Introduction to Cities : How Place and Space Shape Human Experience

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-08-20
  • Publisher: Wiley

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A complete introduction to the history, evolution, and future of the modern city, this book covers a wide range of theory, including the significance of space and place, to provide a balanced account of why cities are an essential part of the global human experience. Covers a wide range of theoretical approaches to the city, from the historical to the cutting edge Emphasizes the important themes of space and place Offers a balanced account of cities and offers extensive coverage including urban inequality, environment and sustainability, and methods for studying the city Takes a global approach, with examples from Berlin and Chicago to Shanghai and Mumbai Includes a range of pedagogical features such as a substantial glossary of key terms, critical thinking questions, suggestions for further reading and a range of innovative textboxes which follow the themes of Exploring Further, Studying the City and Making the City Better Extensively illustrated with maps, charts, tables, and over 80 photographs Accompanied by a comprehensive website (www.wiley.com/go/cities) featuring further examples and case studies, discussion and essay questions, chapter outlines and links to useful online resources and films and documentaries

Author Biography

Xiangming Chen is the founding Dean and Director of the Center for Urban and Global Studies and Paul Raether Distinguished Professor of Global Urban Studies and Sociology at Trinity College, Hartford, and Distinguished Guest Professor in the School of Social Development and Public Policy at Fudan University, Shanghai. His books include The World of Cities: Places in Comparative and Historical Perspective (with Anthony M. Orum, Blackwell, 2003), As Borders Bend: Transnational Spaces on the Pacific Rim (2005), and Shanghai Rising: State Power and Local Transformations in a Global Megacity (ed., 2009), and Rethinking Global Urbanism: Comparative Insights from Secondary Cities (coed., 2012). Several of his books have been translated into Chinese. Anthony M. Orum is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He was the founding editor of the journal City Community, and has received several awards, including the 2009 Robert and Helen Lynd Award for Lifetime Achievement and Service given by the Community and Urban Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. His publications include City-Building in America (1995), The World of Cities: Places in Comparative and Historical Perspective (with Xiangming Chen, Blackwell, 2003), and Common Ground? Readings and Reflections on Public Space (ed. With Zachary Neal, 2010). Several of his books have been translated into Chinese. Krista E. Paulsen is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of North Florida. She has published widely on the city, urban tradition, and the ways that places develop and maintain distinctive cultures. Her research examines the ways that homes and neighborhoods reflect and reproduce cultural ideals associated with family and community, and her teaching takes in urban sociology and urban studies, environmental sociology, community, and qualitative research methods. She is currently at work on the edited volume Home Place Community: International Sociology Perspectives (ed. with Margarethe Kusenbach and Melinda Milligan).

