9780130604583

Kirk's Fire Investigation

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130604583

  • ISBN10:

    0130604585

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This best selling book is the leader in arson investigation education. Author John DeHaan uses years of experience as an arson investigator and expert witness to present the basic information of the job of an arson investiagtion and the skills and knowledge required to perform this job on a fire scene.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction
1(8)
The Fire Problem
1(1)
The Detection of Incendiary Fires
2(2)
Analytical Fire Investigation
4(3)
Chapter Summary
7(2)
The Elementary Chemistry of Combustion
9(12)
Atoms, Elements, and Compounds
9(3)
The Oxidation Reaction
10(1)
Carbon Compounds
11(1)
Other Elements
12(1)
Organic Compounds
12(6)
Hydrocarbons
12(3)
Petroleum Products
15(1)
Carbohydrates
16(1)
Pyrolysis of Organics
17(1)
Conclusion
17(1)
State of the Fuel
18(2)
Chapter Summary
20(1)
The Nature and Behavior of Fire
21(33)
Basic Combustion
21(1)
Flaming Fire
22(2)
Structure of Flames
24(2)
Glowing Fire
26(4)
Explosive Combustion
30(1)
Heat
31(8)
Heat and the Rate of Reaction
31(1)
Heat and Temperature
32(1)
Heat Release Rate
33(1)
Heat Transfer and Heat Flux
33(5)
Direct Flame Impingement
38(1)
Flame Plume
39(1)
Sequence of a Room Fire
40(8)
Beginning or Incipient Stage
41(1)
Free-Burning Stage
41(2)
Post-flashover Stage
43(4)
Smoldering Stage
47(1)
Effects of Environmental Conditions
48(4)
Temperature
49(1)
Humidity
49(1)
Wetness of Fuel
50(1)
Wind
50(2)
Chapter Summary
52(2)
Combustion Properties of Liquid and Gaseous Fuels
54(30)
Types of Fuel
54(1)
Gases
54(1)
Liquids and Their Vapors
55(1)
Solids
55(1)
Physical Properties of Fuels
55(15)
Vapor Pressure
55(1)
Flammability (Explosive) Limits
56(2)
Flash Point
58(1)
Flame Point/Fire Point
58(1)
Ignition Temperature
59(3)
Ignition Energy
62(1)
Boiling Points
63(1)
Vapor Density
63(5)
Heat of Combustion (Heat Output)
68(2)
Hydrocarbon Fuels
70(2)
Nonhydrocarbon Liquid Fuels
72(2)
Combustion of Liquid Fuels
72(2)
Pyrolysis and Decomposition of Liquids
74(1)
Fuel Gas Sources
75(7)
Gas Lines
75(1)
Natural Gas
75(4)
LP Gas
79(3)
Chapter Summary
82(2)
Combustion Properties of Solid Fuels
84(31)
Pyrolysis
84(3)
Combustion Properties of Wood
87(9)
Components of Wood
87(1)
Ignition and Combustion of Wood
87(8)
Wood Products
95(1)
Paper
96(1)
Plastics
97(10)
Paint
107(1)
Metals
108(1)
Coal
108(1)
Dust Explosions
109(1)
Fire Behavior
109(4)
Flame Color
109(2)
Smoke Production
111(2)
Chapter Summary
113(2)
Sources of Ignition
115(45)
Primary Ignitors
115(9)
Matches
116(2)
Lighters
118(1)
Candles
118(1)
Sparks/Arcs
119(1)
Hot Objects/Hot Surfaces
120(1)
Friction
121(1)
Radiant Heat
122(1)
Chemical Reaction
122(2)
The Role of Services and Appliances in Starting Fires
124(5)
Gas Appliances as Ignition Sources
124(5)
Kerosene Heaters
129(1)
Electricity
129(1)
The Role of Hot and Burning Fragments in Kindling Fires
129(9)
Wind-Blown Sparks
130(1)
Fireplaces and Chimneys
131(4)
Trash Burners and Bonfires
135(1)
Hot Metals
136(1)
Mechanical Sparks
137(1)
Firearms Residues
138(1)
Smoking as a Fire Origin
138(4)
The Role of Animals in Igniting Fires
142(2)
Miscellaneous Sources of Ignition
144(12)
Lightning
144(3)
Spontaneous Combustion (Self-Heating)
147(6)
Ignition by Electric Lighting
153(3)
Chapter Summary
156(4)
Structure Fires and Their Investigation
160(91)
Beginning the Investigation
160(2)
Elements of Building Construction
162(9)
Structural Shell
162(3)
Fire-Resistance Ratings
165(1)
