Interviewing For Solutions

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-02-28
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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Written in an informal, conversational style, this respected text features a solutions-oriented approach that views clients as competent, helps them to visualize the changes they want, and builds on what they are already doing that works. Throughout Interviewing for Solutions, authors Peter De Jong and Insoo Kim Berg present models for solution-focused work, illustrated by examples and supported by research. The authors' proven approach provides you with a step-by-step description of how to build solutions with clients collaboratively, so you can see how to apply the skills in your own practice. Generous excerpts from actual interviews illustrate solution-focused techniques, and outcome data highlights the usefulness of the approach with a wide range of clients and client difficulties. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. XIII
About the Authorsp. XVIII
About the Chapter 14 Contributorsp. XIX
From Problem Solving to Solution Buildingp. 1
Helping as Problem Solvingp. 5
The Stages of Problem Solvingp. 5
A Caveat: The Importance of Trust Developmentp. 6
The Medical Modelp. 6
Problem Solving: The Paradigm of the Helping Professionsp. 6
Helping as Solution Buildingp. 8
Concerns about the Problem-Solving Paradigmp. 8
History of Solution Buildingp. 11
Solution Building: The Basicsp. 13
A Second Interview with Rosiep. 13
Solution-Building Interviewing Activitiesp. 16
The Stages of Solution Buildingp. 17
Describing the Problemp. 17
Developing Well-Formed Goalsp. 17
Exploring for Exceptionsp. 18
End-of-Session Feedbackp. 18
Evaluating Client Progressp. 18
The Client as Expertp. 18
Skills for Not Knowingp. 20
Basic Interviewing Skillsp. 21
Listeningp. 21
Formulating Questionsp. 22
Getting Detailsp. 24
Echoing Clients' Key Wordsp. 25
Open Questionsp. 26
Summarizingp. 21
Paraphrasingp. 29
Practitioners' Nonverbal Behaviorp. 29
The Use of Silencep. 30
Noticing Clients' Nonverbal Behaviorp. 31
Self-Disclosingp. 32
Noticing Processp. 33
Complimentingp. 34
Affirming Clients' Perceptionsp. 36
Natural Empathyp. 39
Normalizingp. 42
Returning the Focus to the Clientp. 43
Noticing Hints of Possibilityp. 45
Exploring Client Meaningsp. 46
Relationship Questionsp. 47
Amplifying Solution Talkp. 48
Leading from One Step Behindp. 50
Getting Started: How to Pay Attention to What the Client Wantsp. 52
When You First Meet Your Clientp. 52
Names and Small Talkp. 52
Clarifying How You Workp. 54
Problem Descriptionp. 55
Asking for Client Perceptions and Respecting Client Languagep. 55
What Is the Client's Understanding of How the Problem Affects the Client?p. 56
What Has the Client Tried?p. 57
What Is Most Important for the Client to Work on First?p. 58
How to Work with Clients on What They Might Wantp. 58
When Clients Want Something and See Themselves as Part of a Solutionp. 59
A Word of Cautionp. 60
When Clients Say Someone Else Needs to Changep. 60
When Clients Seem Uninterested or Resistant to Changingp. 63
What if Clients Want What Is Not Good for Them?p. 70
What if Clients Do Not Want Anything at All?p. 71
Influencing Client Cooperation and Motivationp. 71
How to Amplify What Clients Want: The Miracle Questionp. 75
Characteristics of Well-Formed Goalsp. 77
Importance to the Clientp. 77
Interactional Termsp. 78
Situational Featuresp. 78
The Presence of Some Desirable Behaviors Rather than the Absence of Problemsp. 79
A Beginning Step Rather than the Final Resultp. 80
Clients' Recognition of a Role for Themselvesp. 81
Concrete, Behavioral, Measurable Termsp. 82
Realistic Termsp. 82
A Challenge to the Clientp. 82
Conclusionp. 83
The Miracle Questionp. 83
Ah Yan's Miracle Picturep. 85
The Williams Familyp. 89
The Art of Interviewing for Well-Formed Goalsp. 100
