Introduction to Early Childhood Education : Preschool Through Primary Grades

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-07-26
  • Publisher: Pearson

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"This bookrs"s chapters are the perfect match for the content we think is essential to introduce in our entry-level class. They each are wonderfully written for a beginning early childhood education student to familiarize themselves with appropriate choices for curriculum, center design, and instructional strategies." shy;Kathryn Lilie Jenkins, University of Houston "This text is an amazingly comprehensive book! The writing is clear and easy to read. The topics covered are all the important ones and they are well organized. I am very impressed and congratulate the author on doing such a fine job!" Ann M. Bingham-Newman, California State University-Los Angeles "I like this textbook a great deal. The continuing focus on DAP builds the studentsrs" ls"dependencers" on it as a source for guidance in teaching. The focus on NAEYC guidance also helps students recognize the significance of professional organizations." Linda Peacock, Southwest Missouri State University This popular resource is a thorough examination of day-to-day aspects of standards-based, developmentally appropriate teaching of young children. Using student-friendly, readable language, Jo Ann Brewer demonstrates how to integrate developmentally appropriate practice into the early childhood curriculum. The extensive coverage of curricula, particularly early literacy and language, is a hallmark of this book. Unlike other books in the market, there is a strong focus on diversity, students with special needs, and real-world experience from teachers currently in the classroom. New to This Edition Key term lists added to the beginning of each chapter identify important concepts discussed in text and appear with definitions in the end-of-book glossary. All new Learning Plans provide step-by-step procedures for lessons and projects that can be done in the classroom. Topics include teaching measurement, creating class cookbooks, and more. Throughout the chapter, marginal icons pointing to relevant text are correlated by number to the standards of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Chapters in Part II, Content-Area Curriculum, incorporate student achievement standards advocated by the most prominent professional organizations for each discipline. Integrating the Curriculum, with a new theme of "Spaces," demonstrates how teachers can use a common theme when teaching multiple content areas. New annotated website addresses in the margins provide students opportunity to use the Internet to further explore content discussed in the chapters. Praxis icons appear in the margin to help readers think about how the t

Table of Contents

Featuresp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Foundations of Early Childhood Learningp. 1
Young Children Growing, Thinking, and Learningp. 2
Developmentally Appropriate Practicep. 4
Theories of Developmentp. 5
Behaviorist Theoryp. 6
Maturationist Theoryp. 7
Constructivist Theoryp. 8
Multiple Intelligences Theoryp. 10
Social Learning Theoryp. 12
Ecological Systems Theoryp. 13
Theoretical Influences on Teachingp. 13
Theoretical Influences on Observationsp. 15
Children's Developmentp. 15
Physical Developmentp. 15
Social Developmentp. 20
Emotional Developmentp. 27
Intellectual Developmentp. 29
Child Development and Curriculum Planning: An Examplep. 33
Children With Special Needsp. 35
Celebrating Diversityp. 35
Summaryp. 36
Reflectionsp. 36
Explorations and Activitiesp. 37
Designing Schools for Young Childrenp. 38
Early Schools for Young Childrenp. 40
Key People in Early Childhood Educationp. 40
Other Influential People in Early Childhood Educationp. 44
Changes in Early Childhood Educationp. 46
The Child-Care Movementp. 46
Kindergartenp. 46
Head Startp. 47
Programs for Children with Special Needsp. 47
Early Intervention Programsp. 49
Contemporary Models of Early Childhood Programsp. 49
The Montessori Modelp. 50
The Behaviorist Modelp. 57
The Constructivist Modelp. 60
Summaries and Comparisonsp. 69
Research on Program Modelsp. 70
Children With Special Needsp. 72
Celebrating Diversityp. 73
Summaryp. 73
Reflectionsp. 74
Explorations and Activitiesp. 75
Creating an Environment for Learningp. 76
Planning a Learning Environmentp. 78
Structuring the Physical Environmentp. 79
Room Arrangementp. 80
Physical Climatep. 82
Assessing the Environmentp. 83
Instructional Materialsp. 85
Learning Areasp. 87
Beginning the Yearp. 94
