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9781119448334

Introduction to Energy, Renewable Energy and Electrical Engineering Essentials for Engineering Science (STEM) Professionals and Students

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119448334

  • ISBN10:

    1119448336

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2020-12-15
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

A great resource for beginner students and professionals alike

Introduction to Energy, Renewable Energy and Electrical Engineering: Essentials for Engineering Science (STEM) Professionals and Students brings together the fundamentals of Carnot's laws of thermodynamics, Coulomb's law, electric circuit theory, and semiconductor technology. The book is the perfect introduction to energy-related fields for undergraduates and non-electrical engineering students and professionals with knowledge of Calculus III. Its unique combination of foundational concepts and advanced applications delivered with focused examples serves to leave the reader with a practical and comprehensive overview of the subject.

The book includes:

  • A combination of analytical and software solutions in order to relate aspects of electric circuits at an accessible level
  • A thorough description of compensation of flux weakening (CFW) applied to inverter-fed, variable-speed drives not seen anywhere else in the literature
  • Numerous application examples of solutions using PSPICE, Mathematica, and finite difference/finite element solutions such as detailed magnetic flux distributions
  • Manufacturing of electric energy in power systems with integrated renewable energy sources where three-phase inverter supply energy to interconnected, smart power systems

Connecting the energy-related technology and application discussions with urgent issues of energy conservation and renewable energy—such as photovoltaics and ground-water heat pump resulting in a zero-emissions dwelling—Introduction to Energy, Renewable Energy, and Electrical Engineering crafts a truly modern and relevant approach to its subject matter.

Author Biography

EWALD F. FUCHS, PhD, has held professional engineering posts for 8 years at Siemens AG in Erlangen and Mülheim/Ruhr, Germany in the areas of control, energy conversion, and power systems, and tenured faculty position thereafter for 35 years at the University of Colorado, teaching undergraduate and graduate energy conversion/power classes.  He holds two US patents on AC machines with increased torque and speed for hybrid/electric propulsion employing compensation of flux weakening (CFW).  

HEIDI A. FUCHS is a Senior Scientific Engineering Associate in the Energy Technologies Area at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), with experience in energy use analysis, life-cycle energy and cost assessments, energy management practices, the energy-water nexus, spreadsheet modelling, and technical documentation. 

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xiii

Summary xv

Preface xix

Glossary of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms xxix

About the Companion Website liii

1 Basic Concepts 1

1.1 Energy Conservation: Laws of Thermodynamics 1

1.2 Converting Heat to Mechanical Power 2

1.2.1 Carnot Cycle, Carnot Machines, and Carnot Efficiency 4

1.2.2 Rankine Cycle 8

1.2.3 Brayton Cycle 9

1.2.4 Ericsson Cycle 9

1.2.5 Internal Combustion Engines 10

1.2.6 Steam, Gas, and Oil Turbines 13

1.2.7 Energy Content of Common Fuels (e.g. Gasoline, Diesel, Methanol, Hydrogen) 15

1.3 Heat Pumps and Air-Conditioning Units 15

1.3.1 Heating Cycle Of Heat Pump 21

1.3.2 Combined Heating and Cooling Performance (CHCP) Coefficient of a Residence 22

1.4 Hydro Turbines 24

1.5 Wind Power and the Lanchester–Betz–Joukowsky Limit 26

1.6 Thermal Solar and PV Plants 28

1.7 Capacity Factors 40

1.8 Force Calculations Based on Coulomb’s Law 40

1.8.1 Electric Charge 41

1.8.2 Electrostatic Force 43

1.9 Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors 45

1.10 Instantaneous Current i and Voltage v 46

1.10.1 Instantaneous Voltage v, Work/Energy work, and Power p 46

1.11 The Question of Frequency: AC Versus DC Distribution and Transmission Systems 47

1.12 Reference Directions and Polarities of Voltages and Currents 52

1.13 Power p 53

1.14 Ideal Passive Electric Circuit Elements 53

1.15 Independent and Dependent Voltage and Current Sources 55

1.16 Galvanic Elements, Voltaic Series, and Lead–Acid Batteries 55

1.17 Electrolysis 60

1.18 Flow Batteries and Fuel Cells 61

1.19 Reformer 61

1.20 Energy Storage Plants 62

1.21 Current Projects and Issues with Potential Solutions 62

1.22 Software in Public Domain (e.g. PSPICE, Mathematica, MATLAB/Simulink) 68

1.23 Summary 68

Problems 69

References 80

Appendix 1.A Design Data of Photovoltaic Power Plant of Figure E1.6.1 85

Appendix 1.B The Nature of Electricity and Its Manufacturing 89

Appendix 1.C The Cost of Electricity in a Renewable Energy System 99

2 Electric Circuit Laws 103

2.1 Ohm’s Law and Instantaneous Electric Power p(t) 103

2.2 Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws (KCL) and (KVL), Respectively 104

