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9781119027669

Laboratory Safety for Chemistry Students

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119027669

  • ISBN10:

    1119027667

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-05-02
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Provides knowledge and models of good practice needed by students to work safely in the laboratory as they progress through four years of undergraduate laboratory work 
  • Aligns with the revised safety instruction requirements from the ACS Committee on Professional Training 2015 “Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor’s Degree Programs”
  • Provides a systematic approach to incorporating safety and health into the chemistry curriculum
  • Topics are divided into layers of progressively more advanced and appropriate safety issues so that some topics are covered 2-3 times, at increasing levels of depth
  • Develops a strong safety ethic by continuous reinforcement of safety; to recognize, assess, and manage laboratory hazards; and to plan for response to laboratory emergencies
  • Covers a thorough exposure to chemical health and safety so that students will have the proper education and training when they enter the workforce or graduate school

Author Biography

Robert H. Hill, Jr, PhD, has more than thirty years of experience working in the occupational and environmental health community at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He has worked in the CDC research laboratories of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Center for Environmental Health. Dr. Hill has also worked in the Office of Health and Safety, serving as acting director, and presently works part time for Battelle Memorial Institute in Atlanta. He is involved with American Chemical Society (ACS) Committee on Chemical Safety (former Chair) and with the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety (former Chair). He is on the Board of Editors of the Journal of Chemical Health and Safety. He has a great passion for lab safety and for preventing lab incidents.

David C. Finster, PhD, is Professor of Chemistry at Wittenberg University, where he has served as chair of the Chemistry Department. He is the university's Chemical Hygiene Officer and a Certified Chemical Hygiene Officer (NRCC, 1999). He is a member of the American Chemical Society (ACS) Committee on Chemical Safety and chair of the Safety Committee in the Division of Chemical Education.  He is on the Board of Editors of the Journal of Chemical Health and Safety.  He has presented numerous talks and workshops on the application of intellectual development theory to learning science and chemistry and has been a volunteer firefighter and hazmat technician for many years.

Table of Contents

PREFACE: TO THE STUDENTS ix

TO THE INSTRUCTOR xi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv

ACRONYMS xvii

CHAPTER 1 SAFETY CULTURE 1

1.1.1 THE FOUR PRINCIPLES OF SAFETY 3

1.1.2 WHAT IS GREEN CHEMISTRY? 13

1.2.1 RE-THINKING SAFETY: LEARNING FROM LABORATORY INCIDENTS 17

1.2.2 GREEN CHEMISTRY IN THE ORGANIC CURRICULUM 24

1.3.1 FOSTERING A SAFETY CULTURE 28

1.3.2 EMPLOYERS’ EXPECTATIONS OF SAFETY SKILLS FOR NEW CHEMISTS 32

1.3.3 LAWS AND REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO SAFETY 39

1.3.4 GREEN CHEMISTRY: THE BIG PICTURE 47

1.3.5 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHEMISTRY DEMONSTRATIONS 53

1.3.6 THE TEACHING ASSISTANT’S ROLE IN LABORATORY SAFETY 60

CHAPTER 2 PREPARING FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE 65

2.1.1 RESPONDING TO LABORATORY EMERGENCIES 67

2.1.2 FIRE EMERGENCIES IN INTRODUCTORY COURSES 72

2.1.3 CHEMICAL SPILLS: ON YOU AND IN THE LABORATORY 84

2.1.4 FIRST AID IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES 90

2.2.1 FIRE EMERGENCIES IN ORGANIC AND ADVANCED COURSES 96

2.2.2 CHEMICAL SPILLS: CAUSES AND PREVENTION 102

2.2.3 CHEMICAL SPILLS: CONTAINMENT AND CLEAN-UP 108

2.3.1 PREPARING FOR EMERGENCIES IN RESEARCH 114

CHAPTER 3 UNDERSTANDING AND COMMUNICATING LABORATORY HAZARDS 119

3.1.1 ROUTES OF EXPOSURES TO HAZARDS 121

3.1.2 LEARNING THE LANGUAGE OF SAFETY: SIGNS, SYMBOLS, AND LABELS 131

3.1.3 FINDING HAZARD INFORMATION: MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS, SAFETY DATA SHEETS, AND THE GHS 142