Managing Learning Areasp. 94
Planning the Outdoor Environmentp. 96
Planning for Safety-Inside and Outp. 98
Children With Special Needsp. 101
Celebrating Diversityp. 102
Summaryp. 102
Reflectionsp. 103
Explorations and Activitiesp. 103
Planning Learning Activitiesp. 104
Curriculum Designp. 106
Curriculum Organizationp. 108
Developmentally Appropriate Curriculump. 108
Rationale for an Integrated Curriculump. 110
Selecting a Themep. 111
Implementing the Themep. 112
Evaluating the Themep. 114
Learning Plansp. 116
Mandated Lessons and Goalsp. 118
Multicultural Education and Antibias Curriculump. 119
Computers in Early Childhood Programsp. 122
Teaching and Learning with Computersp. 124
Young Children Onlinep. 126
Schedulingp. 128
Details of the Schedulep. 129
Simplifying Routinesp. 133
Adapting the Schedulep. 133
Kindergarten: Half-Day, Full-Day, and Alternate-Day Programsp. 134
Other Scheduling Issuesp. 134
Children With Special Needsp. 135
Celebrating Diversityp. 136
Summaryp. 137
Reflectionsp. 138
Explorations and Activitiesp. 139
Play: Learning at Its Bestp. 140
Defining Playp. 142
Types of Playp. 142
Characteristics of Playp. 142
Levels of Playp. 144
Purposes of Playp. 148
Intellectual Developmentp. 148
Social and Emotional Developmentp. 150
Physical Developmentp. 150
Development of Play Behaviorsp. 151
Infancyp. 151
Preschoolp. 151
Early Primary Gradesp. 151
Middle Childhoodp. 152
Play in School Settingsp. 153
Roles of the Teacherp. 156
Play in Primary Classroomsp. 157
Benefits of Play at Schoolp. 158
Selecting Materials for Playp. 159
Play as a Teaching Strategyp. 160
Communicating the Benefits of Playp. 162
Play and Academic Learningp. 164
Outdoor Playp. 167
Children With Special Needsp. 168
Celebrating Diversityp. 170
Summaryp. 171
Reflectionsp. 172
Explorations and Activitiesp. 172
Guiding Behaviorp. 174
Defining Discipline, Punishment, and Guidancep. 176
Punishmentp. 177
Guidancep. 177
Planning for Guidance in the Classroomp. 178
Preventing Behavior Problemsp. 180
Strategies for Guiding Behaviorp. 186
Teaching Skills and Behaviorsp. 186
Guiding Groupsp. 188
Making Guidance Decisionsp. 190
Behavior-Management Systemsp. 192
Assertive Disciplinep. 192
Glasser Modelp. 195
Ginott Modelp. 195
Dreikurs Modelp. 195
Assessing Behavior-Management Systemsp. 196
Children With Special Needsp. 197
Celebrating Diversityp. 198
Summaryp. 198
Reflectionsp. 199
Explorations and Activitiesp. 199
Assessment and Reportingp. 200
Defining Assessment and Testingp. 202
Types of Assessmentp. 203
Types of Testsp. 203
Testing Young Childrenp. 204
High-Stakes Testingp. 205
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Actp. 206
Strategies for Assessmentp. 207
Talliesp. 207
Running Narratives or Logsp. 208
Incident Recordsp. 208
Narrativesp. 209
Anecdotal Recordsp. 210
Checklists and Rating Scalesp. 213
Records of Conversations, Conferences, and Interviewsp. 214
Rubricsp. 215
Parent Questionnairesp. 217
Self-Evaluationsp. 217
Organizing Assessment Datap. 217
Portfoliosp. 219
Reporting Assessment Datap. 223
Report Cardsp. 223
Conferencesp. 225
Student-Led Conferencesp. 228
Narrative Reportsp. 228
Telephone Callsp. 229
Casual Conversationsp. 229
Newslettersp. 229
Videotapesp. 229
Evaluating Assessment and Reportingp. 229
Program Assessmentp. 230
Children With Special Needsp. 231
Celebrating Diversityp. 232
Summaryp. 233
Reflectionsp. 234
Explorations and Activitiesp. 234
Working with Parents and Paraprofessionalsp. 236
Parent Involvementp. 238
Realities of Parent-Teacher Relationshipsp. 238
Implications for Teachersp. 239
Encouraging Parent Involvementp. 240
Strategies for Teachers and Schoolsp. 240
Parent Rolesp. 242
Activities for Involving Parentsp. 244
Communicating with Parentsp. 246
School Handbooksp. 246
Home Visitsp. 247
Parent Visits to Schoolp. 248
Letters and Notesp. 251
Telecommunicationp. 252
Community Resourcesp. 253
Volunteers in the Classroomp. 253
Working with Paraprofessionalsp. 256
Children With Special Needsp. 260
Celebrating Diversityp. 262
Summaryp. 262
Reflectionsp. 263
Explorations and Activitiesp. 263
The Curriculum Chaptersp. 265
Celebrating the Magic of Languagep. 266
Defining Languagep. 268
Characteristics of Languagep. 268
Systems of Languagep. 268
Learning Languagep. 271
Sequence of Language Developmentp. 272
Theoretical Models of Language Learningp. 273
Teaching Languagep. 276
Creating an Effective Environmentp. 276
Standards for Language Developmentp. 282
Observing Language Learnersp. 283
Providing Activities That Encourage Language Growthp. 283
Children With Special Needsp. 289
Celebrating Diversityp. 293
Summaryp. 299
