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Introduction to Social Work Through the Eyes of Practice Settings

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2015-01-07
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText. To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book, use ISBN 0134057511.


Introduction to Social Work by Michelle Martin is designed to help readers understand the role and function of social workers within the context of a range of social service practice settings–child welfare, adolescence, older adults, mental health, homelessness, health care and hospice, school social work, religion and spirituality, violence and victim advocacy, and international social work. In it, readers learn to recognize a range of social problems impacting people within society, particularly members of at-risk and disenfranchised populations; understand key psychosocial and clinical issues impacting a range of populations within various theoretical frameworks; and apply key intervention strategies to case studies involving frequently encountered social problems and psychosocial issues. The text is consistent with the new CSWE EPAS, emphasizes ethical practice by infusing the NASW Code of Ethics throughout, integrates the use of technology, explores the role of religion and spirituality in the helping process, and examines social policy and legislation through a comprehensive history of related federal policy and legislation. The Enhanced Pearson eText features embedded video and assessments.


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Author Biography

Michelle Martin has over 25 years experience working in advocacy, policy and social work. She has a PhD in Peace Studies from the University of Bradford in the UK, an MSocSci in global policy studies from the University of Bristol in the UK, and an MSW from University of Illinois, Jane Addams College of Social Work in Chicago. Michelle is the author of three books, Introduction to Human Services: Through the Eyes of Practice Settings; Advocacy for Social Justice: A Global Perspective, and Introduction to Social Work: Through the Eyes of Practice Settings, and several articles focusing primarily on social policy and global issues related to human rights violations and conflict. Her area of research focuses on the internationalization of global conflict, including the history of ethnonationalist conflict, and civil war and genocide in Rwanda, with a focus on the role of social media in conflict and peace processes. She has also extensively studied forced migration and conflict-generated diaspora and their engagement in peace and conflict processes.


Michelle is also interested in human rights mechanisms and the role of the United Nations in responding to human rights violations, as well as the relationship between emerging technologies, globalization and global conflict situations. Michelle is particularly committed to advocating for marginalized and at-risk populations on a global level. Michelle teaches at Dominican University in the Chicago area.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Part I: Foundational Issues in Social Work Policy and Practice
1. Introduction to the Social Work Profession: Purpose, Preparation,
Practice, and Theoretical Orientations 1
The Nature of Social Work and Its Need in Society 2
Social Workers: Educational Requirements and Professional Standards 4
How Do Social Workers Practice and What Do They Do? 8
Theoretical Frameworks Used in Social Work 9
Summary 12

2. The Evolution of Social Welfare Policy: Effect on Social Work Practice 14
The History of Social Welfare Policy and Provision in Europe
and the United States 14
The Feudal System of the Middle Ages 15
Poor Laws of England 16
The Elizabethan Poor Laws 17
Charity Organization Society Movement in the United States 18
Jane Addams and the Settlement House Movement 19
The New Deal and the Social Security Act of 1935 21
Influences of African American Social Workers 22
Gay Rights: From Marriage Equality to “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Repeal 24
Welfare Reform and the Emergence of Neoliberal Economic Policies 26
The Christian Right 29
The Tea Party Movement 29
A Time for Change: The Election of the First African American President 30
Summary 32

3. Generalist Skills and Intervention Strategies: Effecting Meaningful
and Ethical Change 33
Ethics and the Social Work Profession 34
What Does It Mean to Be Ethical? 35
The Conflict Between Ethical Standards and Emotional Desires 35
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 36
Cultural Influences on the Perception of Ethical Behavior 37
Ethical Standards in Social Work 39
Informed Consent and Confidentiality 40
Skills and Competencies 42
Sympathy and Empathy 43
Boundary Setting 45
The Psychosocial Assessment 47
Bowen’s Family Genogram 49
Psychological Testing 50
Continuum of Mental Health and Mental Illness 51
Generalist Techniques for Direct Practice 51
Task-Centered Casework 52
Perceptual Reframing, Emotional Regulation, Networking, and Advocacy 53
Cultural Competence and Diversity 55
Social Work Practice on a Macro Level 56
At-risk, Oppressed, and Disenfranchised Populations 58
A Human Rights Framework: Inalienable Rights for All Human Beings 59
Shared Goals of Effective Macropractice Techniques 59
Common Aspects of Macro Practice 60
Summary 62

