9780131719224

Kirk's Fire Investigation

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131719224

  • ISBN10:

    013171922X

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-08-09
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Since this book was first written, fire investigation has evolved, as has the knowledge essential for investigators to know. Today's investigators are being held to a higher standard of professional practice than ever before. This best-selling text, written by a forensic scientist with extensive experience in all phases of fire and explosion investigation, details all the "need-to-know" skills, and offers correlation to both the NFPA 921 and 1033 guidelines. Topics are presented in a logical order from simple chemistry and physics to scene analysis to complex case analysis. Special topics such as lab analysis, fire deaths, and explosions are also included.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Introductionp. 1
The Fire Problemp. 1
The Detection of Incendiary Firesp. 3
Analytical Fire Investigationp. 5
The Scientific Methodp. 7
The Elementary Chemistry of Combustionp. 11
Atoms, Elements, and Compoundsp. 11
The Oxidation Reactionp. 12
Carbon Compoundsp. 13
Other Elementsp. 14
Organic Compoundsp. 14
Hydrocarbonsp. 14
Petroleum Productsp. 17
Carbohydratesp. 18
Pyrolysis of Organicsp. 19
Conclusionp. 19
State of the Fuelp. 20
Summaryp. 21
The Nature and Behavior of Firep. 23
Basic Combustionp. 23
Flaming Firep. 24
Structure of Flamesp. 26
Smoldering Firep. 27
Explosive Combustionp. 32
Heatp. 33
Heat and the Rate of Reactionp. 33
Heat and Temperaturep. 34
Heat Release Ratep. 35
Heat Transfer and Heat Fluxp. 35
Direct Flame Impingementp. 41
Flame Plumep. 42
Sequence of a Room Firep. 45
Beginning or Incipient Stagep. 46
Free-Burning Stagep. 46
Post-flashover Stagep. 53
Decay Stagep. 54
Flow of Hot Gasesp. 55
Effects of Environmental Conditionsp. 58
Temperaturep. 58
Humidityp. 59
Wetness of Fuel (Fuel Moisture Content)p. 60
Windp. 61
Oxygen Contentp. 61
Summaryp. 62
Combustion Properties of Liquid and Gaseous Fuelsp. 65
Types of Fuelp. 65
Gasesp. 65
Liquids and Their Vaporsp. 66
Solidsp. 66
Physical Properties of Fuelsp. 66
Vapor Pressurep. 66
Flammability (Explosive) Limitsp. 67
Flash Pointp. 73
Flame Point/Fire Pointp. 75
Ignition Temperaturep. 75
Ignition Energyp. 76
Boiling Pointsp. 77
Vapor Densityp. 78
Heat of Combustionp. 83
Hydrocarbon Fuelsp. 85
Nonhydrocarbon Liquid Fuelsp. 87
Combustion of Liquid Fuelsp. 88
Pyrolysis and Decomposition of Liquidsp. 90
Fuel Gas Sourcesp. 91
Gas Linesp. 91
Natural Gasp. 91
LP Gasp. 95
Summaryp. 99
Combustion Properties of Solid Fuelsp. 102
Pyrolysisp. 102
Combustion Properties of Woodp. 105
Components of Woodp. 105
Ignition and Combustion of Woodp. 105
"Low Temperature" Ignitionp. 109
Wood Productsp. 116
Paperp. 119
Plasticsp. 121
Paintp. 133
Metalsp. 134
Coalp. 135
Dust Explosionsp. 136
Fire Behaviorp. 136
Flame Colorp. 136
Smoke Productionp. 138
Summaryp. 139
Sources of Ignitionp. 143
Primary Ignitorsp. 144
Matchesp. 144
Lightersp. 146
Torchesp. 147
Candlesp. 147
Secondary Sourcesp. 148
Sparks/Arcsp. 148
Hot Objects/Hot Surfacesp. 149
Frictionp. 151
Radiant Heatp. 152
Chemical Reactionp. 153
The Role of Services and Appliances in Starting Firesp. 154
Gas Appliances as Ignition Sourcesp. 154
Electric Appliancesp. 161
Kerosene Heatersp. 161
Oil Storagep. 162
Electricityp. 162
The Role of Hot and Burning Fragments in Kindling Firesp. 162
Wind-Blown Sparksp. 162
Fireplaces and Chimneysp. 163
Long-Term Heating "Low-Temperature" Ignitionp. 165
Trash Burners and Bonfiresp. 168
Hot Coalsp. 169
Hot Metalsp. 169
Mechanical Sparksp. 170
Firearms Residuesp. 171
Smoking as a Fire Originp. 172
The Role of Animals in Igniting Firesp. 176
Miscellaneous Sources of Ignitionp. 178
