did-you-know? rent-now

Amazon no longer offers textbook rentals. We do!

did-you-know? rent-now

Amazon no longer offers textbook rentals. We do!

We're the #1 textbook rental company. Let us show you why.


An Introduction to Literature

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:


  • ISBN10:


  • Edition: 16th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-06-24
  • Publisher: Longman

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

Purchase Benefits

  • Free Shipping Icon Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • eCampus.com Logo Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
List Price: $104.17 Save up to $100.98
  • Rent Book $32.81
    Add to Cart Free Shipping Icon Free Shipping

    *This item is part of an exclusive publisher rental program and requires an additional convenience fee. This fee will be reflected in the shopping cart.

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


The balanced coverage of classical and contemporary selections helps readers from all backgrounds realize the underlying commonality among cultures as well as recognize themselves within the literature. This anthology contains over 375 readings; four casebooks; and abundant visual material including facsimiles of manuscripts, author portraits, visual portfolios, and spot images.

A market leader for more than 30 years, Barnet's Introduction to Literature continues to uphold the traditions that have made it a success a rich blend of both classic and contemporary selections as well as Barnet's signature "how-to" instruction on the elements of literature and the writing process. The new edition features a wealth of contemporary stories and a new chapter on graphic novels that were chosen for their student appeal. New selections include 18 stories, 24 poems, a one-act play, Samuel Beckett's "Krapp's Last Tape," and a casebook on Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman.

The “Poetry and Translation” chapter gives a student essay in which the student discusses his translation of Federico Garcia Lorca’s poem “Despedida.” Hints for translating as well as advice on translating haikus are given. Suggested writing assignments are also included. The balanced coverage of classical and contemporary selections helps students from all backgrounds realize the underlying commonality among cultures as well as recognize themselves within the literature.

Table of Contents

A Guide to MyLiteratureLab xxv

Preface xxxi

Resources for Students and Instructors xxxv

Acknowledgments xli

Letter to Students xlv



Reading, Thinking, and Writing Critically

About Literature

1. College Readiness: How to Respond to Stories, Poems, and Plays 3

Full Disclosure 3

Analyzing Literature 4

Annotating a Text as a Way of Thinking 5

A First Assignment: Annotating 6

Robert Frost, Come In 6

Thinking Critically About Responses to Literature: Arguing with Yourself 8

Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Onion 8

Prompts that Stimulate Responses to Stories, Poems, and Plays:

Checklist: Responding to Stories 10

Checklist: Responding to Poems 12

Checklist: Responding to Plays 13

Converting Responses into Readable Writing

Checklist: Readable Writing 15

A Story for Analysis 15

Kate Chopin, The Storm 15

Last Words 20


2.  Reading and Responding to Literature 21

What Is Literature? 21

Literature as Performance 21

Robert Frost, The Span of Life 22

Two Poems About Immigrants 23

Robert Frost, Immigrants 24

Pat Mora, Immigrants 26

Literature a Journey 27

Emily Dickinson, There is no frigate like a book 28

Robert Frost, The Pasture 28

A Story About a Journey 29

Eudora Welty, A Worn Path 29

Two Very Short Contemporary Short Stories 36

Lydia Davis, Childcare 36

Lydia Davis, City People 37

Thinking About a Classic Story 37

The Parable of the Prodigal Son 38

Stories True and False 40

Grace Paley, Samuel 40

What’s Past Is Prologue 43

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl 43


3. The Pleasures of Reading—and of Writing Arguments About Literature 46

The Open Secret of Good Writing 47

Emily Wu, The Lesson of the Master 47

Getting Ready to Write 48

A Student Essay on Emily Wu’s “The Lesson of

the Master” 50

Three Poems 52

Diane Ackerman, Pumping Iron 53

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz 53

William Butler Yeats, For Anne Gregory 54

Two Stories 55

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill 55

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson 59


4. More About Writing About Literature: From Idea to Essay 65

Why Write Arguments About Literature? 65

Getting Ideas: Prewriting 65

Pat Mora, Immigrants 66

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour 67

Writing a Draft 73

A Student Essay on Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” 78

Explication 80



Fiction 97

5. Approaching Fiction: Responding in Writing 99

Ernest Hemingway, Cat in the Rain 99

Responses: Annotations and Journal Entries 102

A Student Essay on Ernest Hemingway’s “Cat in the Rain” 105


6. Plot 109

W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra 111

Thinking About Plot 112

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings 113

Kate Chopin, Désirée’s Baby 115

Alice Walker, Everyday Use 120


7. Character 128

Aesop, The Vixen and the Lioness 129

Aesop, The Ant and the Grasshopper 129

Ron Wallace, Worry 130

Kinds of Characters 131

William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force 133

James Joyce, Araby 136

Raymond Carver, Cathedral 141


8. Setting 153

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown 154

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper 164

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal 176


9. Narrative Point of View 187

Participant (or First-Person) Point of View 188

Nonparticipant (or Third-Person) Points of View 189

The Point of a Point of View 190

John Updike, A & P 191

Anonymous, The Judgment of Solomon 196

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny

Weatherall 197

Annie Proulx, The Blood Bay 204


10. Allegory and Symbolism 208

Symbolism and Theme 210

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums 211

Gabriel García Márquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous

Wings: A Tale for Children 219


11. Theme 225

Anonymous, Muddy Road 225

Jesse Lee Kercheval, Carpathia 228

Cynthia Ozick, The Shawl 229

Gish Jen, Who’s Irish? 233


12. Graphic Fiction 241

Letters and Pictures 241

Reading an Image: A Short Story Told in One Panel 243

Tony Carrillo, F Minus 243

Reading Images: A Story Told in Sequential Panels 245

Art Spiegelman, Nature vs.Nurture 245

Will Eisner, Hamlet on a Rooftop 248

R. Crumb and David Zane Mairowitz, A Hunger Artist 259


13.  Students Writing About Stories 265

Prompts for Writing About Fiction 265

Fiction into Film 268

Film as a Medium 268

Film Techniques 270

Theme in Film 273

Comparing Filmed and Printed Stories 274

Getting Ready to Write 274

Drafting an Essay About a Film 275

Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments About Film


Seven Students Write About Short Stories 278

One Student’s Thoughts About Character in Poe’s “The Cask of

Amontillado” 278

Gender Criticism: A Response to “The Judgment of Solomon”