Reflectionsp. 301
Explorations and Activitiesp. 301
Developing Literacyp. 302
Defining Literacyp. 304
Teacher Qualities That Support Literacyp. 304
Evaluating the Researchp. 304
Understanding How Literacy Developsp. 305
Standards for Reading Teachersp. 309
Program Elements That Support Literacyp. 309
Goals for Literacy Instructionp. 311
Standards for Literacy Developmentp. 312
Providing a Supportive Classroom Environmentp. 314
Oral Language and Listening Skillsp. 315
Music as a Literacy Activityp. 316
Reading Aloud and Storytellingp. 317
Learning about Printp. 319
Attending to Soundp. 319
Presenting Selected Textp. 324
Commercial Programs for Literacy Instructionp. 326
Helping All Children Feel Successful as Literacy Learnersp. 327
Learning to Writep. 329
Development of Writingp. 329
Conventions of Written Languagep. 334
The Writing Process with Young Childrenp. 335
Assessing the Development of Literacyp. 337
Observing Oral Languagep. 337
Observing Writingp. 337
Determining Knowledge of Books and Printp. 339
Observing Readingp. 339
Children With Special Needsp. 340
Celebrating Diversityp. 341
Summaryp. 345
Reflectionsp. 345
Explorations and Activitiesp. 346
Manipulation and Discovery through Mathematicsp. 348
Defining Mathematicsp. 350
Learning Mathematicsp. 350
Teaching Mathematicsp. 352
Standards for Mathematics Educationp. 353
The Strand Modelp. 354
Materials for Mathematics Instructionp. 372
Manipulatesp. 372
Calculators and Computersp. 374
Integrating Mathematics into the Curriculump. 374
Mathematics and Playp. 374
Mathematics and Literacyp. 376
Mathematics and Literaturep. 378
Assessment of Mathematicsp. 378
Children With Special Needsp. 380
Celebrating Diversityp. 381
Summaryp. 382
Reflectionsp. 383
Explorations and Activitiesp. 383
Manipulation and Discovery through Sciencep. 384
Defining Sciencep. 386
Learning Sciencep. 386
Manipulation, Observation, and Discoveryp. 386
The Scientific Processp. 388
Teaching Sciencep. 391
Ensuring Safetyp. 392
Teaching Basic Concepts and Encouraging Positive Attitudesp. 393
Planning the Sequence of Activitiesp. 393
Standards for Science Educationp. 395
Integrating Science into the Curriculump. 405
Science and Literacyp. 407
Children With Special Needsp. 410
Celebrating Diversityp. 411
Summaryp. 411
Reflectionsp. 412
Explorations and Activitiesp. 412
Encouraging the Creative Artsp. 414
The Importance of Arts Experiencesp. 416
Goals of Arts Educationp. 417
Standards for Arts Educationp. 419
Visual Artsp. 419
Stages in Developmentp. 420
Goals of Visual Arts Experiencesp. 422
Standards for Visual Arts Educationp. 424
Suggested Visual Arts Experiencesp. 425
Art versus Craft Activitiesp. 427
Musicp. 428
Goals of a Music Programp. 429
Standards for Music Educationp. 430
Singingp. 431
Playing Instrumentsp. 433
Listening Experiencesp. 434
Approaches to Music Instructionp. 434
Movement and Dancep. 436
Movement Experiencesp. 436
Dance Educationp. 437
Standards for Dance Educationp. 437
Dramap. 438
Encouraging Dramap. 439
Standards for Drama Educationp. 440
Roles of Specialistsp. 441
Assessing Experiences in the Artsp. 442
Integrating the Arts into the Curriculump. 443
Children With Special Needsp. 445
Celebrating diversityp. 448
Summaryp. 450
Reflectionsp. 450
Explorations and Activitiesp. 451
Living Together: The Social Studiesp. 452
Defining Social Studiesp. 454
Learning Social Studiesp. 455
A Constructivist Viewp. 455
Teaching Social Studiesp. 456
Multiple Views of the Social Studies Curriculump. 456
Current Expectationsp. 461
Standards for Social Studies Educationp. 462
Planning Social Studies Experiencesp. 464
Integrating Social Studies into the Curriculump. 468
Social Studies Themesp. 470
Celebrating Holidaysp. 472
Children With Special Needsp. 477
Celebrating Diversityp. 477
Summaryp. 478
Reflectionsp. 479
Explorations and Activitiesp. 479
Promoting Wellness: Physical Education and Health, Nutrition, and Safety Educationp. 480
Physical Educationp. 482
Encouraging Motor Developmentp. 482
Goals of Physical Development Programsp. 484
Standards for Physical Educationp. 486
Physical Education Activitiesp. 487
Health, Nutrition, and Safety Educationp. 490
Health Educationp. 490
Nutrition Educationp. 494
Safety Educationp. 498
Integrating Physical Education and Health, Nutrition, and Safety Education into the Curriculump. 503
Children With Special Needsp. 504
Celebrating Diversityp. 505
Summaryp. 506
Reflectionsp. 507
Explorations and Activitiesp. 507
Glossaryp. 509
Resources for Further Readingp. 515
Children's Booksp. 523
Referencesp. 526
Indexp. 545
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