Lightningp. 178
Spontaneous Combustion (Self-Heating)p. 181
Ignition by Electric Lightingp. 188
Ignition from Discarded Batteriesp. 190
Summaryp. 191
Structure Fires and Their Investigationp. 197
Beginning the Investigationp. 198
Investigative Information During Suppressionp. 200
Responsibility of the Firefightersp. 201
Minimizing Post-Fire Damagep. 203
Documentationp. 204
Elements of Building Constructionp. 205
Structural Shellp. 206
Fire-Resistance Ratingsp. 208
Internal Structurep. 209
General Principles of Fire Behaviorp. 218
Reconstructing the Starting Conditionsp. 218
Fire Patternsp. 220
Tracing the Course of the Firep. 220
Implicationsp. 222
Examination of a Structure Fire Scenep. 222
Survey and Assessmentp. 222
Interviews with Firefightersp. 223
Interviews with Witnessesp. 224
Search Patternsp. 225
Fire Behavior Indicatorsp. 228
Other Investigative Considerationsp. 276
Testing of Handsp. 282
Testing of Clothingp. 282
Protected Areasp. 282
Elimination of Ignition Sourcesp. 287
Detection Systemsp. 288
Arc Mappingp. 289
Appliance Conditionp. 289
Interior Fires from Exterior Sourcesp. 290
Roof and Attic Firesp. 290
Myths and Misconceptionsp. 291
Documenting the Fire Scenep. 293
Photographyp. 293
Sketchingp. 297
Collection of Evidencep. 299
Debris Containing Suspected Volatilesp. 301
Other Solid Evidencep. 302
Liquidsp. 303
Chain of Evidencep. 303
Time Linesp. 305
Conclusions About the Firep. 305
Summaryp. 306
Grass and Wildland Fires and Their Investigationp. 312
Fuelsp. 313
Fire Behaviorp. 314
Determination of Originp. 316
Investigation Methodologyp. 316
First Evaluationp. 317
Other Sources of Informationp. 317
The Scene Searchp. 317
Burn Indicatorsp. 319
Documentationp. 326
Sources of Ignitionp. 327
Power Linesp. 328
Lightningp. 328
Burning or Hot Fragmentsp. 329
Campfiresp. 329
Cigarettesp. 330
Incendiary Firesp. 330
Modelingp. 335
Collection and Preservation of Physical Evidencep. 335
Summaryp. 336
Automobile, Motor Vehicle, and Ship Firesp. 340
Automobiles and Motor Vehiclesp. 340
Fuel Systemsp. 340
Electrical Systemsp. 345
Miscellaneous Causesp. 347
Combustible Materialsp. 350
Vehicle Arsonp. 351
Vehicle Examinationp. 351
Motorhomes and Recreational Vehiclesp. 362
Mobile Homes (Manufactured Housing)p. 365
Boats and Shipsp. 368
Motives for Vehicle Arsonp. 369
Summaryp. 370
Electrical Causes of Firep. 373
Basic Electricityp. 374
Static Electricityp. 374
Current Electricityp. 375
Direct and Alternating Current (DC and AC)p. 378
Electrical Unitsp. 378
Electrical Calculationsp. 379
Wiring Systemsp. 383
Conductors and Insulatorsp. 383
Current-Carrying Capability (Ampacity)p. 385
Protection-Overcurrent and Short Circuitp. 386
Fusesp. 387
Breakersp. 388
Solid-State Protectorsp. 389
Overcurrent Devices and Fire Investigationp. 389
Ground Fault Interruptersp. 390
Service Entrancep. 392
Ignition by Electrical Meansp. 393
Conduction Heatingp. 393
Overheating by Excessive Currentp. 394
Overheating by Poor Connectionp. 394
Insulation Breakdown (Degradation)-Carbon Trackingp. 397
Arcs and Sparksp. 402
Aluminum Wiringp. 404
Electric Motors and Transformersp. 405
Fixed Heatersp. 408
Appliancesp. 408
Extension Cordsp. 411
Heat Tapesp. 411
Investigation of Electricity-Related Firesp. 411
Post-fire Indicatorsp. 413
Mapping of Arc Faultsp. 413
Arcing Through Charp. 418
Laboratory Examinationp. 420
Summaryp. 427
Clothing and Fabric Firesp. 431
Types of Clothp. 431
Natural Fibersp. 432
Synthetic Fibersp. 432
Fire Hazardsp. 434
Regulation on Flammable Fabricsp. 435
Flammability of Mattresses and Upholstered Furniturep. 435
Furniture Testingp. 437
Flammability Testingp. 440
General Observationsp. 443
Summaryp. 444
Explosions and Explosive Combustionp. 447
Explosive Combustionp. 448
Diffuse-Phase Explosionsp. 450
Gasesp. 450
Vaporsp. 460
Dust Suspensionsp. 465