3.1.4 INFORMATION RESOURCES ABOUT LABORATORY HAZARDS AND SAFETY 149

3.1.5 INTERPRETING SDS INFORMATION 155

3.3.1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLANS 163

CHAPTER 4 RECOGNIZING LABORATORY HAZARDS: TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS 167

4.1.1 CONCEPTS IN TOXICOLOGY 169

4.1.2 MEASURING TOXICITY 179

4.1.3 ACUTE TOXICITY 185

4.2.1 CHRONIC TOXICITY 193

4.3.1 CARCINOGENS 201

4.3.2 BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS 208

4.3.3 HAZARDS OF NANOMATERIALS 215

CHAPTER 5 RECOGNIZING LABORATORY HAZARDS: PHYSICAL HAZARDS 221

5.1.1 CORROSIVE HAZARDS IN INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES 223

5.1.2 FLAMMABLES: CHEMICALS WITH BURNING PASSION 232

5.2.1 CORROSIVES IN ADVANCED LABORATORIES 241

5.2.2 THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE AND EXPLOSIONS 249

5.2.3 INCOMPATIBLES: A CLASH OF VIOLENT PROPORTIONS 257

5.3.1 GAS CYLINDERS AND CRYOGENIC LIQUID TANKS 267

5.3.2 PEROXIDES: POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS 278

5.3.3 REACTIVE AND UNSTABLE LABORATORY CHEMICALS 287

5.3.4 HAZARDS FROM LOW OR HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS 298

5.3.5 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS 305

5.3.6 HOUSEKEEPING IN THE RESEARCH LABORATORY: THE DANGERS OF MESSY LABS 311

5.3.7 NON-IONIZING RADIATION AND ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 319

5.3.8 AN ARRAY OF RAYS: IONIZING RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE LABORATORY 325

5.3.9 CRYOGENIC HAZARDS: A CHILLING EXPERIENCE 335

5.3.10 RUNAWAY REACTIONS 342

5.3.11 HAZARDS OF CATALYSTS 348

CHAPTER 6 RISK ASSESSMENT 353

6.1.1 RISK ASSESSMENT: LIVING SAFELY WITH HAZARDS 355

6.1.2 MANAGING RISK: MAKING DECISIONS ABOUT SAFETY 362

6.2.1 USING THE GHS TO EVALUATE CHEMICAL TOXIC HAZARDS 369

6.2.2 UNDERSTANDING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS (OEL) 381

6.3.1 ASSESSING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE 390

6.3.2 RISK ASSESSMENT FOR NEW EXPERIMENTS 397

CHAPTER 7 MINIMIZING THE RISKS FROM HAZARDS 403

7.1.1 LABORATORY EYE PROTECTION 405

7.1.2 PROTECTING YOUR SKIN: CLOTHES, GLOVES, AND TOOLS 411

7.1.3 CHEMICAL HOODS IN INTRODUCTORY LABORATORIES 418

7.2.1 MORE ABOUT EYE AND FACE PROTECTION 425

7.2.2 PROTECTING YOUR SKIN IN ADVANCED LABORATORIES 429

7.2.3 CONTAINMENT AND VENTILATION IN ADVANCED LABORATORIES 436

7.3.1 SAFETY MEASURES FOR COMMON LABORATORY OPERATIONS 446

7.3.2 RADIATION SAFETY 456

7.3.3 LASER SAFETY 462

7.3.4 BIOSAFETY LEVELS (BSLs) AND BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS 469

7.3.5 WORKING IN A HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE 479

7.3.6 SAFETY IN THE RESEARCH LABORATORY 484

7.3.7 PROCESS SAFETY FOR CHEMICAL OPERATIONS 490

CHAPTER 8 CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT: INSPECTIONS, STORAGE, WASTES, AND SECURITY 497

8.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO HANDLING CHEMICAL WASTES 499

8.2.1 STORING FLAMMABLE AND CORROSIVES 504

8.2.2 HANDLING HAZARDOUS LABORATORY WASTE 509

8.3.1 DOING YOUR OWN SAFETY INSPECTION 517

8.3.2 MANAGING CHEMICALS IN YOUR LABORATORY 522

8.3.3 CHEMICAL INVENTORIES AND STORAGE 526

8.3.4 CHEMICAL SECURITY 534

APPENDIX 539

INDEX 549

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