Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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Taking into consideration the four basic approaches to behavioral research (descriptive research, correlational research, experimental research, and quasi-experimental research), Introduction to Behavioral Research Methodsshows students how to conceptualize questions, measure variables, design studies, and analyze data.

Table of Contents

Research in the Behavioral Sciences
The Beginnings of Behavioral Research
Goals of Behavioral Research
The Value of Research to the Student
The Scientific Approach
Behavioral Science and Common Sense
Philosophy of Science
The Role of Theory in Science
Research Hypotheses
A Priori Predictions and Post Hoc Explanations
Conceptual and Operational Definitions
Proof and Disproof in Science
Strategies of Behavioral Research
Domains of Behavioral Science
A Preview
Behavioral Variability and Research
Variability and the Research Process
Variance: An Index of Variability
Systematic and Error Variance
Assessing the Strength of Relationships
Meta-Analysis: Systematic Variance across Studies
The Measurement of Behavior
Types of Measures
Scales of Measurement
Estimating the Reliability of a Measure
Estimating the Validity of a Measure
Fairness and Bias in Measurement
Approaches to Psychological Measurement
Observational Methods
Physiological Measures
Self-Report: Questionnaires and Interviews
Archival Data
Content Analysis
Descriptive Research
Types of Descriptive Research
Describing and Presenting Data
Correlational Research
The Correlation Coefficient
A Graphic Representation of Correlations
The Coefficient of Determination
Statistical Significance of r
Factors That Distort Correlation Coefficients
Correlation and Causality
Partial Correlation
Other Correlation Coefficients
Advanced Correlational Strategies
Predicting Behavior: Regression Strategies
Assessing Directionality: Cross-Lagged and Structural Equations Analysis
Uncovering Underlying Dimensions: Factor Analysis
Basic Issues in Experimental Research
Manipulating the Independent Variable
Assignment of Participants to Conditions
Experimental Control
Eliminating Confounds
Error Variance
Experimental Control and Generalizability: The Experimenter's Dilemma
Experimental Design
One-Way Designs
Factorial Designs
Main Effects and Interactions
Combining Independent and Subject Variables
Analyzing Experimental Data
An Intuitive Approach to Analysis
Hypothesis Testing
Analysis of Two-Group Experiments: The t-Test
Analyses of Matched-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs
Analyzing Complex Designs
The Problem: Multiple Tests Inflate Type I Error
The Rationale behind ANOVA
How ANOVA Works
Follow-Up Tests
Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects ANOVAs
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Experimental and Nonexperimental Uses of Inferential Statistics
Computer Analyses
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Pretest-Posttest Designs
Time Series Designs
Longitudinal Designs
Program Evaluation
Evaluating Quasi-Experimental
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