Langman Medical Embryology

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  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-11-11
  • Publisher: LWW
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Reaching far beyond the 9 months of gestation and the first year of life, embryonic development has ramifications for health throughout the human lifespan. Improved reproductive outcomes and healthier babies-while the specific goals of obstetricians-are areas of clinical relevance for all healthcare professionals, hangman's Medical Embryology facilitates understanding of the molecular, cellular, and structural factors contributing to human development. With its trademark approach combining economy of text with exceptional artwork, the revised twelfth edition clearly and effectively presents embryology in a clinical context for students of medicine and the health professions.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. viii
Introduction / Embryology: Clinical Relevance and Historical Perspectivep. xii
General Embryologyp. 1
Introduction to Molecular Regulation and Signalingp. 3
Gene Transcriptionp. 3
Other Regulators of Gene Expressionp. 5
Induction and Organ Formationp. 5
Cell Signalingp. 6
Gametogenesis: Conversion of Germ Cells into Male and Female Gametesp. 10
Primordial Germ Cellsp. 10
The Chromosome Theory of Inheritancep. 11
Morphological Changes During Maturation of the Gametesp. 21
First Week of Development: Ovulation to Implantationp. 29
Ovarian Cyclep. 29
Fertilizationp. 32
Cleavagep. 37
Blastocyst Formationp. 37
Uterus at Time of Implantationp. 39
Second Week of Development: Bilaminar Germ Discp. 43
Day 8p. 43
Day 9p. 43
Days 11 and 12p. 44
Day 13p. 46
Third Week of Development: Trilaminar Germ Discp. 51
Gastrulation: Formation of Embryonic Mesoderm and Endodermp. 51
Formation of the Notochordp. 51
Establishment of the Body Axesp. 52
Fate Map Established During Gastrulationp. 57
Growth of the Embryonic Discp. 57
Further Development of the Trophoblastp. 59
Third to Eighth Weeks: The Embryonic Periodp. 63
Derivatives of the Ectodermal Germ Layerp. 63
Derivatives of the Mesodermal Germ Layerp. 70
Derivatives of the Endodermal Germ Layerp. 78
Patterning of the Anteroposterior Axis: Regulation by Homeobox Genesp. 81
External Appearance During the Second Monthp. 81
The Gut Tube and the Body Cavitiesp. 86
A Tube on Top of a Tubep. 86
Formation of the Body Cavityp. 87
Serous Membranesp. 88
Diaphragm and Thoracic Cavityp. 90
Formation of the Diaphragmp. 92
Third Month to Birth: The Fetus and Placentap. 96
Development of the Fetusp. 96
Fetal Membranes and Placentap. 100
Chorion Frondosum and Decidua Basalisp. 102
Structure of the Placentap. 103
Amnion and Umbilical Cordp. 107
Placental Changes at the End of Pregnancyp. 108
Amniotic Fluidp. 109
Fetal Membranes in Twinsp. 110
Parturition (Birth)p. 115
Birth Defects and Prenatal Diagnosisp. 117
Birth Defectsp. 117
Prenatal Diagnosisp. 125
Fetal Therapyp. 128
Systems-Based Embryologyp. 131
The Axial Skeletonp. 133
Skullp. 133
Vertebrae and the Vertebral Columnp. 142
Ribs and Sternump. 144
Muscular Systemp. 145
Striated Skeletal Musculaturep. 145
Innervation of Axial Skeletal Musclesp. 146
Skeletal Muscle and Tendonsp. 148
Mclecular Regulation of Muscle Developmentp. 148
Patterning of Musclesp. 148
Head Musculaturep. 148
Limb Musculaturep. 148
Cardiac Musclep. 149
Smooth Musclep. 149
Limbsp. 151
Limb Growth And Developmentp. 151
Limb Musculaturep. 152
Cardiovascular Systemp. 162
Establishment and Patterning of the Primary Heart Fieldp. 162
Formation and Position of the Heart Tubep. 164
Formation of the Cardiac Loopp. 166
Molecular Regulation of Cardiac Developmentp. 169
Development of the Sinus Venosusp. 170
Formation of the Cardiac Septap. 171
Formation of the Conducting System of the Heartp. 185
Vascular Developmentp. 185
Circulation Before and After Birthp. 195
Respiratory Systemp. 201
Formation of the Lung Budsp. 201
Larynxp. 203
Trachea, Bronchi, And Lungsp. 203
Maturation of the Lungsp. 205
Digestive Systemp. 208
Divisions of the Gut Tubep. 208
Molecular Regulation of Gut Tube Developmentp. 209
Mesenteriesp. 210
Foregutp. 211
Molecular Regulation of Liver Inductionp. 219
Pancreasp. 221
Midgutp. 222
Hindgutp. 229
Urogenital Systemp. 232
Urinary Systemp. 232
Genital Systemp. 243
Head and Neckp. 260
Pharyngeal Archesp. 262
Pharyngeal Pouchesp. 266
Pharyngeal Cleftsp. 268
Molecular Regulation of Facial Developmentp. 268
Tonguep. 273
Thyroid Glandp. 274
Facep. 275
Intermaxillary Segmentp. 278
Secondary Palatep. 278
Nasal Cavitiesp. 282
Teethp. 283
Molecular Regulation of Tooth Developmentp. 285
Central Nervous Systemp. 287
Spinal Cordp. 288
Brainp. 297
Molecular Regulation of Brain Developmentp. 308
Cranial Nervesp. 313
Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 315
Earp. 321
Internal Earp. 321
Middle Earp. 324
External Earp. 325
Eyep. 329
Optic Cup and Lens Vesiclep. 329
Retina, Iris, and Ciliary Bodyp. 331
Lensp. 333
Choroid, Sclera, and Corneap. 333
Vitreous Bodyp. 333
Optic Nervep. 334
Molecular Regulation of Eye Developmentp. 334
Integumentary Systemp. 339
Skinp. 339
Hairp. 341
Sweat Glandsp. 342
Mammary Glandsp. 342
Appendixp. 345
Answers to Problemsp. 347
Figure Creditsp. 357
Glossary of Key Termsp. 361
Indexp. 371
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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