An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-09-01
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Tutankhamen, looted pyramids, the Valley of the Kings; few civilizations excite the imagination like that of ancient Egypt. Yet, to date, there has been no comprehensive introduction to Egyptian archaeology. From its prehistoric past through the pharaonic dynasties and Greco-Roman period, this skillfully organized book guides the reader through a chronological overview of Egyptrs"s dynamic history, revealed within the context of archaeological evidence. Connecting the findings from recent excavations with the discoveries of the late 19th and 20th centuries, this text examines the evidence and preservation of Egyptrs"s complex society, including its geography, language, architecture, and culture, as well as the changes to the civilization as marked by archaeological evidence. Enriched by nearly 200 illustrations, maps, site and building plans, and photographs, this text provides specific information from onsite excavations. Methods of field work and analyses are discussed to provide a thorough understanding of how archaeologists and Egyptologists have acquired their information, and how these methods of investigation have evolved over their more than 100 years of research.

Author Biography

Kathryn A. Bard is Associate Professor of Archaeology, Boston University, and is the editor of The Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (1999). She has directed excavations in Egypt and northern Ethiopia since 1989 and was the recipient of the National Geographic Society's Committee for Research and Exploration Chairman's Award in 1998. Bard is Co-Director (with Rodolfo Fattovich) of excavations at the pharaonic seaport at Wadi/Mersa Gawasis, where in December 2004 they discovered the first pieces ever recovered from ancient Egyptian seagoing vessels, including riggings and cedar steering oars.

