9780190298173

Introduction to Criminal Justice A Brief Edition

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190298173

  • ISBN10:

    0190298170

  • Edition: Brief
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-01-02
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Introduction to Criminal Justice: A Brief Edition provides students with coverage of core concepts supported by student-tested pedagogical tools that promote student engagement, thought-provoking classroom discussions, and critical-thinking skills.

Author Biography


John Randolph Fuller is Professor Emeritus of Criminology at the University of West Georgia, where he taught for more than thirty years. He is the author of several books, including Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Third Edition (OUP, 2013).

Table of Contents


PART I. CRIME: PROBLEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND LAW
CHAPTER 1. CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
WHAT IS CRIME?
THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND PROCESS
The Criminal Justice Process
Law Enforcement
Courts
Corrections
The Due Process and Crime Control Models
How Cases Move Through the System
The Perception of Crime and the Wedding-Cake Model of Criminal Justice
TYPES OF CRIME
Street Crime
Corporate Crime and White-Collar Crime
OFFENSES AND OFFENDERS
Violent Crime
Property Crime
Public-Order Crime
Features
A Closer Look 1.1: A Comparison of Federal, State, and Local Law Enforcement
Focus on Ethics: A Balance of Interests
CHAPTER 2: HOW CRIME IS MEASURED AND WHO IT AFFECTS
THE PROBLEMS OF MEASURING CRIME
HOW CRIME IS MEASURED
Uniform Crime Reports
National Incident-Based Reporting System
National Crime Victimization Survey
Self-Report Studies
VICTIMS OF CRIME
Typologies of Crime Victims
The Incidence of Victimization
Categories of Victims
Victims of Violent Crime
Victims of Hate Crime
Victims of Financial Crime
The Elderly and Children
Victims' Rights and Assistance
Features
A Closer Look 2.1: Cracks in the Statistics
CJ Reference 2.1: The Hierarchy Rule
Focus on Ethics: To Report or Not to Report
CHAPTER 3. CRIMINAL LAW
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRIMINAL LAW
Early Legal Codes
The Magna Carta
Common Law
SOURCES OF LAW
Constitutions
Statutes
Case Law
Administrative Rules and Executive Orders
TYPES OF LAW
Criminal Law and Civil Law
Substantive Law and Procedural Law
TYPES OF CRIME
Felonies
Misdemeanors
Inchoate Offenses
Infractions
FEATURES OF CRIME
Actus reus
Mens rea
Strict Liability
CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CRIMINAL DEFENSE
My Client Did Not Do It
My Client Did It, but My Client Is Not Responsible Because of Insanity
My Client Did It but Has a Good Excuse
My Client Did It but Has a Good Reason
My Client Did It but Should Be Acquitted Because the Police or the Prosecutor Cheated
My Client Did It but Was Influenced by Outside Forces
Features
CJ Reference 3.1: The Bill of Rights
A Closer Look 3.1: Drug Laws: More Expensive than Effective?
Case in Point 3.1: Durham v. United States (1954)
Focus on Ethics: Changing the Substantive Law
PART II. ENFORCING THE LAW
CHAPTER 4. THE HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE POLICE
Early Policing in England
Early Policing in the United States
The Introduction of Police Professionalism
The End of the 20th Century to Today: Crime Control, Communities, and Homeland Security
LEVELS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT
Federal Level
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Secret Service
State Level
Local Level
Sheriff's Offices
Requirements to Become a Police Officer
STRATEGIES IN POLICING
Wilson's Three Styles of Policing
Community Policing
Problem-Oriented Policing