Internal Structure
165(6)
General Principles of Fire Behavior
171(2)
Tracing the Course of the Fire
171(2)
Implications
173(1)
Investigative Information During Suppression
173(3)
Responsibility of Firefighters
174(2)
Minimizing Post-fire Damage
176(1)
Examination of a Structure Fire Scene
176(59)
Survey and Assessment
176(1)
Interviews with Firefighters
177(1)
Interviews with Witnesses
178(1)
Search Patterns
179(2)
Fire Behavior Indicators
181(38)
Other Investigative Considerations
219(6)
Testing of Hands
225(1)
Protected Areas
225(5)
Elimination of Other Ignition Sources
230(1)
Detection Systems
231(1)
Appliance Condition
231(1)
Interior Fires from Exterior Sources
232(1)
Roof and Attic Fires
233(1)
Myths and Misconceptions
233(2)
Documenting the Fire Scene
235(10)
Photography
235(4)
Sketching
239(2)
Collection of Evidence
241(1)
Debris Containing Suspected Volatiles
241(3)
Other Solid Evidence
244(1)
Liquids
244(1)
Chain of Evidence
245(1)
Conclusions About the Fire
245(2)
Chapter Summary
247(4)
Grass and Wildland Fires and Their Investigation
251(23)
Fuels
252(3)
Fire Behavior
253(2)
Determination of Origin
255(7)
Other Sources of Information
255(1)
The Scene Search
256(1)
Burn Indicators
257(5)
Sources of Ignition
262(5)
Power Lines
263(1)
Lightning
263(1)
Burning or Hot Fragments
264(1)
Incendiary Fires
264(3)
Collection and Preservation of Physical Evidence
267(5)
Chapter Summary
272(2)
Automobile, Motor Vehicle, and Ship Fires
274(31)
Automobiles and Motor Vehicles
274(24)
Fuel Systems
274(5)
Electrical Systems
279(1)
Miscellaneous Causes
280(2)
Combustible Materials
282(1)
Vehicle Arson
283(1)
Vehicle Examination
283(10)
Motorhomes and Recreational Vehicles
293(4)
Mobile Homes
297(1)
Boats and Ships
298(4)
Chapter Summary
302(3)
Electrical Causes of Fire
305(51)
Basic Electricity
306(8)
Static Electricity
306(1)
Current Electricity
307(2)
Direct and Alternating Current (DC and AC)
309(1)
Electrical Units
310(1)
Electrical Calculations
310(4)
Wiring Systems
314(10)
Conductors and Insulators
315(1)
Current-Carrying Capability (Ampacity)
316(2)
Protection---Overcurrent and Short Circuit
318(1)
Fuses
318(2)
Breakers
320(1)
Solid-State Protectors
320(1)
Overcurrent Devices and Fire Investigation
321(1)
Ground Fault Interrupters
321(2)
Service Entrance
323(1)
Ignition by Electrical Means
324(18)
Conduction Heating
324(1)
Overheating by Excessive Current
325(2)
Overheating by Poor Connection
327(2)
Insulation Breakdown (Degradation)---Carbon Tracking
329(2)
Arcs and Sparks
331(4)
Aluminum Wiring
335(1)
Electric Motors and Transformers
336(1)
Fixed Heaters
337(2)
Appliances
339(2)
Extension Cords
341(1)
Heat Tapes
341(1)
Investigation of Electricity-Related Fires
342(11)
Post-fire Indicators
343(3)
Arcing Through Char
346(1)
Laboratory Examination
347(6)
Chapter Summary
353(3)
Clothing and Fabric Fires
356(15)
Types of Cloth
356(3)
Natural Fibers
357(1)
Synthetic Fibers
357(2)
Fire Hazards
359(1)
Regulations on Flammable Fabrics
360(1)
Flammability of Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture
360(2)
Flammability Testing
362(6)
General Observations
364(1)
Furniture Testing
364(4)
Chapter Summary
368(3)
Explosions and Explosive Combustion
371(41)
Explosive Combustion
372(2)
Diffuse-Phase Explosions
374(15)
Gases
374(6)
Vapors
380(7)
Dust Suspensions
387(2)
Ignition
389(1)
Dense-Phase Explosions
389(7)
Chemical and Physical Properties
391(1)
Explosive Types
392(2)
High Order/Low Order
394(2)
Investigation of Explosions
396(13)
The Scene Search
396(2)
Mechanical Explosions
398(2)
Speed and Force of Reaction
400(2)