Avoiding Premature Closurep. 101
Exploring for Exceptions: Building on Client Strengths and Successesp. 102
Exceptionsp. 102
Definitionp. 102
Interviewing for Exceptionsp. 103
Ah Yan's Exceptionsp. 104
Client Successes and Strengthsp. 105
Respecting the Client's Words and Frame of Referencep. 106
Scaling Questionsp. 106
Presession-Change Scalingp. 107
Scaling Motivation and Confidencep. 108
Exceptions: The Williams Familyp. 110
Building toward a Difference that Makes a Differencep. 113
Formulating Feedback for Clientsp. 114
Taking a Thinking Breakp. 115
The Structure of Feedbackp. 115
Complimentsp. 116
The Bridgep. 116
Suggestionsp. 117
Deciding on a Suggestionp. 117
Does the Client Want Something?p. 117
Are There Well-Formed Goals?p. 118
Are There Exceptions?p. 119
Feedback for Ah Yanp. 119
Feedback for the Williams Familyp. 121
Feedback Guidelinesp. 125
Common Messagesp. 126
When Clients Do Not Perceive a Problem and Do Not Want Anythingp. 126
When Clients Perceive a Problem But Not a Role for Themselves in a Solutionp. 127
When Clients Want Something and See Themselves as Part of a Solutionp. 130
Other Useful Messagesp. 133
The Overcoming-the-Urge Suggestionp. 134
Addressing Competing Views of the Solutionp. 134
Decisions about the Next Sessionp. 136
Cribsheets, Protocols, and Notetakingp. 137
Later Sessions: Finding, Amplifying, and Measuring Client Progressp. 139
"What's better?"p. 140
Earsp. 141
Ah Yanp. 142
Doing More of the Samep. 148
Scalingp. 148
Scaling Progressp. 149
Scaling Confidencep. 149
Next Stepsp. 150
Terminationp. 153
The Breakp. 155
Feedbackp. 156
Complimentsp. 156
Bridgep. 157
Suggestionp. 157
The Second Session with the Williams Familyp. 157
"What's Better?"p. 158
Breakp. 164
Feedbackp. 165
Bridgep. 167
Suggestionp. 167
Setbacks, Relapses, and Times when Nothing Is Betterp. 168
Conclusionp. 169
Interviewing Clients in Involuntary Situations: Children, Dyads, and the Mandatedp. 170
Taking a Solution Focusp. 172
Key Ideas for Solution Building with Clients in Involuntary Situationsp. 172
Begin by Assuming the Client Probably Does Not Want Anything from Youp. 173
Responding to Anger and Negativityp. 173
Listen for Who and What Are Importantp. 174
Use Relationship Questions to Address Contextp. 174
Incorporating Nonnegotiable Requirementsp. 175
Giving Control to Clientsp. 175
Guidelines, Useful Questions, and a Protocol for Interviewing Involuntary Clientsp. 176
Building Solutions with Childrenp. 176
Children as Involuntary Participantsp. 177
Getting Prepared to Meet a Childp. 177
Getting Started with Positivesp. 178
Enlisting Adults as Alliesp. 179
Getting the Child's Perceptionsp. 180
Other Tips for Interviewing Childrenp. 184
Interviewing Dyadsp. 188
Focus on the Relationshipp. 189
Getting Startedp. 189
Work toward a Common Goalp. 192
Other Tipsp. 199
Conclusionp. 201
Working with Those Mandated into Servicesp. 201
Getting Startedp. 202
Getting More Details about the Client's Understandings and What the Client Wantsp. 205
Asking about Context with Relationship Questionsp. 206
Coconstructing Competencep. 208
Back on Familiar Groundp. 210
What about Making Recommendations that the Client Opposes?p. 210
Final Wordp. 212
Interviewing in Crisis Situationsp. 213
Solution Focus versus Problem Focusp. 214
Getting Started: "How Can I Help?"p. 215
"What Have You Tried?"p. 216
"What Do You Want to Have Different?"p. 217
Asking the Miracle Questionp. 219
Coping Questionsp. 220
The Case of Jermainep. 220
Coping Explorationp. 221
Connecting with the Larger Picturep. 223
Using Coping Questions with Clients Who Talk Suicidep. 223
Scaling Questionsp. 226
Scaling Current Coping Abilityp. 227
Scaling Presession Coping Changesp. 228
Scaling the Next Stepp. 228
Scaling Motivation and Confidencep. 228
Feedback: Doing More of What Helpsp. 229
Gathering Problem-Assessment Informationp. 230
When the Client Remains Overwhelmedp. 232
