An Introduction to Thermogeology Ground Source Heating and Cooling

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-08-13
  • Publisher: Wiley

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This authoritative guide provides a basis for understanding the emerging technology of ground source heat pumps. It equips engineers, architects, planners, regulators and geologists with the fundamental skills needed to manipulate the ground's huge capacity to store, supply and receive heat, and to implement technologies (such as heat pumps) to exploit that capacity for space heating and cooling. The author has geared the book towards understanding ground source heating and cooling from the ground side (the geological aspects), rather than solely the building aspects. He explains the science behind thermogeology and offers practical guidance on different design options. The book is aimed primarily at professionals whose skills areas impinge on the emerging technology of ground source heating and cooling. They are aware of the importance of the technology and wish to rapidly acquire fundamental theoretical understanding and design skills.

Author Biography

David Banks is one of the Britain's leading hydrogeologists and has been instrumental in promoting ground source heating and cooling within the UK. He has over 26 years international experience from consultancy, the public sector, academia and commercial training. He runs his own business, Holymoor Consultancy Ltd, and has taught at the Universities of Sheffield, Leeds and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Most recently, he has been a trainer on the EU's Geotrainet programme.

Table of Contents

About the Authorp. xi
Preface to the First Editionp. xiii
Preface to the Second Editionp. xv
Acknowledgementsp. xvii
An Introductionp. 1
Who should read this book?p. 2
What will this book do and not do?p. 2
Why should you read this book?p. 3
Thermogeology and hydrogeologyp. 6
Geothermal Energyp. 11
Geothermal energy and ground source heatp. 11
Lord Kelvin's conducting, cooling earthp. 12
Geothermal gradient, heat flux and the structure of the earthp. 14
Internal heat generation in the crustp. 16
The converting earth?p. 17
Geothermal anomaliesp. 19
Types of geothermal systemp. 27
Use of geothermal energy to produce electricity by steam turbinesp. 28
Binary systemsp. 28
Direct usep. 30
Cascading usep. 30
Hot dry rock systems [a.k.a. 'enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)']p. 32
The 'sustainability' of geothermal energy and its environmental impactp. 35
And if we do not live in Iceland?p. 38
The Subsurface as a Heat Storage Reservoirp. 40
Specific heat capacity: the ability to store heatp. 41
Movement of heatp. 45
The temperature of the groundp. 51
Insolation and atmospheric radiationp. 55
Cyclical temperature signals in the groundp. 59
Geothermal gradientp. 61
Human sources of heat in the groundp. 65
Geochemical energyp. 69
The heat energy budget of our subsurface reservoirp. 70
Cyclical storage of heatp. 72
Manipulating the ground heat reservoirp. 74
What Is a Heat Pump?p. 79
Enginesp. 81
Pumpsp. 84
Heat pumpsp. 85
The rude mechanics of the heat pumpp. 88
Absorption heat pumpsp. 91
Heat pumps for space heatingp. 91
The efficiency of heat pumpsp. 93
Air-sourced heat pumpsp. 96
Ground source heat pumpsp. 98
Seasonal performance factor (SPF)p. 99
GSHPs for coolingp. 100
Other environmental sources of heatp. 100
The benefits of GSHPsp. 101
Capital costp. 104
Other practical considerationsp. 107
The challenge of delivering efficient GSHP systemsp. 108
Challenges: the futurep. 109
Summaryp. 112
Heat Pumps and Thermogeology: A Brief History and International Perspectivep. 114
Refrigeration before the heat pumpp. 115
The overseas ice tradep. 117
Artificial refrigeration: who invented the heat pump?p. 119
The history of the GSHPp. 121
The global energy budget: how significant are GSHPs?p. 129
Ground source heat: a competitor in energy markets?p. 132
Ground Source Coolingp. 133
Our cooling needs in spacep. 133
Scale effects and our cooling needs in timep. 134
Traditional coolingp. 135
Dry coolersp. 136
Evaporationp. 138
Chillers/heat pumpsp. 141
Absorption heat pumpsp. 143
Delivery of cooling in large buildingsp. 144
Dehumidificationp. 145