Explosion Debris
402(4)
Scene Examination
406(1)
Evidence Recovery
407(1)
Laboratory Analysis
407(2)
Chapter Summary
409(3)
Chemical Fires and Hazardous Materials
412(16)
Gases
412(2)
Hydrocarbons
413(1)
Others
414(1)
Liquids
414(4)
Solvents
415(3)
Others
418(1)
Solids
418(3)
Incendiary Mixtures
418(2)
Oxidizing Salts
420(1)
Reactive Metals
420(1)
Clandestine Drug Laboratories
421(3)
Warnings
424(3)
Chapter Summary
427(1)
Laboratory Services
428(41)
Availability of Laboratory Services
428(2)
General Fire Evidence
430(7)
Identification of Charred or Burned Materials
430(1)
Burned Documents
431(1)
Failure Analysis---Forensic Engineers
431(2)
Evaluation of Appliances and Wiring
433(1)
Spoliation
434(1)
Miscellaneous Laboratory Tests
434(3)
Identification of Volatile Accelerants
437(17)
Gas Chromatography
437(3)
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)
440(2)
Sample Handling and Isolation of Volatile Residues
442(4)
Identification of Volatile Residues
446(6)
Interpretation of GC Results
452(2)
Chemical Incendiaries
454(2)
Non-Fire-Related Criminal Evidence
456(9)
Fingerprints
456(2)
Blood
458(1)
Impression Evidence
459(3)
Physical Matches
462(1)
Trace Evidence
462(3)
Chapter Summary
465(4)
Fire-Related Deaths and Injuries
469(38)
The Team Effort
469(5)
Pathological and Toxicological Examination
474(18)
Destruction of the Body
477(6)
Effects of Fire
483(2)
Other Pathological Findings
485(1)
Carbon Monoxide Asphyxiation
486(6)
Sources of Carbon Monoxide
492(11)
Investigation of Carbon Monoxide Asphyxiations
496(1)
Other Toxic Gases
497(1)
Other Mechanisms
498(1)
Injuries
499(4)
Chapter Summary
503(4)
Arson as a Crime
507(28)
The Crime of Arson
508(1)
Motive
508(9)
Profit
509(1)
Fraud
509(2)
Other Profit Motives
511(1)
Vandalism
511(1)
Excitement and Thrill Seeking
511(1)
Hero/Vanity Arsonist
512(1)
Revenge, Retaliation, or Spite
512(2)
Concealment of Another Crime
514(1)
Extremism (Social Protest and Terrorism)
514(2)
Juvenile Fire Setting
516(1)
Mixed Motives
516(1)
Irrational Fire Setting
516(1)
The Arson Set
517(13)
Arranging the Fire---Location
518(1)
Fuels
519(1)
Flammable Liquids
519(5)
Type of Accelerant
524(1)
Method of Initiation
525(5)
Deductions from the Interpretation of Evidence
530(3)
Criminal Analysis or Profiling
531(1)
Analytical Reasoning
531(1)
Elimination of Accidental and Natural Causes
532(1)
Chapter Summary
533(2)
Other Investigative Topics
535(30)
Safety
535(2)
Fire Modeling
537(3)
Arson Law
540(1)
Elements of Proof
540(7)
Direct and Circumstantial Evidence
541(1)
Search and Seizure
541(2)
Search and Seizure Court Decisions
543(4)
Sources of Information
547(2)
Spoliation
549(1)
Chain of Evidence
550(1)
Report Writing
550(3)
Summary
551(1)
The Scene
551(1)
The Investigation
552(1)
Conclusions
552(1)
Courtroom Testimony
553(6)
The Expert Witness
553(5)
Pretrial Preparation
558(1)
Testimony
558(1)
Epilogue
559(3)
Chapter Summary
562(3)
Appendix A Natural Elements 565(3)
Appendix B Nomenclature 568(3)
Appendix C Melting Points and Thermal Conductivities of Common Materials 571(1)
Appendix D The Evidence Collection Kit 572(2)
Appendix E The Model Arson Law 574(1)
Appendix F Sketching Fire Scenes 575(6)
Appendix G List of Explosive Materials, 1999 581(8)
Appendix H Field Interview and Incident Report Forms 589(18)
Appendix I Log Sheets 607(4)
Appendix J Data for Fire Modeling and Reconstruction 611(2)
Appendix K Critical Incident Radiant Heat Fluxes for Some Common Fuels 613(2)
Appendix L Sample Task Force Agreement 615(4)
Appendix M Web Sites 619(2)
Suggested Reading 621(3)
Glossary 624(7)
Index 631