Part II: Social Work in Action–Common Practice Settings
4. Child Welfare Services: Overview and Purpose of Child and Family
Services Agencies 64
Introduction to Child and Family Services 65
The History of Child Welfare in the United States 66
Slavery and Child Labor 67
Child Labor During the Industrial Era: Children and Factories 68
The Orphan Problem and the History of the Foster Care System in Early America 69
Early Orphan Asylums 69
The Orphan Trains 70
Jane Addams and the Fight for Child Labor Laws 71
Overview of the Current U.S. Child Welfare System 73
Getting into the System 73
Current Legislation Impacting the U.S. Child Welfare System 74
Child Abuse Investigations 75
When to Intervene: Models for Decision Making 78
Working With Children in Placement 80
Working With Biological Families of Children in Placement 82
Working With Foster Children: Common Clinical Issues 83
Reunification 90
Family Preservation 91
Ethnic Minority Populations and Multicultural Considerations 92
Placing Children of Color in Caucasian Homes 93
Native Americans and the U.S. Child Welfare System 95
Summary 97

5. Adolescent Services 98
Adolescence: A New Stage of Development? 99
Developmental Perspectives of Adolescence 99
Common Psychosocial Issues and the Role of the Social Worker 102
Adolescent Rebellion 102
Depression, Anxiety, and Deliberate Self-harm 104
Suicide Risk in Adolescence 106
Eating Disorders 109
Chronic and Severe Mental Illness: Schizophrenia in Adolescence 110
Practice Settings Specific to Adolescent Services 111
Multicultural Considerations 114
Summary 116

6. Social Work and Older Adults 117
The Aging of America: Changing Demographics 119
Old and Old-Old: A Developmental Perspective 120
Successful Aging 123
Current Issues Affecting Older Adults and the Role of the Social Worker 124
Ageism 125
Housing 126
Homelessness and the Older Adult Population 127
Adjustment to Retirement 129
Grandparents Parenting 130
Depression 132
Dementia 133
Elder Abuse 134
Legislation Affecting Older Adults 135
Practice Settings Serving Older Adults 136
Special Populations 137
Summary 138

7. Mental Health and Mental Illness 140
The History of Mental Health Treatment in the United States 141
The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill 143
Common Mental Illnesses and Psychosocial Issues 144
Serious Mental Disorders Diagnosed on Axis I 145
Serious Mental Disorders Diagnosed on Axis II 146
Mental Health Counseling Interventions 148
Clinical Diagnoses 151
Common Mental Health Practice Settings 152
Mental Illness and Special Populations 154
Ethnic Minority Populations 155
Military Personnel 156
The Homeless Population 159
Prisoner Populations: The Criminalization of the Mentally Ill 161
Current Legislation Affecting Access to Mental Health Services
and Mental Health Parity 163
Summary 166

8. Homelessness 167
History of Homelessness in the United States 169
A Snapshot of Homelessness 171
Gauging the Scope of the Problem 172
The Many Causes of Homelessness 174
The Rise of Homelessness in Single-mother Families 177
Homeless Shelter Living: Families with Children 179
Homeless Children: School Attendance and Academic Performance 180
Runaway and Homeless Youth 182
Single Homeless Men: Mental Illness and Substance Abuse 184
Older Adult Homeless Population 184
Homelessness Due to Natural Disasters 186
Working with Homeless Populations: The Role of the Social Worker 188
Common Housing Assistance Practice Settings 190
Summary 193