Passive cooling using the groundp. 145
Active ground source coolingp. 147
An example of open-loop groundwater coolingp. 148
Options and Applications for Ground Source Heat Pumpsp. 150
How much heat do I need?p. 150
Sizing a GSHPp. 156
Open-loop ground source heat systemsp. 161
Closed-loop systemsp. 173
Domestic hot water by ground source heat pumps?p. 191
Heating and cooling delivery in complex systemsp. 195
Heat from icep. 201
The Design of Groundwater-Based Open-Loop Systemsp. 202
Common design flaws of open-loop groundwater systemsp. 203
Aquifers, aquitards and fracturesp. 203
Transmissivityp. 205
Confined and unconfined aquifersp. 206
Abstraction well design in confined and unconfined aquifersp. 208
Design yield, depth and drawdownp. 210
Real wells and real aquifersp. 215
Sources of informationp. 217
Multiple wells in a wellfieldp. 222
Hydraulic feedback in a well doubletp. 227
Heat migration in the groundwater environmentp. 234
The importance of three-dimensionalityp. 240
Mathematical reversibilityp. 242
Sustainability: thermally balanced systems and seasonal reversalp. 243
Groundwater modellingp. 244
Examples of open-loop heating/cooling schemesp. 245
Further readingp. 246
Pipes, Pumps and the Hydraulics of Closed-Loop Systemsp. 248
Our overall objectivep. 251
Hydraulic resistance of the heat exchangerp. 252
The hydraulic resistance of pipesp. 253
Acceptable hydraulic lossesp. 255
Hydraulic resistances in series and parallelp. 255
An examplep. 256
Selecting pumpsp. 262
Carrier fluidsp. 265
Manifoldsp. 271
Hydraulic testing of closed loopsp. 275
Equipping a ground loopp. 277
Subsurface Heat Conduction and the Design of Borehole-Based Closed-Loop Systemsp. 279
Rules of thumb?p. 279
Common design flawsp. 282
Subsurface heat conductionp. 283
Analogy between heat flow and groundwater flowp. 286
Carslaw, Ingersoll, Zobel, Claesson and Eskilson's solutionsp. 289
Real closed-loop boreholesp. 294
Application of theory - an examplep. 304
Multiple borehole arraysp. 313
Simulating cooling loadsp. 321
Simulation timep. 322
Stop pressp. 323
Horizontal Closed-Loop Systemsp. 325
Principles of operation and important parametersp. 326
Depth of burialp. 327
Loop materials and carrier fluidsp. 328
Ground conditionsp. 329
Areal constraintsp. 333
Geometry of installationp. 333
Modelling horizontal ground exchange systemsp. 344
Earth tubes: air as a carrier fluidp. 351
Pond- and Lake-Based Ground Source Heat Systemsp. 353
The physics of lakesp. 354
Some rules of thumbp. 356
The heat balance of a lakep. 357
Open-loop lake systemsp. 365
Closed-loop surface water systemsp. 367
Closed-loop systems - environmental considerationsp. 371
Standing Column Wellsp. 372
'Standing column' systemsp. 372
The mathsp. 376
The cost of SCWsp. 377
SCW systems in practicep. 379
A brief case study: Grindon Camping Bamp. 379
A final twist - the Jacob doublet wellp. 381
Thinking Big: Large-Scale Heat Storage and Transferp. 383
The thermal capacity of a building footprintp. 384
Simulating closed-loop arrays with balanced loadsp. 385
A case study of a balanced scheme: car showroom, Bucharestp. 390
Balancing loadsp. 392
Deliberate thermal energy storage - closed-loop borehole thermal energy storage (BTES)p. 395
Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)p. 398
UTES and heat pumpsp. 403
Regional transfer and storage of heatp. 403
Thermal Response Testingp. 410
Sources of thermogeological datap. 410
Laboratory determination of thermal conductivityp. 411
The thermal response test (TRT)p. 412
The practicalities: the test rigp. 417
Test procedurep. 420
Sources of uncertaintyp. 425
Non-uniform geologyp. 426
Non-constant power inputp. 426
Groundwater flowp. 427
Analogies with hydrogeologyp. 428
Thermal response testing for horizontal closed loopsp. 429
Environmental Impact, Regulation and Geohazardsp. 432
The regulatory frameworkp. 432
Thermal risksp. 437
Hydraulic risksp. 444
Geotechnical risksp. 449
Contamination risksp. 451
Geochemical risksp. 453
Microbiological risksp. 454
Excavation and drilling risksp. 455
Decommissioning of boreholesp. 458
Promoting technology: subsidyp. 459
The final wordp. 460
Referencesp. 463
Study Question Answersp. 493
Symbolsp. 503
Glossaryp. 509
Unitsp. 515
Indexp. 518
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