Zero-Tolerance Policing and Broken-Windows Perspective
Features
CJ Reference 4.1: Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
A Closer Look 4.1: Who Polices the Police?
Focus on Ethics: Righteous Vengeance
CHAPTER 5. POLICE ORGANIZATION, OPERATION, AND THE LAW
WHAT WE EXPECT OF THE POLICE
HOW THE POLICE ARE ORGANIZED
WHAT THE POLICE DO
Patrol
Investigation
Traffic Enforcement
Peacemaking and Order Maintenance
THE RULES THE POLICE FOLLOW
Police Discretion
The Fourth Amendment
Search
Special-Needs Searches
Seizures
Stop-and-Frisk
Arrests
Interrogations and Confessions
Features
A Closer Look 5.1: The Police and Justifiable Homicide
CJ Reference 5.1: The Fourth Amendment
Case in Point 5.1: Terry v. Ohio (1968)
Case in Point 5.2: Florida v. Bostick (1991)
Focus on Ethics: It's Only Marijuana
CHAPTER 6. POLICING: INNOVATIONS AND CONTROVERSIES
USE OF FORCE
THE MILITARIZATION OF POLICE
The Evolution of Police Militarization
STRESS AND BURNOUT
Police and Alcohol
Family Problems and the Police
Police and Suicide
Dealing with the Stress of Policing
The Police Subculture
Police Corruption
POLICING AND TECHNOLOGY
Body-Worn Cameras
Police Surveillance
Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
DNA Databases
SEX AND RACE
Women as Police Officers
Minorities as Police Officers
Features
CJ Reference 6.1: Police Use of Force
Case in Point 6.1: Tennessee v. Garner (1985)
CJ Reference 6.2: What Is the Posse Comitatus Act?
A Closer Look 6.1: Where Did All This Stuff Come From?
Focus on Ethics: To Trust a Partner
PART III. THE ROLE OF THE COURTS
CHAPTER 7. THE COURTS
THE COURT SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES
THE HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF MODERN U.S. COURTS
Courts in England
Courts in Colonial North America
THE ORGANIZATION OF MODERN CRIMINAL U.S. COURTS
The Nature of Jurisdiction
The Structure of the Federal Courts
U.S. District Courts
U.S. Courts of Appeals
U.S. Supreme Court
Specialized Federal Courts
The Structure of State Courts
Juvenile Courts
State Trial Courts
State Intermediate Courts of Appeals
State Supreme Courts
Local and Community Courts
Features
CJ Reference 7.1: What Makes the Supreme Court Supreme?
Case in Point 7.1: Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
A Closer Look 7.1: Problem-Solving Courts
Focus on Ethics: Modern-Day Blood Feud
CHAPTER 8. THE COURTROOM WORK GROUP
THE COURTROOM WORK GROUP
THE PROSECUTOR
The Prosecutor at Work
Prosecution at the Federal Level
Prosecution in State Courts
THE DEFENSE ATTORNEY
The Defense Attorney and the Courtroom Work Group
The Best Defense: Private Attorney or Public Defender?
THE JUDGE
Judicial Selection: Executive Appointments
Judicial Selection: Election of Judges
Judicial Selection: Merit Selection
THE PARTICIPANTS
Law Enforcement
Court Support Staff
Corrections
The Public
DEFENDANTS, VICTIMS, AND WITNESSES
Defendants
Victims
Witnesses
Victim-Witness Programs
Features
A Closer Look 8.1: (De)Funding Public Defenders
Case in Point 8.1: Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972)
Case in Point 8.2: Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
CJ Reference 8.1: American Bar Association Guidelines for Reviewing Qualifications of Candidates for State Judicial Office
Focus on Ethics: Difficult Decisions for the Defense
CHAPTER 9. THE DISPOSITION: PLEA BARGAINING, TRIAL, AND SENTENCING
THE CRIMINAL COURT PROCESS
PRETRIAL RELEASE DECISIONS
THE PLEA BARGAIN
Issues That Affect Plea Bargaining
Types of Plea Bargains
Should Plea Bargaining Be Abolished?
THE TRIAL
The Pretrial Phase
Pretrial Motions
Opening Arguments
The Prosecution's Presentation of Witnesses and Evidence
The Case Goes to the Jury
The Defense Doesn't Rest
Appeal
SENTENCING
Indeterminate Sentencing