9. Healthcare and Hospice 194
Social Work in Hospitals and Other Healthcare Settings 196
Crisis and Trauma Counseling 197
Single Visits and Rapid Assessment 198
Working with Patients with HIV/AIDS 199
HIV/AIDS and the Latino Population 201
Three-pronged Approach to Working With the HIV/AIDS Population 202
The U.S. Healthcare Crisis: A Legislative Response 202
Ethical Considerations for Social Workers in Healthcare Settings 205
The Hospice Movement 205
The History of Hospice: The Neglect of the Dying 205
The Hospice Philosophy 206
The Hospice Team and the Role of the Hospice Social Worker 207
Intervention Strategies: Counseling the Terminally Ill and Their Family Members 208
Resisting the Reality of Death 210
Planning for the Death 211
The Spiritual Component of Dying 212
Effective Bereavement Counseling 212
Multicultural Considerations 213
Ethical Considerations for Social Workers Working in Hospice Settings 214
Summary 215

10. School Social Work 217
The History of Social Work in the Public School System 219
School Social Work: The Traditional Model, Roles, Functions, and Core
Competencies 221
Interprofessional Collaboration: Working with Other Mental Health Professionals
Within the Public School Setting 223
The Plight of Urban Schools 226
Diversity in the Schools: Developing Cultural Competence 227
Working With Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups 227
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning Youth 229
The Terrorist Threat and “Islamophobia” 230
Depression and Other Psychosocial Concerns 232
Substance Abuse in the Schools 233
Child Abuse and Neglect: Protecting Students 235
Bullying 235
Teenage Pregnancy 237
Common Ethical Dilemmas Facing School Social Workers 238
Summary 239

11. Religion, Spirituality, and Faith-based Agencies 240
The Historical Role of Religion in Caring for the Poor and Disadvantaged 242
The Role of Spirituality in Social Work 244
Faith-based Agencies: Social Service Delivery from Different Faith Traditions 247
Legislation and Policy Affecting Faith-based Agencies 248
The Benefits of Faith-based Services 250
Religious Diversity in Faith-based Organizations 250
The Role of the Social Worker: Social Services and Intervention Strategies 251
Jewish Social Service Agencies 251
Christian Social Services Agencies 253
Islamic Social Services Agencies 257
The Mindfulness Movement 260
Summary 261

12 .Violence, Victim Advocacy, and Corrections 263
Forensic Social Work: Working with Survivors and Perpetrators of Violence 265
Intimate Partner Violence 266
The Nature of IPV: The Cycle of Violence 267
Working with Survivors of IPV 268
IPV Practice Settings 271
The Prosecution of IPV 272
Batterer Intervention Programs 273
Sexual Assault 274
Why People Commit Rape 275
The Psychological Impact of Sexual Assault 276
Male-on-Male Sexual Assault 276
Common Practice Settings: Rape Crisis Centers 277
Working with Survivors of Violent Crime 277
The Victims’ Bill of Rights and Victim-Witness Assistance 278
Survivors of Homicide 279
Common Psychosocial Issues Among Survivors of Violent Crime 280
Working with Perpetrators of Crime 280
Gang Activity 281
Forensic Social Work Practice Settings Focusing on Gang Involvement 282
Social Workers in the Corrections System 283
Disparity in Sentencing: The Incarceration of Ethnic Minorities 283
Psychosocial Issues in the Prison Population: The Role of the Social Worker 285
Mental Health Programs in Correctional Facilities 285
Prison and Pregnancy 285
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS 286
Barriers to Treatment 286
Summary 287

13. International Social Work 288
The Global Community 289
HIV/AIDS Pandemic 291
Crimes Against Women and Children 292
Female Genital Mutilation 292
Human Sex Trafficking 293
Orphans and Vulnerable Youth: Street Children 294
Child Labor and Economic Injustice 295
Indigenous People 296
Refugees 297
International Disaster Relief 299
The Effectiveness of International Disaster Relief and the Role of the Social Worker 299
Providing Psychosocial Support for Disaster Survivors 300
Crimes Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Populations 301
Government-Sanctioned Torture and Abuse 303
Genocide and Rape as a Weapon of War 305
International Social Work Practice in Action 306
Summary 307

Epilogue: The Future of Social Work in an Ever-Changing World 308
References 312
Index 330

Supplemental Materials

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