Conclusionp. 233
Outcomesp. 235
Early Research at Brief Family Therapy Centerp. 236
1992-1993 Study Design Participantsp. 236
Outcome Measurementp. 237
Resultsp. 237
Length of Servicesp. 237
Intermediate Outcomesp. 238
Final Outcomesp. 238
Comparative Datap. 239
Other Studies of Solution-Focused Therapyp. 240
Next Stepsp. 242
Professional Values and Human Diversityp. 244
Solution Building and Professional Valuesp. 245
Respecting Human Dignityp. 245
Individualizing Servicep. 247
Fostering Client Visionp. 247
Building on Strengthsp. 248
Encouraging Client Participationp. 248
Maximizing Self-Determinationp. 248
Fostering Transferabilityp. 249
Maximizing Client Empowermentp. 250
Protecting Confidentialityp. 250
Promoting Normalizationp. 251
Monitoring Changep. 252
Conclusionp. 252
Diversity-Competent Practicep. 252
Outcome Data on Diversityp. 254
Diversity and Satisfaction with Servicesp. 257
Agency, Group, and Community Practicep. 259
Solution Building and Agency Practicep. 259
Case Documentation in Problem-Focused Settingsp. 259
Case Documentation in More Solution-Focused Settingsp. 262
Case Conferences in Problem-Focused Settingsp. 264
Case Conferences in More Solution-Focused Settingsp. 266
Solution-Building Supervisionp. 268
Relationships with Colleagues in Problem-Focused Settingsp. 271
Relationships with Colleagues in Solution-Focused Settingsp. 272
Relationships with Collateralsp. 272
Group and Organizational Practicep. 274
Group Practicep. 274
Organizational Practicep. 275
Applicationsp. 277
Introductionp. 277
Family Solutions: From "Problem Families to Families Finding Solutions"p. 279
The Need for Something Differentp. 279
How We Did Itp. 280
Techniques Employedp. 280
Differences Madep. 281
Case Examplesp. 281
Katy McKeithp. 281
Colin Jamesp. 283
Outcomesp. 284
Feedback from Familiesp. 285
Conclusionp. 285
The Woww Programp. 286
The Programp. 288
Observation and Complimenting by a Coachp. 288
Creating Classroom Goalsp. 289
Scaling Classroom Successp. 290
Coachingp. 291
Outcomesp. 291
Conclusionp. 293
Solutions for Bullying in Primary Schoolsp. 293
The Support Group Approach to Bullyingp. 294
Case Examplep. 296
Making a Differencep. 300
Evaluationp. 301
Conclusionp. 302
Implementation of Solution-Focused Skills in a Hawai'i Prisonp. 302
Program Descriptionp. 302
Restorative Circlep. 303
Inmate Training in SF Skillsp. 304
Case Example: Restorative Circlep. 306
Evaluationp. 307
Satisfaction with Restorative Circlesp. 307
Satisfaction with Inmate Trainingp. 308
Conclusionp. 308
It's a Matter of Choicep. 309
The Problem Drinking Treatment Programp. 309
Techniques from SFBTp. 310
A Casep. 310
Follow-Upp. 312
Conclusionp. 312
The Plumas Project: Solution-Focused Treatment of Domestic Violence Offendersp. 313
Historyp. 313
Shifting to a Solution Focusp. 313
Our Programp. 314
Assessment Interviewp. 314
p. 315
p. 317
Assignmentsp. 319
Program Outcomesp. 320
Recidivism Ratesp. 320
Partners' Commentsp. 320
Group Members' Commentsp. 320
Impact On Practitionersp. 322
Impact on Our Agencyp. 323
Conclusionp. 323
Transforming Agency Practice through Solution-Focused Supervisionp. 324
Why Change was Necessaryp. 324
How I Introduced Solution-Focused Practicesp. 325
Therapists' Viewsp. 330
Further Developmentsp. 331
Differences We have Noticedp. 331
Youthcare Drenthep. 333
Becoming a Solution-Focused Organizationp. 333
Adopting a Paradigm Changep. 333
Swarm Phenomenonp. 334
My Vision for the Miracle Organizationp. 334
Making the Vision Happenp. 336
Role of the Directorp. 337
Conclusionp. 339
Theoretical Implicationsp. 340
Shifts in Client Perceptions and Definitionsp. 341
Social Constructionismp. 343
Shifting Paradigmsp. 345
Outcome Datap. 345
Shifting Perceptions and Definitions as a Client Strengthp. 348
Solution-Building Toolsp. 351
Referencesp. 378
Indexp. 388
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