Ignitionp. 466
Dense-Phase Explosionsp. 467
Chemical and Physical Propertiesp. 468
Explosive Typesp. 470
High Order/Low Orderp. 473
Investigation of Explosionsp. 474
The Scene Searchp. 474
Mechanical Explosionsp. 478
Speed and Force of Reactionp. 480
Explosion Debrisp. 483
Scene Examinationp. 489
Evidence Recoveryp. 491
Laboratory Analysisp. 491
Incident Analysisp. 493
Summaryp. 494
Chemical Fires and Hazardous Materialsp. 498
Gasesp. 499
Hydrocarbonsp. 500
Othersp. 500
Liquidsp. 501
Solventsp. 501
Othersp. 504
Solidsp. 504
Incendiary Mixturesp. 504
Oxidizing Saltsp. 506
Reactive Metalsp. 506
Clandestine Drug Laboratoriesp. 507
Marijuana Cultivationp. 512
Warningsp. 512
Summaryp. 514
Laboratory Servicesp. 516
Availability of Laboratory Servicesp. 516
Fire Testing Laboratoriesp. 517
General Fire Evidencep. 518
Identification of Charred or Burned Materialsp. 518
Burned Documentsp. 519
Failure Analysis-Forensic Engineersp. 521
Evaluation of Appliances and Wiringp. 521
Miscellaneous Laboratory Testsp. 522
Spoliationp. 527
Identification of Volatile Accelerantsp. 527
Gas Chromatographyp. 528
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)p. 530
Sample Handling and Isolation of Volatile Residuesp. 532
Identification of Volatile Residuesp. 536
Interpretation of GC Resultsp. 542
Chemical Incendiariesp. 545
Non-Fire-Related Criminal Evidencep. 547
Fingerprintsp. 547
Bloodp. 553
Impression Evidencep. 554
Physical Matchesp. 556
Trace Evidencep. 558
Summaryp. 559
Fire-Related Deaths and Injuriesp. 565
The Team Effortp. 565
Pathological and Toxicological Examinationp. 570
Destruction of the Bodyp. 573
Effects of Firep. 578
Other Pathological Findingsp. 582
Carbon Monoxide Asphyxiationp. 584
Sources of Carbon Monoxidep. 589
Investigation of Carbon Monoxide Asphyxiationsp. 592
Other Toxic Gasesp. 593
Other Mechanismp. 594
Injuriesp. 595
Manner of Deathp. 599
Summaryp. 599
Arson as a Crimep. 605
The Crime of Arsonp. 606
Motivep. 607
Profitp. 607
Vandalismp. 610
Excitement and Thrill Seekingp. 610
Revenge, Retaliation, or Spitep. 611
Concealment of Another Crimep. 613
Extremism (Social Protest and Terrorism)p. 614
Juvenile Fire Setting ("Curiosity" or "Fire Play" Fire Setting)p. 615
Mixed Motivesp. 616
Irrational Fire Settingp. 616
The Arson Setp. 617
Arranging the Fire-Locationp. 618
Fuelsp. 619
Ignitable Liquidsp. 620
Type of Accelerantp. 625
Method of Initiationp. 626
Deductions from the Interpretation of Evidencep. 632
Criminal Analysis or Profilingp. 632
Analytical Reasoningp. 632
Elimination of Accidental and Natural Causesp. 633
Summaryp. 634
Other Investigative Topicsp. 638
Safetyp. 638
Fire Modelingp. 641
What Should We Ask About Any Model We Use?p. 642
Assessmentp. 643
Testing Complex Computer Modelsp. 646
Arson Lawp. 648
Elements of Proofp. 648
Direct and Circumstantial Evidencep. 649
Search and Seizurep. 650
Search and Seizure Court Decisionsp. 652
Sources of Informationp. 655
Spoliationp. 657
Chain of Evidencep. 660
Report Writingp. 661
Summaryp. 662
The Scenep. 662
The Investigationp. 662
Conclusionsp. 662
Courtroom Testimonyp. 663
The Expert Witnessp. 663
Scientific Methodp. 667
Pretrial Preparationp. 670
Testimonyp. 670
Epiloguep. 673
Summaryp. 675
Natural Elementsp. 680
Nomenclaturep. 683
Melting Points and Thermal Conductivities of Common Materialsp. 686
The Evidence Collection Kitp. 687
The Model Arson Lawp. 689
Sketching Fire Scenesp. 690
List of Explosive Materials, 2004p. 700
Field Interview and Incident Report Formsp. 708
Log Sheetsp. 726
Data for Fire Modeling and Reconstructionp. 730
Critical Incident Radiant Heat Fluxes for Some Common Fuelsp. 732
Sample Task Force Agreementp. 734
Web Sitesp. 738
Conversions of Unitsp. 741
Suggested Reading Listp. 743
Glossaryp. 747
Indexp. 753
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