A Feminist Reading of James Thurber’s “The Secret Life of

Walter Mitty” 284

Writing About Setting as Symbolic: Notes and an Essay on Kate

Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” 287

Two Students Interpret Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” 290

A Student’s Research Paper with Documentation on Hawthorne’s

“Young Goodman Brown” 299


14. Two Fiction Writers in Depth: Flannery O’Connor

and Tobias Wolff 305

Flannery O’ConnorTwo Stories and Comments About Writing 305

A Good Man Is Hard to Find 306

Revelation 318

On Fiction: Remarks from O’Connor’s Essays and Letters 332

From“The Fiction Writer and His Country” 332

From “Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern

Fiction” 333

From“The Nature and Aim of Fiction” 333

From“Writing Short Stories” 334

“A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable” 334

On Interpreting “A Good Man is Hard to Find” 337

Tobias Wolff

Four Stories and Comments About Writing 338

Hunters in the Snow 338

Say Yes 349

Powder 352

Bullet in the Brain 354

Tobias Wolff on Novels and Short Stories 358

On Stories and Poems 358

On Stories and Novels 358

On Judging Characters 359

On Ambiguity 359

On Economy in Writing 359

On the Elements of a Good Story 360

Gender Conflict in “Say Yes” 360

A Student Essay, He’s the Problem: The Husband in

“Say Yes” 361


15. A Collection of Short Fiction

James Baldwin, Sonny’s Blues 366

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark 388

Oscar Casares, Yolanda 392

Diana Chang, The Oriental Contingent 398

Anton Chekhov, Misery 403

William Faulkner, Barn Burning 407

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily 419

Amy Hempel, Today Will Be a Quiet Day 427

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery 431

Franz Kafka, A Hunger Artist 438

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh 444

Guy De Maupassant, The Necklace 454

Lorrie Moore, How to Become a Writer 460

Alice Munro, Boys and Girls 465

Gloria Naylor, The Two 475

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You

Been? 481

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried 493

Daniel Orozco, Orientation 506

Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado 509

Michele Serros, Senior Picture Day 514

Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds 518

Amy Tan, Two Kinds 522

James Thurber, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty 530

Helena Maria Viramontes, The Moths 533


Part III

 Poetry 539

16. Approaching Poetry: Responding in Writing 541

Langston Hughes, Harlem 541

A Student Essay, Langston Hughes’s “Harlem” 545

Aphra Behn, Song: Love Armed 547

A Student Essay, The Double Nature of Love 548

David Mura, An Argument: On 1942 550

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I love thee? 551

Robert Hayden, Frederick Douglass 552


17. Narrative Poetry 553

The Limerick, the Popular Ballad, and Other Narrative Poems


Anonymous, There Was a Young Fellow of Riga 553

Anonymous British Ballad, Sir Patrick Spence 555

Gary Snyder, Hay for the Horses 557

Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America


John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci 559

Siegfried Sassoon, The General 561

Countee Cullen, Incident 562

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory 563

Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death 564

Walter de la Mare, The Listeners 565

John Lennon and Paul McCartney, Eleanor Rigby 566

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town 567


18. Lyric Poetry 569

Anonymous, Michael Row the Boat Ashore 569

Anonymous, Careless Love 569

Anonymous, The Colorado Trail 571

Anonymous, Western Wind 571

Julia Ward Howe, Battle Hymn of the Republic 572

William Shakespeare 574

Spring 574

Winter 575

Sigh no more, ladies, sigh no more 576

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues 576

Emily Brontë, Spellbound 577

Spirituals, or Sorrow Songs 578

Anonymous African American Spiritual, Go Down, Moses 579

Anonymous, Swing Low, Sweet Chariot 581

For Further Study

Langston Hughes, Evenin’ Air Blues 582

Li-Young Lee, I Ask My Mother to Sing 583

Edna St. Vincent Millay, The Spring and the Fall 583

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth 584

Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider 585

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill 586

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn 587

Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling 589

Billy Collins, The Names 589


19. The Speaking Tone of Voice 592

Emily Dickinson, I’m Nobody! Who are you? 592

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool 594

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother 595

Linda Pastan, Marks 596

The Reader as the Speaker 597

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning 597

Wislawa Szymborska, The Terrorist, He Watches 598

John Updike, Icarus 599

Aurora Levins Morales, Child of the Americas 600

Joseph Bruchac III, Ellis Island 601

The Dramatic Monologue 602