Table of Contents

List of illustrationsp. xi
List of tablesp. xvii
List of boxesp. xviii
About the authorsp. xx
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
Walk-through tourp. xxiii
Introductionp. 1
The Foundationsp. 5
Cities as places and spacesp. 6
Cities as placesp. 9
Exploring further 1.1p. 11
Identity, community, and securityp. 14
Places as the site of our identityp. 14
Places as the site of communityp. 15
Places as sites of securityp. 16
Studying the city 1.1p. 17
Human beings make and remake placesp. 17
Place and spacep. 20
Studying the city 1.2p. 21
Making the city better 1.1p. 24
Cities shape the fates of human beingsp. 25
Cities and peoplep. 26
Social theories of urban space and place: The early perspectivesp. 28
The social and theoretical roots of modern urban theoryp. 29
Studying the city 2.1p. 31
Ferdinand Tönnies: Community and societyp. 32
Georg Simmel: The metropolis and mental lifep. 33
Tönnies and Simmel: Further reflectionsp. 35
Exploring further 2.1p. 36
The Chicago School of Sociologyp. 38
The city as social spacep. 39
The city, social change, and social orderp. 40
Studying the city 2.2p. 42
Life in the city as a way of lifep. 44
Making the city better 2.1p. 46
Early social theories of urban lifep. 47
Social theories of urban space and place: Perspectives in the post-World War II erap. 49
Theoretical descendents of Marxp. 50
Manuel Castells and the1 urban questionp. 50
David Harvey: Injustice and inequality in the cityp. 51
John Logan and Harvey Molotch: The city as a growth machinep. 53
Making the city better 3.1p. 54
Making the city better 3.2p. 56
Further reflections: Marx and the critique of modern citiesp. 57
The return to place and the turn to culturep. 58
Jane Jacobs and the discovery of community in the modern metropolisp. 58
Studying the city 3.1p. 59
Sharon Zukin and the turn to culturep. 61
Exploring further 3.1p. 63
Going global: The 1980s and the creation of the global cityp. 66
Evaluating theories of the cityp. 69
Methods and rules for the study of citiesp. 72
First rules for doing a social science of citiesp. 74
The rule of validityp. 74
The rule of reliabilityp. 76
Exploring further 4.1p. 77
Cities and the question of numbersp. 78
Studying the city 4.1 79 The city as a case studyp. 80
The city as the typical casep. 82
The city as a prototypical casep. 85
Ethnographic and historical case studiesp. 87
Ethnographic case studiesp. 87
Studying the city 4.2p. 89
Historical case studiesp. 90
From one to multiple casesp. 91
Studying the city 4.3p. 94
A last but very important rule on doing a good social science of cities: Fitting good theory to good methodsp. 94
And what about insight?p. 95
The Changing Metropolisp. 99
The metropolis and its expansion: Early insights and basic principlesp. 100
Metropolitan growth: Basic featuresp. 102
The metropolis and its expansionp. 104
The center of the cityp. 105
The zone of transitionp. 106
The zone of commutersp. 106
Assessing the concentric zone theoryp. 106
The natural areas of the cityp. 107
Alternative views of the cityp. 107
Studying the city 5.1p. 108
The mobility of people and groups in the metropolisp. 109
Social differences and migration in the metropolisp. 109
Exploring further 5.1p. 110
Migration and the expansion of the metropolisp. 113
The metropolitan center and its links to the hinterlandsp. 115
Human agents and social institutions in the expansion of the metropolisp. 116
Studying the city 5.2p. 117
Making the city better 5.1p. 120
Urban growth, institutions, and human agentsp. 121
The origins and development of suburbsp. 123
What is a suburb? Definitions and variationsp. 125
Alternative suburban formsp. 127
A brief history of suburban developmentp. 129
The original suburbsp. 129
Culture and the demand for suburban livingp. 131
Making the city better 6.1p. 133
Exploring further 6.1p. 134
Early suburban diversityp. 135
Transportation technologies and suburban expansionp. 136
Making the city better 6.2p. 139
The role of policy in suburban expansionp. 140
The mass production of US suburbsp. 142
Changes and challenges in contemporary suburbsp. 144
Privatization and gated communitiesp. 144
The varied fates of older suburbsp. 147
Suburbs as placesp. 149
Studying the city 6.1p. 151
Changing metropolitan landscapes after World War IIp. 154
Los Angeles: The prototype of the postwar metropolisp. 156
Exploring further 7.1p. 160
The changing metropolitan orderp. 162
The decline - of older industrial citiesp. 162
The rise of the postindustrial/postmodern metropolitan regionsp. 163
The importance of transportation, againp. 164
The remaking of places and spaces: The profound human and political consequencesp. 165
Making the city better 7.1p. 166
The emerging global economy: A brief overviewp. 168
Studying the city 7.1p. 171
People, place, and space in a global worldp. 173
The Metropolis and Social Inequalitiesp. 177