2.3 Application of KVL to Single-Loop Circuits 107

2.3.1 Voltage Division or Voltage Divider 108

2.4 Single-Node Pair Circuits 109

2.4.1 Current Division 110

2.5 Resistor Combinations 112

2.6 Nodal Analysis 115

2.7 Loop or Mesh Analysis 117

2.8 Superposition 118

2.8.1 Principle of Superposition 119

2.9 Source Exchange/Transformation 121

2.10 Thévenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 122

2.10.1 Equivalency of Thévenin and Norton Circuits 126

2.11 Wheatstone and Thomson Bridges 128

2.12 Summary 131

Problems 132

References 137

3 DC Circuit Transient Analysis 139

3.1 Capacitors 139

3.1.1 Energy Stored in a Capacitor 139

3.1.2 Capacitor Combination Formulas 146

3.2 Inductors 147

3.2.1 Energy Stored in an Inductor 148

3.2.2 Inductor Combination Formulas 151

3.3 Transient Analysis Applied to Circuits Resulting in First-Order, Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 152

3.3.1 RC Series Network and Time Constant τRC 152

3.3.2 RL Series Network and Time Constant τRL 156

3.4 Transient Analysis Applied to Circuits Resulting in Second-Order, Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 160

3.5 Summary 167

Problems 168

References 176

4 Alternating Current (AC) Steady-State Analysis with Phasors 179

4.1 Sinusoidal and Cosinusoidal Functions 179

4.2 Sinusoidal/Cosinusoidal and Complex Number Relations 180

4.2.1 Definition of Phasors 181

4.3 Phasor Relations for Circuit Elements such as Resistor, Inductor, and Capacitor 187

4.3.1 Resistor 187

4.3.2 Inductor 187

4.3.3 Capacitor 188

4.3.4 Definition of Impedance ?  and Admittance 189

Summary 192

4.4 Delta-Wye Transformation 193

4.5 Solution Based on Kirchhoff’s Laws 193

4.6 Solution Using Nodal Analysis 196

4.7 Solution with Mesh and Loop Analysis by Applying Kirchhoff’s and Ohm’s Laws 198

4.8 Solution Based on Superposition 199

4.9 Solution with Source Transformation/Exchange 202

4.10 Solutions Employing Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems and Source Transformations 204

4.11 Nonsinusoidal Steady-State Response 209

4.12 Summary 213

Problems 213

References 220

Appendix 4.A Conversion of Phasors from Rectangular to Polar Form 221

5 Instantaneous and Steady-State Power Analysis 225

5.1 Introduction 225

5.2 Instantaneous Power p(t) 225

5.3 Average (Real) Power P 228

5.4 Relation Between Root-Mean-Square (rms) or Effective (eff) Value and Amplitude 230

5.5 Fundamental or Displacement Power Factor 232

5.6 Complex Power 238

5.7 Fundamental Power Factor Correction 246

5.8 Residential Single-Phase AC Power Circuits in the United States 250

5.8.1 Power Requirements for Lighting Equipment 251

5.9 Three-Phase Distribution and Transmission Networks 254

5.9.1 Balanced Wye (Y) Source-Wye (Y) Load Connection 259

5.9.2 Balanced Wye (Y) Source-Delta (Δ) Load Connection 261

5.9.3 Treatment of Delta (Δ)-Connected Source 262

5.9.4 Power Relationships for Three-Phase Balanced Systems 264

5.10 Summary 265

Problems 266

References 274

6 Coupled Magnetic Circuits, Single- and Three-Phase Transformers 277

6.1 Introduction 277

6.2 Magnetic Circuits 277

6.3 Magnetically Coupled Circuits, Definition of Self- and Mutual Inductances 288

6.4 Unsaturated or Linear Single-Phase Transformer 290

6.5 Ideal Transformer 293

6.6 Applications of Single-Phase Power Transformers 301

6.7 Three-Phase Power Transformers 318

6.8 To Ground or Not to Ground? That Is the Question 331

6.9 Results Obtained Through More Accurate Calculation and Measurement Methods 331

6.10 Summary 332

Problems 334

References 344

7 Frequency Characteristics of Electric Circuits 349

7.1 Introduction 349

7.2 Sinusoidal/Cosinusoidal Frequency Analysis 350

7.3 Passive Filters 350

7.3.1 Poles and Zeros of Transfer Function 351

7.3.2 First-Order RC Low-Pass Filter Circuit and Its Frequency Characteristics 352

7.3.3 First-Order RC High-Pass Filter Circuit and Its Frequency Characteristics 354

7.3.4 Band-Pass and Band-Rejection (Second-Order) Filter Circuits and Their Frequency Characteristics 356