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess 602

Diction and Tone 604

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time 605

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est 606

Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed 607

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid 608

Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know 609

Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband 610

Lyn Lifshin, My Mother and the Bed 610

Mitsuye Yamada, To the Lady 612

The Voice of the Satirist 613

E. E. Cummings, next to of course god America i 613

Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll 614

Louise Erdrich, Dear John Wayne 615

Stephen Duck, On Mites 617


20. Figurative Language: Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Apostrophe 618

Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose 619

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors 620

Simile 621

Metaphor 621

John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman’s

Homer 622

Kay Ryan, Turtle 623

Marge Piercy, A Work of Artifice 624

Personification 624

Michael Drayton, Since There’s No Help 625

Apostrophe 626

Edmund Waller, Song 626

For Further Study

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow 628

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle 628

Seamus Heaney, Digging 629

Linda Pastan, Baseball 630

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 (“My mistress’ eyes are

nothing like the sun”) 630


21. Imagery and Symbolism 632

William Blake, The Sick Rose 633

Walt Whitman, I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak

Growing 633

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan 636

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus 639

Nila northSun, Moving Camp Too Far 640

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers 641

Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck 641

Christina Rossetti, Uphill 643

Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream 644

Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen 645

A Note on Haiku 646

Moritake, Fallen petals rise 646

Sôkan, If only we could 647

Shiki, River in summer 647

Taigi, Look, O look, there go 647


22. Irony 649

Dorothy Parker, General Review of the Sex

Situation 650

Percy Bysshe Shelley , Ozymandias 651

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress 652

John Donne, Holy Sonnet 14 (“Batter my heart, threepersoned

God ”) 654

Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie 655

Martín Espada, Tony Went to the Bodega but He Didn’t Buy

Anything 655

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor

Drink 657

Sherman Alexie, Evolution 658

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts 658


23. Rhythm and Versification 660

Ezra Pound, An Immorality 661

A. E. Housman, Eight O’Clock 663

William Carlos Williams, The Dance 664

Versification: A Glossary for Reference 665

Meter 665

Patterns of Sound 668

Galway Kinnell, Blackberry Eating 669

For Further Study

William Carlos Williams, The Artist 670

Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Constantly Risking Absurdity 671

A Note About Poetic Forms 672

Stanzaic Patterns 673

Three Complex Forms: The Sonnet, the Villanelle, and the

Sestina 674

The Sonnet 674

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 (“That time of year thou

mayst in me behold”) 675

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 146 (“Poor soul, the center of

my sinful earth”) 676

John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent 678

X. J. Kennedy, Nothing in Heaven Functions as It

Ought 679

Billy Collins, Sonnet 679

The Villanelle 680

Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night 681

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art 682

The Sestina 683

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina 684

Shaped Poetry or Pattern Poetry 685

George Herbert, Easter-Wings 685

Blank Verse and Free Verse 686

Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer 687

The Prose Poem 688

Carolyn Forché, The Colonel 688


24. Students Writing About Poems 690

Prompts for Writing About Poems 690

First Response 690 Speaker and Tone 690 Audience 691

Structure and Form 691 Center of Interest and Theme 691

Diction 691 Sound Effects 692 A Note on Explication 692

Seven Students Writing About Poems 693

Louise Glück, Gretel in Darkness 693

A Student Essay on Louise Glück’s “Gretel in Darkness” 696

A Student Essay on Adrienne Rich’s “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers” 699

A Student Essay on a Theme in Several Poems by Emily

Dickinson 700

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia’s Clothes 703

A Student Essay on the Structure of Robert Herrick’s “Upon Julia’s

Clothes” 705

A Student Essay on Metrics in Housman’s “Eight O’Clock” 707

Two Student Essays, for Evaluation, on Robert Frost’s “Stopping

by Woods on a Snowy Evening” 711


25. Poets at Work 719

Walt Whitman, Enfans d’Adam, number 9 719

Cathy Song, Out of Our Hands 721

William Butler Yeats, “Leda and the Swan”