Excerpts

It is hard to believe that it has now been 20 years since I took over responsibility for what was thenFire Investigationby Dr. Paul Kirk. So many years have passed that a whole new generation of fire investigators are now practicing. So many have asked "Why is it calledKirk's Fire Investigation?" that it is clear they are not aware of Prof. Kirk's contribution to the discipline. Paul L. Kirk was a professor of biochemistry and criminalistics at the University of California at Berkeley, but it was his specialty of microchemistry that focused his attention on physical evidence and its analysis. Prof. Kirk was part of the Manhattan Project (where separation and identification of trace quantities of particular chemicals was a critical step in developing the atomic bomb). After the war, he focused on analytical chemistry as an adjunct to criminal investigation. He was the professor in charge of the criminalistics program at Berkeley until his death in 1970, and launched the careers of many criminalists who now practice around the world. He wrote the landmark text,Crime Investigation,in 1953 and maintained a private criminalistics consulting practice. It was this practice that led to his involvement in fire and arson investigation, where he was consulted in a wide variety of fire and explosion cases. He publishedFire Investigationin 1969 as the first textbook on fire investigation written by a scientist rather than a field investigator. It became a standard reference and was still in print some 11 years after his death. In honor of his pioneering work in bringing science to fire investigation, his name is included in the title, and the spirit, of this text. His concern with using science to solve the puzzles of fire and explosion presaged the current emphasis on using the scientific method to investigate fires by more than 30 years. It is clear that good, knowledgeable investigators have been using that approach for years, even if they were not aware of it. The last 15 years have seen a dramatic improvement in the frequency and quality of interactions between fire investigators, fire scientists, and engineers involved in fire safety and fire protection. The intuitive extrapolation or interpolation of data to explain fire development has been standard practice among fire investigators and it has been faulty far too often. The integration of the information, knowledge, and experience of fire engineers and those scientists involved in the chemistry and physics of fire development into fire investigation has proceeded along many paths--personal, educational, and professional--and on an international basis. Fire engineers are now involved directly in investigations and also teach investigators how to apply engineering principles. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 921Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigationshas focused the attention of investigators and the legal profession on the scientific principles behind investigation. This author was involved with NFPA 921 from 1990 to 1999, and this edition reflects a closer parallel between practices and information in both sources that can only enhance the accuracy and reliability of all investigations. Thanks to the fire engineers and scientists involved, we have a better understanding of the dynamics of ignition, flame spread, and room fire growth than ever before. This edition contains new material on those critical subjects. Today's investigators are being held to a higher standard of professional practice than previously. It is no longer adequate to claim expertise based on years of experience alone. A professional must demonstrate that what he or she is doing follows the practices and the knowledge base of the relevant professional community. That knowledge and practice is based on texts such as this one and NFPA 921, which are continuously reviewed and revised to reflect the most current knowledge. The

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