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9780190939632

Introducing Philosophy

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  • ISBN13:

    9780190939632

  • ISBN10:

    019093963X

  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-07-31
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Twelfth Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core questions of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant works in the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives--including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints--alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers.

DIGITAL LEARNING AND TEACHING TOOLS
Oxford Learning Link, accessible to adopting instructors, will provide a Test Bank with about thirty multiple-choice, ten essay/discussion, twenty true/false, and ten fill-in-the-blank questions per chapter; PowerPoint lecture outlines; an Instructor's Manual; and a glossary

A free, open-access Companion Website for students will include interactive flashcards of key terms from the text and self-quizzes with about fifteen multiple-choice, ten true/false, and five fill-in-the-blank questions per chapter

Author Biography


The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

Kathleen M. Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin.

Clancy Martin is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Table of Contents


*=New to this Edition

Philosopher Biographies
Preface
History of Philosophy

INTRODUCTION
A. Socrates
Aristophanes, from The Clouds
Plato, from Apology
Plato, from Crito
Plato, from Phaedo
Plato, from Republic
B. What Is Philosophy?
Plato, from the Apology
Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
Laozi, from Dao De Jing
C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy
Ren? Descartes, from Discourse on Method
D. A Brief Discourse on Method

PART ONE. THE WORLD AND BEYOND
CHAPTER 1. REALITY
A. "The Way the World Really Is"
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
B. The First Greek Philosophers
C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China
From Upanishads
From Zend-Avesta
From the Confucian Analects
Laozi, from Dao De Jing
Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle
Plato, from Symposium
Plato, from Republic
Plato, from Meno
Aristotle, Metaphysics
Aristotle, from Physics
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
E. Modern Metaphysics
Ren? Descartes, on Substance
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
Summary and Conclusion

CHAPTER 2. RELIGION
A. What Is Religion?
John Wisdom, from "Gods"
Albert Einstein, on the Design of the Universe
Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
B. The Western Religions
C. An Eastern Practice: Confucianism
* Xinzhong Yao, "The Way of Confucianism"
D. Proving God: The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm, on the Ontological Argument
Ren? Descartes, on the Ontological Argument
Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
E. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design
St. Thomas Aquinas, Five Arguments for the Existence of God
William Paley, "The Watch and the Watchmaker"
David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion
Cory Juhl, "On the 'Fine-Tuning' Argument"
F. Religion, Morality, and Evil
Immanuel Kant, On God and Morality
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov
William James, from "The Will to Believe"
St. Augustine, from Confessions
From the Bhagavadgita
G. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality
Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
S?ren Kierkegaard, on Subjective Truth
Paul Tillich, on the Ultimate Concern
H. Doubts about God and Religion
Karl Marx, from "Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right"
Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil
Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Antichrist
Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science
Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
* Alvin Plantinga, from Warranted Christian Belief
* Robert C. Solomon, from Spirituality for the Skeptic
Mary Daly, "The Qualitative Leap beyond Patriarchal Religion"
* Kaibara Ekken and Mary Evelyn Tucker, from The Philosophy of Qi
* Boshan, "Exhortation for Those Unable to Arouse Doubt"
Summary and Conclusion

CHAPTER 3. TRUTH AND KNOWLEDGE
A. What Is Truth?
B. Theories of Truth
Brand Blanshard, from The Nature of Thought
William James, from Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking
C. Distinguishing Reality from Appearance
Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
D. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation I"
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation II"
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
E. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
F. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
G. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume
David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
H. Kant's Revolution and the Issue of Relativism
Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason
Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
I. The Analytic Turn
Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"
J. Feminist Epistemology
Elizabeth Grosz, from On Feminist Knowledge
Uma Narayan, from On Feminist Epistemology
Summary and Conclusion

PART TWO. KNOW THYSELF
CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY
A. What Is Consciousness?
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation III"
Ren?Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
B. The Problem of Dualism
Ren? Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
C. The Rejection of Dualism
Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism
David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"
John R. Searle, from Minds, Brains, and Science
D. The Problem of Consciousness
Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious"
Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
E. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness
Aristotle, from De Anima
Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience"
F. The Politics of the Mind-Body Problem
Elizabeth V. Spelman, from "Woman as Body: Ancient and Contemporary Views"
Summary and Conclusion

CHAPTER 5. SELF
A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant
Ren? Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
John Locke, On Personal Identity
David Hume, On the Idea of the Self
Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul as Substance
Meredith Michaels, from "Personal Identity"
Derek Parfit, from Reasons and Persons
B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice
Jean-Paul Sartre, from "Existentialism Is a Humanism"
Jean-Paul Sartre, from No Exit
* Simone de Beauvoir, from The Second Sex
C. The Individual and the Community
S?ren Kierkegaard, On the Public
S?ren Kierkegaard, On Self and Passion
David Reisman, On Individualism
Malcolm X, On Being "African"
Malcolm X, from "At the Audubon"
Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny
Dierdre McClosky, from Crossing
D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"
Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
Hermann Hesse, from Siddhartha
Laozi, from Dao De Jing
Summary and Conclusion

CHAPTER 6. FREEDOM
A. Fatalism and Karma
Keiji Nishitani, "On Fate"
B. Predestination
St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
Muhammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
Jacqueline Trimier, On the Yoruba Ori
Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
C. Determinism
Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
Robert Kane, On Indeterminism
John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity
David Hume, On Causation and Character
Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room"
Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
D. Compulsion and Ignorance
Aristotle, On Voluntary Action
Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"
John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
Catherine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality
E. Freedom in Practice: Kant's Solution
Summary and Conclusion
PART THREE. THE GOOD AND THE RIGHT
CHAPTER 7. ETHICS
A. Morality
B. Is Morality Relative?
Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica
John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
C. Egoism and Altruism
Plato, from Republic
Tara Smith, The Necessity of Egoism (Ayn Rand)
D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate
Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good
Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle
Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau
David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from ?mile
G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
H. Utilitarianism
Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism
Friedrich Nietzsche, On Morality as Herd-Instinct
Friedrich Nietzsche, On Master and Slave Morality
Jean-Paul Sartre, from "Existentialism Is a Humanism"
Simone de Beauvoir, from The Ethics of Ambiguity
J. Ethics and Gender
Virginia Held, On Feminist Ethics
Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 8. Justice
A. The Problem of Justice
B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle
Plato, from Republic
Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights
David Hume, On "Justice and Utility"
John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
D. The Social Contract
Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
E. Fairness and Entitlement
John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective
Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
Mar?a Lugones, from "Playfulness, World-Traveling, and Loving Perception"
G. Justice and the Emotions
* Robert C. Solomon, "The Emotions as Justice"
H. Individual Rights and Freedom
John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government
John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty
Malcom X, On Civil and Human Rights
Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger"
I. Fighting for Rights and Justice
Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience")
Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
Summary and Conclusion

Glossary
Index

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