( Three Versions) 723

Annunciation (1923) 724

Leda and the Swan (1924) 725

Leda and the Swan (1933) 725


26. Variations on Themes: Poems and Paintings 726

Writing About Poems and Paintings 726

Anne Sexton, The Starry Night 727

A Student Essay, Two Ways of Looking at a Starry Night 728

W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts 730

William Carlos Williams, The Great Figure 733


27. Three Poets in Depth: Emily Dickinson,

Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes 734

On Reading Authors Represented in Depth 734

Emily Dickinson 736

These are the days when Birds come back 736

Papa above! 737

Wild Nights–Wild Nights! 737

There’s a certain Slant of light 737

I got so I could hear his name 738

The Soul selects her own Society 739

This was a Poet–It is That 739

I heard a Fly Buzz–when I died 740

The World is not Conclusion 741

I like to see it lap the Miles 741

A narrow Fellow in the Grass 742

Further in Summer than the Birds 742

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant 743

A Route of Evanescence 743

Those–dying, then 743

Apparently with no surprise 744

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain 745

I felt a Cleaving in my Mind 747

The Dust behind I strove to join 747

Letters About Poetry 747

To Susan Gilbert (Dickinson) 748

To Thomas Wentworth Higginson 748

To Thomas Wentworth Higginson 749

Robert Frost 750

The Pasture 750

Mending Wall 751

The Wood-Pile 752

The Road Not Taken 752

The Telephone 753

The Oven Bird 753

The Aim Was Song 754

The Need of Being Versed in Country Things 754

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening 755

Acquainted with the Night 756

Desert Places 756

Design 757

Come In 757

The Silken Tent 758

The Most of It 759

Robert Frost on Poetry 759

The Figure a Poem Makes 759

From “The Constant Symbol” 761

Langston Hughes 761

The Negro Speaks of Rivers 762

Mother to Son 762

The Weary Blues 763

The South 763

Ruby Brown 764

Poet to Patron 765

Ballad of the Landlord 765

Too Blue 766

Harlem [1] 766

Theme for English B 767

Poet to Bigot 768

Langston Hughes on Poetry 768

The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain 768

On the Cultural Achievements of African-Americans 772


28. A Collection of Poems 774

Anonymous British Ballad, The Three Ravens 774

Anonymous British Ballad, The Twa Corbies 775

Anonymous African American Ballad, John Henry 776

Sherman Alexie, On the Amtrak from Boston

to New York City 777

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach 778

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen 779

Jimmy Santiago Baca, So Mexicans Are Taking

Jobs from Americans 780

Amiri Baraka, A Poem for Black Hearts 781

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish 783

William Blake 784Infant Joy 785

Infant Sorrow 785

The Lamb 785

The Tyger 786

London 786

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 787

Gwendolyn Brooks, Martin Luther King Jr. 787

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters 787

Robert Browning, Porphyria’s Lover 788

George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty 790

Lucille Clifton, in the inner city 791

Judith Ortiz Cofer, My Father in the Navy 791

John Donne 792

A Valediction:Forbidding Mourning 792

The Flea 793

Death, Be Not Proud 794

Rita Dove, Daystar 794

Bob Dylan, The Times They Are A-Changin’ 795

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock 796

Martín Espada, Bully 800

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California 801

Nikki Giovanni, Master Charge Blues 802

Louise Glück, The School Children 802

H. D., Helen 803

Thomas Hardy, Ah, Are You Digging on My Grave? 804

Joy Harjo, Vision 805

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays 805

Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch 806

Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder 807

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur 807

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty 808

A. E. Housman 808

To an Athlete Dying Young 808

When I Was One-and-Twenty 809

Loveliest of trees, the cherry now 809

James Weldon Johnson, To America 810

John Keats, To Autumn 810

X. J. Kennedy, For Allen Ginsberg 811

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It 812

Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica 813

Claude McKay, America 814

Pat Mora, Illegal Alien 815

Pat Mora, Legal Alien 816

Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage 816 

Linda Pastan, Love Poem 817

Sylvia Plath, Daddy 817

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro 819

Dudley Randall, The Melting Pot 820

Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin 821

Anne Sexton, Her Kind 821

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29 (“When, in disgrace with

Fortune and men’s eyes”) 822

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116 (“Let me not to the

marriage of true minds”) 823

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses 823

Kitty Tsui, A Chinese Banquet 825

John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player 826

Derek Walcott, A Far Cry from Africa 827

Walt Whitman, A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak

Gray and Dim 828

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All 829

William Wordsworth 829

The World Is Too Much with Us 830

I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 830

The Solitary Reaper 831

James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy’s Farm

in Pine Island, Minnesota 832

Mitsuye Yamada, The Question of Loyalty 832

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium 833



29. Drama 837

How to Read a Play 839

Thinking About the Language of Drama 839

Plot and Character 842

Susan Glaspell, Trifles 845

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie 855

A Context for The Glass Menagerie 901

Production Notes by Tennessee Williams 901


30. Tragedy 905

A Note on Greek Tragedy 909

Two Plays by Sophocles 910

Sophocles, Oedipus the King 910

Sophocles, Antigone 953 

Hamlet, A Play by Shakespeare 989

A Note on the Elizabethan Theater 990

A Note on the Texts of Hamlet 991

Portfolio: Hamlet on the Stage 997

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 999


31. Comedy 1112

William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream 1114


32. Students Writing About Plays 1172

Prompts for Writing About Plays 1172

Plot and Conflict 1172 Character 1173 Tragedy 1173

Comedy 1174 Nonverbal Language 1174 The Play in

Performance 1174

Writing About a Filmed Version of a Play 1175

Checklist: Writing About a Filmed Play 1176

Five Students Write About Plays 1176

A Student Essay on Plot, The Solid Structure of The Glass

Menagerie 1177

A Student Essay on Setting, What the Kitchen in Trifles

Tells Us 1181

A Student Essay on Character and Theme, Fairy Mischief and

Morality in A Midsummer Night’s Dream 1183

A Student Review of a Film Version of a Play: Branagh’s Film of

Hamlet 1186

A Student Essay on Using Sources, The Women in Death of a

Salesman 1190


33. A Casebook on Death of a Salesman 1199

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman 1199

Contexts for Death of a Salesman 1268

Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the Common Man 1268

Brooks Atkinson, [Review of Premier Performance of ]

Death of a Salesman 1270

Mary McCarthy , American Realistic Drama 1272

Arthur Miller, Remembering Death of a Salesman 1273

Lorraine Hansberry, Reflections on Willy Loman 1276

John Lahr, Hard Sell: A Black Death of a Salesman 1277


34. Seven Additional Plays 1280

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House 1280

Contexts for A Doll’s House 1333

Notes for the Tragedy of Modern Times, Adaptation of A

Doll’s House for a German Production, Speech at the

Banquet of the Norwegian League for Women’s Rights

by Henrik Ibsen, 1333–34

Luis Valdez, Los Vendidos 1334

A Context for Los Vendidos 1344

The Actos by Luis Valdez 1344

Jane Martin, Rodeo 1346

August Wilson, Fences 1349

A Context for Fences 1400

Talking About Fences by August Wilson 1400

Samuel Beckett, Krapp’s Last Tape: A Play in One Act 1402

David Ives, Sure Thing 1409

Terrence McNally , Andre’s Mother 1418



Critical Approaches 1421

35. Critical Approaches: The Nature of Criticism 1422

Formalist (or New) Criticism 1423

Deconstruction 1425

Reader-Response Criticism 1426

Archetypal (or Myth) Criticism 1429

Historical Scholarship 1430

Marxist Criticism 1431

The New Historicism 1431

Biographical Criticism 1432

Psychological (or Psychoanalytic) Criticism 1433

Gender (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay) Criticism 1434

Suggestions for Further Reading 1441


Appendix A: How Much Do You Know About Citing

Sources? A Quiz with Answers 1445

Appendix B: Remarks About Manuscript Form 1452

Basic Manuscript Form 1452

Quotations and Quotation Marks 1453

Documentation: Internal Parenthetical Citations and a List of

Works Cited (MLA Format) 1456

Citing Sources on the World Wide Web 1464

Appendix C: Glossary of Literary Terms 1468

Literary Credits 1479

Photo Credits 1492

Index of Terms 1493

Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems 1499

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Rewards Program