Table of Contents

List of Platesp. ix
List of Figuresp. xi
List of Mapsp. xv
Abbreviations of References Listed in Suggested Readingsp. xvi
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Egyptian Archaeology: Definitions and Historyp. 1
Introduction: Ancient Egyptian Civilization and its Prehistoric Predecessorsp. 1
Egyptian Archaeologyp. 3
Egyptologyp. 5
History of Egyptology and Egyptian Archaeologyp. 5
Archaeological Methodsp. 15
Archaeological Theoryp. 18
Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Archaeologists in Fiction and Filmsp. 19
Hieroglyphs, Language, and Pharaonic Chronologyp. 23
Language of the Ancient Egyptiansp. 25
Origins and Development of Egyptian Writingp. 25
Scripts and Media of Writingp. 28
Signs, Structure, and Grammarp. 29
Literacy in Ancient Egyptp. 32
Textual Studiesp. 32
Use of Texts in Egyptian Archaeologyp. 34
Historical Outline of Pharaonic Egyptp. 36
The Egyptian Civil Calendar, King Lists, and Calculation of Pharaonic Chronologyp. 38
The Environmental Background to Pharaonic Civilization: Geography, Environment, Agriculture, and Natural Resourcesp. 45
Geography: Terms and Place Namesp. 47
Environmental Settingp. 51
Environmental and Other Problems for Archaeology in Egyptp. 54
The Seasons and the Agricultural Systemp. 56
The Ancient Egyptian Dietp. 58
Other Useful Animals and Plantsp. 60
Building Materialsp. 61
Other Resources: Clays, Stones, Mineralsp. 62
Imported Materialsp. 64
Egyptian Prehistory: The Paleolithic and Neolithicp. 67
Paleolithicp. 69
Paleolithic Cultures in Egyptp. 69
Lower Paleolithicp. 71
Middle Paleolithicp. 72
Upper Paleolithicp. 76
Late Paleolithicp. 77
Epipaleolithicp. 79
Neolithicp. 80
Saharan Neolithicp. 80
Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Faiyum A and Lower Egyptp. 84
Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Middle and Upper Egyptp. 86
The Rise of Complex Society and Early Civilizationp. 89
Predynastic Egyptp. 91
The Predynastic Period: Egypt in the 4th Millennium BCp. 91
Lower Egypt: Buto-Ma'adi Culturep. 91
Upper Egypt: Naqada Culturep. 94
Lower Nubia: A-Group Culturep. 101
State Formation and Unificationp. 104
The Early Dynastic Statep. 109
Organization and Institutions of the Early Dynastic Statep. 109
Early Writing and Formal Artp. 117
The Expanding Statep. 119
Who Were the Ancient Egyptians? Physical Anthropologyp. 120
The Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Periodp. 121
The Old Kingdom: Overviewp. 123
The Early Old Kingdomp. 128
The 3rd Dynasty: Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqarap. 128
The 4th Dynasty's First King, Sneferu, and his Three Pyramidsp. 133
Khufu's Great Pyramid at Gizap. 137
The Great Sphinx and Khafra's Pyramid Complexp. 141
Menkaura's Giza Pyramid and its Remarkable Valley Temple Findsp. 143
Giza Pyramid Townsp. 144
Giza Mastabas, Queen Hetepheres's Hidden Tomb, and the Workmen's Cemeteryp. 148
The Later Old Kingdomp. 152
Sun Temples of the 5th Dynastyp. 152
Later Old Kingdom Pyramids and the Pyramid Textsp. 153
An Expanding Bureaucracy: Private Tombs in the 5th and 6th Dynastiesp. 157
Egypt Abroadp. 160
The First Intermediate Periodp. 162
The End of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period: Causes of State Collapsep. 162
The Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Periodp. 167
The Middle Kingdomp. 169
The Middle Kingdom: Overviewp. 169
Pre-Unification 11th Dynasty: Saff Tombs at Thebesp. 175
Mentuhotep II's Complex at Deir el-Bahrip. 176
Model Workers and the Deir el-Bahri Tomb of Meketrap. 177
12th-Dynasty Templesp. 178
12th- and 13th-Dynasty Pyramidsp. 182
Towns and Domestic Architecture: Kahun and South Abydosp. 186
Nomarchs in Middle Egypt: The Beni Hasan Tombsp. 189
Mining in the Sinai and a Galena Mine in the Eastern Desertp. 190
Egyptian Forts in Nubia and Indigenous Peoples Therep. 191
The Second Intermediate Periodp. 195
The Second Intermediate Period: The Hyksos Kingdom in the Northp. 195
The Kerma Kingdom in Upper Nubiap. 199
The Theban State During the Second Intermediate Periodp. 205
The New Kingdomp. 207
The New Kingdom: Overviewp. 209
The Early New Kingdomp. 217
Early New Kingdom Architecture: Ahmose's Abydos Pyramid Complex, and the Theban Mortuary Temples of Hatshepsut and Thutmose IIIp. 217
Amenhotep III's Malkata Palacep. 220
Tell el-Amarna and the Amarna Periodp. 221
The Amarna Aftermath and Tutankhamen's Tombp. 229
New Kingdom Templesp. 235
Restoration of the Traditional Gods: Sety I's Abydos Templep. 235
The Temples of Karnak and Luxor in the New Kingdomp. 236
Ramessid Mortuary Templesp. 240
Royal and Elite Tombsp. 244
Royal Tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queensp. 244
Elite Tombs at Thebes and Saqqarap. 250
State Towns and Settlementsp. 256
The Workmen's Village and Tombs at Deir el-Medinap. 256
Nubian Temple Townsp. 261
The Third Intermediate Period and Late Periodp. 263
The Third Intermediate Period: Overviewp. 265
The Late Period: Overviewp. 269
Tanis: A New City with Royal Tombsp. 272
Napata/Gebel Barkal and Sanamp. 275
el-Kurru and Nuri: The Kushite Royal Tombsp. 278
Saqqara: The Serapeum and Animal Cultsp. 281
Some High Status Tombs of the Third Intermediate Period and Late Periodp. 284
Tell el-Maskhuta and Tell el-Herrp. 287
The Greco-Roman Periodp. 289
Greco-Roman Egyptp. 291
The Ptolemaic Period: Overviewp. 291
The Roman Period: Overviewp. 295
Alexandriap. 299
Greco-Roman Settlements in the Faiyump. 301
Two Greco-Roman Temple Complexes in Upper Egypt: Dendera and Philaep. 303
Sites Outside the Nile Valleyp. 307
The Western Desert: Bahariya and Dakhla Oasesp. 307
The Eastern Desert: Roman Ports, Forts, Roads, and Quarrying Sitesp. 309
Nubiap. 314
Qasr Ibrimp. 314
Meroe: The Kushite Capital and Royal Cemeteriesp. 316
The Study of Ancient Egyptp. 323
Glossary of Termsp. 327
Suggested Readingsp. 330
Additional Readings in French, German, and Italianp. 357
Chapter Summaries and Discussion Questionsp. 366
Indexp. 382
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