7.3.5 Series and Parallel Resonant RLC (Second-Order) Circuits 361

7.4 Active Filters 368

7.5 Summary 368

Problems 369

References 373

8 Operational Amplifiers 375

8.1 Introduction 375

8.2 Ideal Operational (OP) Amplifier 376

8.3 Noninverting OP Amplifier 377

8.4 Unity-Gain OP Amplifier 378

8.5 Inverting OP Amplifier 379

8.6 Differential Amplifier 381

8.7 Summing Networks 382

8.8 Integrating and Differentiating Networks 383

8.9 Active Filters 389

8.10 Current-to-Voltage Converter 392

8.11 Controllers for Electric Circuits 393

8.11.1 P Controller 394

8.11.2 I Controller 408

8.11.3 PI Controller 409

8.11.4 D Controller 409

8.11.5 PID Controller 411

8.11.6 PD Controller 417

8.12 Summary 417

Problems 419

References 428

9 Semiconductor Diodes and Switches 431

9.1 Introduction 431

9.2 The pn Junction: Elementary Building Block of Semiconductor Diodes and Switches 432

9.3 Zener Diode 436

9.4 Varistor 436

9.5 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 437

9.6 Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) 440

9.7 Thyristor (Current Gate) or Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 440

9.8 Triac 444

9.9 Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) 445

9.10 Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO) 446

9.11 Summary 446

References 447

10 Applications of Semiconductor Switches Using PSPICE: Uncontrolled and Controlled AC–DC Converters (Rectifiers), AC Voltage and Current Regulators and Controllers, and DC–AC Converters (Inverters) 449

10.1 Half-Wave, Single-Phase Rectification 450

10.2 Full-Wave, Single-Phase Rectification 473

10.3 AC Current Controllers 484

10.4 Clippers and Clampers 491

10.5 Three-Phase Rectifiers 495

10.6 Three-Phase Inverters 508

10.7 Design of a Photovoltaic (PV) Power Plant 519

10.8 Design of a Wind Power Plant 527

10.9 Efficiency Increase of Induction Motors Based on Semiconductor Controllers and Influence of Harmonics on Power System Components 538

10.10 Power Quality and the Use of Input and Output Filters for Rectifiers and Inverters 538

10.11 Summary 550

Problems 551

References 557

11 DC Machines Serving as Role Models for AC Rotating Machine Operation and Electronic Converters 561

11.1 Introduction 561

11.2 Mechanical Commutation Concept 565

11.3 Equivalent Circuits and Voltage–Current Diagrams of Separately, Cumulatively, Differentially, Self-Excited, and Series-Connected DC Machines 576

11.4 Speed and Torque Control 580

11.5 Summary 589

11.5 Problems 589

References 596

Appendix 11.A Magnetic Field Computation Based on Numerical Methods 598

Appendix 11.B Sample Calculation of Self- and Leakage Inductances and Flux of a DC Machine Field Winding from Flux Plots 607

12 Permanent-Magnet, Induction, and Synchronous Machines: Their Performance at Variable Speed and Torque 615

12.1 Revolving Magnetic Field 616

12.2 Permanent-Magnet Materials 624

12.3 Designs of Permanent-Magnet Machines (PMMs) 630

12.3.1 Speed and Torque Control of PMM 638

12.3.2 Applications of PMM to Automobiles and Wind Power Plants 641

12.4 Three-Phase (Polyphase) IMs: Balanced Operation 656

12.4.1 Basic Principle of Operation 656

12.4.2 Equivalent Circuits 660

12.4.3 Types of Induction Machines 670

12.4.4 Speed and Torque Control with Semiconductor Converters and Controllers of IM as Applied to Heat Pumps, Automobiles, Trains, and Wind Power Plants 670

12.4.5 Optimization of Three- and Single-Phase IMs with Respect to Efficiency for Given Performance Constraints 683

12.5 Polyphase Non-salient and Salient Pole Synchronous Machines (SMs) 684

12.5.1 Equivalent Circuits, Phasor Diagrams, and Magnetic Field Distributions Based on Polycentric Grid/Mesh Systems 685

12.5.2 Applications of SMs When Independently Controlling Speed and Torque 703

12.6 Summary 703

Problems 704

References 709

Index 715

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The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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