Introduction to Logic

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1998-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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For undergraduate-level courses in Introduction to Logic. The most complete, authoritative treatment of introductory logic both deductive and inductive, classical and modern this text prepares students to understand, recognize, and apply classical syllogistic logic and the more powerful techniques of modern symbolic logic. All concepts and techniques are carefully and thoroughly explained and are brought to life through a wealth of real-life examples of lively arguments and explanations. These examples are drawn from political speeches, classics of philosophy (ancient and modern), scientific articles, writings on economics, literature, religious texts, and many recent writings on contemporary moral and social controversies familiar to students all demonstrating the application of logical principles by serious writers and thinkers trying to solve real problems in a wide range of fields.

Table of Contents

Basic Logical Concepts
What Logic Is
Propositions and Sentences
Arguments, Premisses, and Conclusions
More Complex Arguments
Recognizing Arguments
Deduction and Induction
Validity and Truth
Arguments and Explanations
Analyzing and Diagramming Arguments
Argument Diagrams
Analyzing Passages Containing More than One Argument
Analyzing Complex Argumentative Passages
Solving Problems Using Logic
Problem Solving
Problems in Reasoning
Retrograde Reasoning
The Uses of Language
Three Basic Functions of Language
Discourse Serving Multiple Functions
The Forms of Discourse
Emotive Words
Kinds of Agreement and Disagreement
Emotively Neutral Language
Disputes, Verbal Disputes, and Definitions
Kinds of Definition and the Resolution of Disputes
Denotation (Extension) and Connotation (Intension)
Extension and Denotative Definitions
Intension and Connotative Definitions
Rules for Definition by Genus and Difference
What Is a Fallacy?
Fallacies of Relevance
Fallacies of Presumption
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Categorical Propositions
The Theory of Deduction
Categorical Propositions and Classes
Quality, Quantity, and Distribution
The Traditional Square of Opposition
Further Immediate Inferences
Existential Import
Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositions
Categorical Syllogisms
Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms
The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argument
Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms
Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies
Exposition of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism
Arguments in Ordinary Language
Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language
Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argument
Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form
Uniform Translation
Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms
The Dilemma
Symbolic Logic
The Symbolic Language of Modern Logic
The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction
Conditional Statements and Material Implication
Argument Forms and Arguments
Statement Forms, Material Equivalence, and Logical Equivalence
The Paradoxes of Material Implication
The Three Laws of Thought
The Method of Deduction
Formal Proof of Validity
The Rule of Replacement
Proof of Invalidity
Quantification Theory
Singular Propositions
Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositions
Proving Validity
Proving Invalidity
Asyllogistic Inference
Analogy and Probable Inference
Argument by Analogy
Appraising Analogical Arguments
Refutation by Logical Analogy
Causal Connections: Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiry
Cause and Effect
Mill's Methods
Critique of Mill's Methods
Science and Hypothesis
The Values of Science
Explanations: Scientific and Unscientific
Evaluating Scientific Explanation
Seven Stages of Scientific Investigation
Scientists in Action: The Pattern of Scientific Investigation
Crucial Experiments and Ad Hoc Hypotheses
Classification as Hypothesis
Alternative Conceptions of Probability
The Probability Calculus
Probability of Joint Occurrences
Probability of Alternative Occurrences
Expected Value
Solutions to Selected Exercises
Special Symbols
Glossary and Index of Logical Terms
Index of Names and Titles
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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