Language and Reading Disabilities

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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Written by leading experts in the field, Language and Reading Disabilities, Second Edition,is the most up-to-date book on the nature and treatment of reading disabilities. Increased evidence has continued to mount in support of the language basis of reading disabilities and much has been learned in the past decade about how children learn to read. With a strong clinical and research basis, the book provides a broad perspective of language problems associated with reading disabilities. It includes the latest theories of reading development, causes of reading disabilities, developmental changes in reading disabilities, and theoretically-motivated research to improve phonological processing, decoding, comprehension, writing, and spelling abilities. The book compares spoken and written language and notes similarities and differences. The acquisition of reading and reading-related language abilities are discussed. In the second half of the book, recognized experts in the areas of assessment and remediation of reading and writing disorders discuss the identification, assessment, and treatment of reading and writing disorders.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Contributors and Affiliationsp. xv
Language and Reading: Convergences and Divergencesp. 1
Defining Languagep. 1
Phonologyp. 2
Semanticsp. 2
Morphologyp. 2
Syntaxp. 3
Pragmaticsp. 3
Defining Readingp. 3
Models of Spoken and Written Language Comprehensionp. 4
Comprehending Spoken and Written Languagep. 5
Perceptual Analysesp. 5
Word Recognitionp. 7
Discourse-Level Processesp. 10
Differences between Spoken and Written Languagep. 16
Physical Differencesp. 17
Situational Differencesp. 18
Functional Differencesp. 18
Form Differencesp. 19
Vocabulary Differencesp. 20
Grammatical Differencesp. 21
Processing Differencesp. 21
Basic Factors in Reading and Language Developmentp. 22
Summaryp. 23
Referencesp. 23
Reading Developmentp. 26
Emergent Literacy Period (Birth-Kindergarten)p. 27
Joint Book Readingp. 27
Learning about Printp. 30
Summaryp. 32
The Development of Word Recognition Skillsp. 32
Logographic Stagep. 33
Alphabetic Stagep. 33
Orthographic Stage and Automatic Word Recognitionp. 35
Problems with Stage Theories of Word Recognitionp. 37
The Self-Teaching Hypothesisp. 37
The Development of Reading Comprehensionp. 41
Alternative Views of Comprehensionp. 44
Summaryp. 46
Referencesp. 47
Defining Reading Disabilitiesp. 50
Historical Basis of Reading Disabilitiesp. 50
Early Reportsp. 51
Ortonp. 52
Johnson and Myklebustp. 53
The Modern Erap. 53
Terminologyp. 54
Prevalencep. 55
Gender Differencesp. 56
Defining Reading Disabilityp. 57
Exclusionary Factorsp. 58
IDA Definitionp. 62
Other Language-Based Reading Disabilitiesp. 66
Summaryp. 67
Referencesp. 67
Classification of Reading Disabilitiesp. 72
Subtypes Based on Comprehension versus Word Recognition Problemsp. 73
Classification Studiesp. 77
Subtypes Based on Nature of Word Recognition Deficitsp. 78
Reading Stylesp. 78
Dysphonetic, Dyseidetic, and Alexic Subgroupsp. 79
Deep, Phonological, and Surface Dyslexiap. 80
Heterogeneity without Clustsersp. 80
Hard versus Soft Subtypesp. 82
Rate-Disabled versus Accuracy-Disabled Readersp. 84
Combining Subtypes in Research and Practicep. 86
Clinical Implicationsp. 87
Referencesp. 89
Causes of Reading Disabilitiesp. 94
Extrinsic Causes of Reading Disabilitiesp. 94
Early Literacy Experiencep. 95
Reading Instructionp. 95
Matthew Effectsp. 97
Intrinsic Causes of Reading Disabilitiesp. 97
Genetic Basisp. 98
Neurological Basisp. 99
Visual-Based Deficitsp. 102
Auditory Processing Deficitsp. 106
Attention-Based Deficitsp. 107
Language-Based Deficitsp. 108
Referencesp. 116
Assessment and Instruction for Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition Skillsp. 127
Assessment of and Instruction in Phonemic Awarenessp. 127
The Importance of Phonemic Awareness in Learning to Readp. 128
Purposes for Assessment of Phonemic Awarenessp. 130
Procedures and Measures Used to Assess Phonemic Awarenessp. 131
Instruction in Phonemic Awarenessp. 132
Procedures and Materials to Stimulate Growth of Phonemic Awarenessp. 137
Assessment of and Instruction in Word Recognitionp. 139
Issues in the Assessment of Word Recognitionp. 141
Commonly Used Measures of Word Recognition Abilityp. 142
Instruction in Word Recognitionp. 144
Issues for Future Research and Developmentp. 150
Referencesp. 151
Assessing and Remediating Text Comprehension Problemsp. 157
Comprehending Narrative and Expository Textsp. 159
Information Used in Text Comprehensionp. 159
Narrative and Expository Variations in Text Grammars and Schema Contentp. 161
Metacognitive Processing in Text Comprehensionp. 165
Assessing Language and Cognitive Skills for Text Comprehensionp. 167
Assessing Literate Language Stylep. 168
Assessing Knowledge of Narrative Content Schemata and Text Grammar Schematap. 169
Assessing Metacognitionp. 182
Facilitating Text Comprehensionp. 190
Developing a Literature Language Stylep. 191
Developing Narrative Schema Knowledgep. 197
Facilitating Metacognitionp. 212
Summaryp. 222
Referencesp. 222
Appendixp. 229
Children's Materialsp. 229
Cinderella Storiesp. 231
Learning to Writep. 233
A Framework for Writingp. 234
Context and Purpose: Where, for Whom, and Why?p. 235
Linguistic Formp. 235
The Process of Writingp. 236
Writing in the Futurep. 239
Learning to Write: Transcriptionp. 240
Handwritingp. 240
Spellingp. 241
Learning to Write: Composingp. 244
Emergent Writing, Age 4 to 6 Yearsp. 244
Conventional Writing: The Early School Yearsp. 246
Learning the Genres of School Writingp. 249
Writing Standards and Assessments in Schoolsp. 252
Learning the Grammar of Writingp. 254
Learning the Process of Writingp. 260
Gender Differences in Writing Developmentp. 262
Writing Problems of Children and Adolescents with Reading Disabilitiesp. 263
Product-Oriented Researchp. 264
Process-Oriented Researchp. 265
Summaryp. 267
Referencesp. 268
The Right Stuff for Writing: Assessing and Facilitating Written Languagep. 274
Assessing Student Writersp. 276
A Framework for Writingp. 276
Types of Writing Assessmentsp. 278
Scoring Systemsp. 280
Developmental Rubricsp. 282
Metacognitive Awarenessp. 303
Facilitating Writingp. 304
Facilitating Skills and Knowledgep. 308
Facilitating Self-Regulatory Writing Strategiesp. 323
Summaryp. 329
Example Writing Promptsp. 332
Portfolio Writing Assessmentp. 333
Analytic Scoring Guidelinesp. 334
Analytic Scoring Guide for Informational Writingp. 335
Predicate Transformations Reflecting Landscape of Consciousnessp. 336
Coding Chart for Writing Interviewp. 338
The Three Little Peccaries and the Big Bad Jaguarp. 340
Referencesp. 341
Computer Programsp. 345
Indexp. 349
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

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