Determinate Sentencing
Mandatory Minimum Sentences
Features
A Closer Look 9.1: The Dark Side of Plea Bargaining
CJ Reference 9.1: What Are Grand Juries and How Do They Work?
CJ Reference 9.2: The Exclusionary Rule
Case in Point 9.1: Batson v. Kentucky (1986)
Focus on Ethics: Letting the Big Ones Get Away
PART IV. FROM PENOLOGY TO CORRECTIONS AND BACK
CHAPTER 10. THE HISTORY OF CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT
PRISONS IN THE UNITED STATES
Control in the Colonies and Early United States: 1770-1860
The Pennsylvania System
The Auburn System
Age of Reform: 1860-1900
Alexander Maconochie
Sir Walter Crofton
Zebulon Brockway
A New Emphasis on Prison Labor: 1900-1930
Age of Rehabilitation: 1930-1970
Retributive Era: 1970s to the Present
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
Capital Punishment in Historical Perspective
Search for Humane Execution
Electrocution
Gas
Lethal Injection
Arguments Supporting Capital Punishment
Arguments against Capital Punishment
Is the Death Penalty Dead?
Features
Case in Point 10.1: Furman v. Georgia (1972)
Case in Point 10.2: Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
A Closer Look 10.1: The Innocence Project
CJ Reference 10.1: States/Jurisdictions without a Death Penalty
Focus on Ethics: Capital Punishment: Some Immodest Proposals
CHAPTER 11. PRISONS AND JAILS
PRISON LIFE
How U.S. Prisons Work
The Pains of Imprisonment
Prison Gangs
Supermax Prisons
Violence and Overcrowding
WOMEN IN PRISON
A Short History of Women's Prisons
Life in Women's Prisons
COURTS AND THE PRISON
Eighth Amendment
Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process and Equal Protection
WORKING IN THE PRISON
PRIVATE PRISONS
JAILS
Features
A Closer Look 11.1: The Stanford Prison Experiment
Case in Point 11.1: Brown v. Plata (2011)
CJ Reference 11.1: The Prison Litigation Reform Act
CJ Reference 11.2: The Fourteenth Amendment
CJ Reference 11.3: What Jails Do
Focus on Ethics: Keeping the Condemned Alive
CHAPTER 12. COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS IN CONTEXT
DIVERSION
PROBATION
Probation Officers at Work
Investigation
Supervision
Service
Private Probation
Advantages
Disadvantages
PAROLE
When to Parole
Reentry and "Making It"
INTERMEDIATE SANCTIONS
Intensive-Supervision Probation
Drug Testing
House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
Fines
Shock Probation
Features
A Closer Look 12.1: Pay or Stay in the Modern Debtor's Prison
Focus on Ethics: Going Out on a Limb
PART V. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES
CHAPTER 13. JUVENILE JUSTICE
THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM
The Pros and Cons of the Modern Juvenile Justice System
Who Enters the Juvenile Justice System?
Entering the System
Pre-hearing Detention
Intake
Diversion
Determining Jurisdiction
Adjudicatory Hearing
Disposition
Aftercare
ISSUES IN JUVENILE JUSTICE
Chronic Offenders
Gangs
Types and Conditions of Youth Confinement
Juvenile Waiver: Treating Children as Adults
Features
CJ Reference 13.1: Waiver to Criminal Court
A Closer Look 13.1: Thaddeus Jimenez
Focus on Ethics: Widening the Net of Social Control
CHAPTER 14. CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN THE FUTURE: ISSUES AND CONCERNS
THE HIGH INCARCERATION RATE
Unintended Consequences of High Incarceration
Children and Families
Physical and Mental Health
Employment and Earnings
Communities
Society Overall
THE WAR ON DRUGS
PREDICTIVE POLICING
Use of Technology in Predictive Policing
TECHNOLOGY AND SURVEILLANCE
THE FUTURE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND YOU
Features
A Closer Look 14.1: The USA FREEDOM Act
Focus on Ethics: Changing the Law in the Future
Theories of Crime
Glossary
Index?

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