The early metropolis as a place of inequalityp. 178
Colonial cities as unequal placesp. 180
Early urban diversityp. 182
Cities of immigrantsp. 184
Immigrant lives: New York's Five Pointsp. 185
Studying the city 8.1p. 189
The Five Points case in contextp. 190
Early reform and intervention effortsp. 193
Making the American ghettop. 193
Integrated beginningsp. 193
Making the city better 8.1p. 194
New neighbors, new tensionsp. 195
The perpetuation and implications of black ghettosp. 196
Studying the city 8.2p. 197
Exploring further 8.1p. 199
The significance of urban diversity and inequalityp. 201
Inequality and diversity in the post-World War II metropolisp. 204
Inequality and the metropolisp. 205
Poverty and racep. 205
Exploring further 9.1p. 207
Poverty and homelessnessp. 209
Making the city better 9.1p. 211
Gentrification and the remaking of the metropolisp. 212
Exploring further 9.2p. 214
Studying the city 9.1p. 216
Social diversity and the transformed metropolisp. 217
The new immigration and the transformation of the metropolisp. 217
Europep. 217
The United States and Canadap. 219
Reconstructing the contemporary metropolis: New ethnic enclavesp. 221
Studying the city 9.2p. 224
Other dimensions of urban diversityp. 226
Making the city better 9.2p. 227
The Western metropolis in fluxp. 228
The Metropolis in the Developing Worldp. 231
Urbanization and urban places in developing-country citiesp. 232
Urbanization: The basic path and its impact on placep. 233
Developing-country cities in historical perspectivep. 235
Studying the city 10.1p. 236
The basic dimensions of urbanizationp. 237
Urban hierarchyp. 237
Urban primacyp. 239
Over-urbanization versus under-urbanizationp. 239
Studying the city 10.2p. 241
Natural increase and in-migrationp. 242
From process and system to placep. 243
A basic profile with multiple wrinklesp. 243
Megacities as places: Opportunities and challengesp. 245
Size and densityp. 245
Creating wealth and sustaining povertyp. 246
Exploring further 10.1p. 250
Making the city better 10.1p. 251
The developing megacity as a lived placep. 252
Making the city better 10.2p. 255
Governing the megacitiesp. 255
Studying the city 10.3p. 256
Reassessing the developing cityp. 258
Cities in the global economyp. 261
Cities in a globalizing world: Theoretical backgroundp. 262
Emerging cities in the global economyp. 264
Yiwu, Chinap. 264
Rajarhat, Indiap. 265
Further Reflections on Yiwup. 268
Re-emerging cities in the global economyp. 269
Berlin, Germany: A once-prosperous, then challenged, and now re-emerging local culturep. 269
Shanghai, China: Local change in a rising renaissance cityp. 271
Moving more deeply into the global economyp. 275
Dongguan, China: A place transformed from a rural township into a global factory-cityp. 275
Studying the city 11.1p. 278
Dubai, United Arab Emirates: From desert to urban miracle to miragep. 279
Cities in a fully networked global economyp. 281
The regional dimension and mediation of citiesp. 281
Becoming globally networkedp. 284
Exploring further 11.1p. 285
Interdependence between cities and the global economyp. 287
Studying the city 11.2p. 288
Systematic constraint and individual flexibilityp. 289
The Global restructuring of citiesp. 290
Making the city better 11.1p. 291
Challenges of Today and the Metropolis Of The Futurep. 295
Urban environments and sustainabilityp. 296
Making use of naturep. 297
Natural attributes and urban developmentp. 297
Interpreting and manipulating naturep. 298
Studying the city 12.1p. 301
Inviting "disaster"p. 302
Why rebuild?p. 303
Urban environmentsp. 307
Local environmental concernsp. 308
Making the city better 12.1p. 308
Environment and inequalityp. 310
Making the city better 12.2p. 311
Global environmental concernsp. 312
Urbanization's environmental impactsp. 313
Cities and climate changep. 313
Addressing environmental issues: Toward sustainabilityp. 315
Exploring further 12.1p. 317
The remaking and future of citiesp. 321
Between place and space: Reinforcing a theoretical visionp. 322
Remaking cities from above and at critical momentsp. 324
The crisis of Detroitp. 324
The remaking of Detroitp. 326
Making the city better 13.1p. 327
Place-remaking on a larger scalep. 328
Daily place-remaking from belowp. 330
Remaking neighborhoods and communitiesp. 331
The remaking of Brooklyn, New Yorkp. 331
From Detroit and New York to China and Shanghai - againp. 332
Remaking cities for the futurep. 334
Scaling up and looking forwardp. 334
Studying the city 13.1p. 335
The China and India scenarios and their wider implicationsp. 336
Cities of the future and the future of citiesp. 340
Making the city better 13.2p. 341
Making the city better 13.3p. 344
Exploring further 13.1p. 346
A final look at the twenty-first-century cityp. 347
Glossaryp. 350
Referencesp. 358
Indexp. 371
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