An Introduction to Community Development

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-01-14
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Beginning with the foundations of community development, this book offers a comprehensive and practical approach to planning for communities. Road-tested in the authors' own teaching, and also through the training they provide for practising planners, it enables students to begin making connections between academic study and practical know-how from both private and public sector contexts.

Author Biography

Rhonda Phillips is Professor and Director of the School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University. Her research and practice speciality has focused on community well-being including work with community indicator systems and economic development planning. She is the Editor of Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society. Robert H. Pittman is the Executive Director of the Community Development Institute and the Strategic Growth Institute at the University of Central Arkansas, where he also serves as a Professor in the College of Business. He has provided consulting services to community and economic development organizations and major corporations in the U.S. and around the world.

Table of Contents

List of figuresp. xi
List of tablesp. xiii
List of boxesp. xv
List of contributorsp. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxiii
Editors' introductionp. xxv
Foundationsp. 1
A framework for community and economic developmentp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Community developmentp. 5
Economic developmentp. 7
The relationship between community and economic developmentp. 10
Who practices community and economic development?p. 15
Seven theories for seven community developersp. 20
Introduction: why theory?p. 20
Seven key concerns in the community development fieldp. 21
Asset-based community developmentp. 38
Introductionp. 38
Definitions of community developmentp. 38
Needs-based community developmentp. 39
Asset-based community developmentp. 39
Challenges of the community development processp. 46
Social capital and community buildingp. 49
Introductionp. 49
Social capital: what is it?p. 49
Community social capacity: what is it?p. 50
How does community social capacity influence development?p. 51
Intentional action to increase social capacityp. 51
Factors that influence the success of community-building effortsp. 52
Community development practicep. 58
Introductionp. 58
First step: define the communityp. 58
Practicing community developmentp. 59
Community development principles of practicep. 60
The community development processp. 62
How does community development practice relate to economic development?p. 66
What do community developers do?p. 67
Professional standards of ethical practicep. 69
Getting startedp. 70
Preparation and planningp. 75
Community visioning and strategic planningp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Process principlesp. 77
Phase one: initiationp. 79
Phase two: the stakeholder processp. 89
Establishing community-based organizationsp. 104
Introductionp. 104
Fundamentals of forming a community-based organizationp. 104
Partner and grant organizations for local community developmentp. 106
Types of community-based organizationsp. 108
Networksp. 110
Public-private partnershipsp. 111
Regional initiativesp. 113
Foundationsp. 114
Faith-based community organizationsp. 115
Developing community leadership skillsp. 119
Introductionp. 119
What does it mean to be a leader?p. 120
Community leadershipp. 122
Identifying leadersp. 124
Leadership in community and economic developmentp. 128
Community development assessmentsp. 133
Introductionp. 133
Why conduct an assessment?p. 133
Quantitative and qualitative datap. 135
Community assessment topicsp. 139
SWOT analysisp. 149
The assessment reportp. 150
Community asset mapping and surveysp. 155
Introductionp. 155
Asset mobilizationp. 156
Methods for mapping assertsp. 156
When is a survey appropriate?p. 157
Mapping capacitiesp. 161
Assessing your local economy: industry composition and economic impact analysisp. 166
Introductionp. 166
Industry composition: learning about the local/regional economyp. 167
An introduction to economic impact analysisp. 172
Programming techniques and strategiesp. 181
Workforce training for the twenty-first centuryp. 183
Introductionp. 183
Primary and secondary educationp. 184
Postsecondary educationp. 184
Developing a demand-driven workforce development systemp. 187
Federal resourcesp. 189
State and local resourcesp. 190
Labor market intermediariesp. 192
Marketing the communityp. 197
Introductionp. 197
Marketing definitionsp. 197
Components of marketingp. 198
The marketing planp. 205
The regional approach to marketingp. 205
Retaining and expanding existing businesses in the communityp. 210
Introductionp. 210
What does business retention and expansion encompass?p. 212
Benefits and advantages of BREp. 214
BRE is a team effortp. 216
How successful are BRE programs?p. 216
Entrepreneurship as a community development strategyp. 220
Introductionp. 220
Who is an entrepreneur anyway?p. 221
What are the needs of entrepreneurs?p. 223
How can your community become "entrepreneur-friendly"?p. 228
Minority entrepreneurshipp. 231
What is the next step for your community?p. 232
Tourism-based developmentp. 236
Introductionp. 236
A review of tourism planning modelsp. 237
Types of tourism planning modelsp. 238
Getting from here to there: selecting approachesp. 242
Housing and community planningp. 249
Introductionp. 249
The current state of housingp. 249
Housing adequacyp. 252
The role of government in housingp. 253
The role of nonprofits in housingp. 254
Housing affordabilityp. 255
Housing assistance programsp. 256
Housing needs assessmentp. 260
Neighborhood planning for community development and renewalp. 266
Introductionp. 266
Types of neighborhood plansp. 271
The global movement toward participatory neighborhood planningp. 276
Measuring progress: community indicators, best practices, and benchmarkingp. 284
Introductionp. 284
Community indicatorsp. 285
Best practices and benchmarkingp. 286
Issues impacting community developmentp. 297
Community development financep. 299
Introductionp. 299
Overview of basis community development finance vocabularyp. 299
Doing a deal: who are the players in community development finance?p. 300
Doing a deal: finding sources of moneyp. 301
Securing grants for community development projectsp. 313
Introductionp. 313
Tracking other federal fundingp. 313
Tracking foundation and corporate fundingp. 314
Hitting the targetp. 314
Preparing grant proposalsp. 315
Nonprofits, accountability, and sustainabilityp. 319
The global economy and community developmentp. 324
Introductionp. 324
Why should people care about globalization?p. 325
International tradep. 325
Foreign direct investmentp. 327
The great global job shift and outsourcingp. 328
International corporate activityp. 330
Offshore manufacturingp. 331
Community and economic development strategies in the global economyp. 331
Sustainability in community developmentp. 339
History of the sustainability conceptp. 339
Sustainability definitions and themesp. 341
Action areasp. 342
Process and participationp. 348
Conclusions and observations on the future of community developmentp. 352
Introductionp. 352
Future challengesp. 353
The ongoing evolution of community developmentp. 354
Indexp. 355
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