referencesp. 284
Indexp. 298
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