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9781119271918

The Law of Higher Education Student Version

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119271918

  • ISBN10:

    1119271916

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-03-17
  • Publisher: Jossey-Bass

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

A single-volume text that distills information for students

Based on the sixth edition of Kaplin and Lee’s indispensable guide to the law that bears on the conduct of higher education, The Law of Higher Education, Sixth Edition: Student Version provides an up-to-date reference and guide for coursework in higher education law and programs preparing law students and higher education administrators for leadership roles.

This student edition discusses the most significant areas of the law for college and university attorneys and administrators. Each chapter is introduced by a discussion of key terms and topics the students will encounter, and the book includes materials from the full sixth edition that are most relevant to student interests and classroom instruction. It also contains a “crosswalk” that keys sections of the Student Edition to counterpart sections of the two-volume treatise.

  • Complements the full version
  • Includes a glossary of legal terms and an appendix on how to read legal material for students without legal training
  • Discusses key terms in each chapter
  • Concentrates on key topics students will need to know

This is fundamental reading for law students preparing for careers in higher education law and for graduate students in higher education administration programs.

Author Biography

WILLIAM A. KAPLIN is professor of law emeritus at the Columbus School of Law, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC.

BARBARA A. LEE is Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs and a Distinguished Professor of Human Resource Management, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

NEAL H. HUTCHENS is a Professor and Chair in the Department of Higher Education, School of Education at the University of Mississippi.

JACOB H. ROOKSBY is Dean and Professor of Law at Gonzaga University School of Law, Spokane, Washington.

Table of Contents

Notice to Instructors v

Notice of Website and Periodic Supplements for the Student Version vii

Crosswalk for the Student Version and The Law of Higher Education, Sixth Edition xix

Preface xxxi

Acknowledgments xxxix

The Authors xli

General Introduction: The Study of Higher Education Law xlv

A. The Universe of Education Law xlv

B. The Governance of Higher Education xlvii

C. Sources of Higher Education Law xlvii

D. The Legal Relationships within Institutions of Higher Education xlviii

E. The Law/Policy Distinction li

F. The U.S. Legal System As It Relates to Higher Education Law li

Part One Perspectives and Foundations 1

1 Overview of Higher Education Law 3

Section 1.1 How Far the Law Reaches and How Loudly It Speaks 3

Section 1.2 Evolution of Higher Education Law 9

Section 1.3 The Governance of Higher Education 11

1.3.1 Basic concepts and distinctions 11

1.3.2 Internal governance 13

1.3.3 External governance 15

Section 1.4 Sources of Higher Education Law 18

1.4.1 Overview 18

1.4.2 External sources of law 18

1.4.2.1 Federal and state constitutions 18

1.4.2.2 Statutes 19

1.4.2.3 Administrative rules and regulations 19

1.4.2.4 State common law 20

1.4.2.5 Foreign and international law 21

1.4.3 Internal sources of law 21

1.4.3.1 Institutional rules and regulations 21

1.4.3.2 Institutional contracts 22

1.4.3.3 Academic custom and usage 22

1.4.4 The role of case law 25

1.4.5 Researching case law 26

Section 1.5 The Public-Private Dichotomy 26

1.5.1 Overview 26

1.5.2 The state action doctrine 28

1.5.2.1 When private postsecondary institutions may be engaged in state action 28

1.5.2.2 When students, employees, and others may be engaged in state action 35

1.5.3 Other bases for legal rights in private institutions 38

Section 1.6 Religion and the Public-Private Dichotomy 40

1.6.1 Overview 40

1.6.2 Religious autonomy rights of religious institutions and their personnel 41

1.6.3 Government support for religious institutions and their students and faculty members 45

1.6.4 Religious autonomy rights of individuals in public postsecondary institutions 52

Section 1.7 The Relationship Between Law and Policy 56

2 Legal Planning and Dispute Resolution 61

Section 2.1 Legal Liability 61

2.1.1 Overview 61

2.1.2 Types of liability 62

2.1.3 Agency law 62

2.1.4 Enforcement mechanisms 63

2.1.5 Remedies for legal violations 64

2.1.6 Avoiding legal liability 64

2.1.7 Treatment law and preventive law 64

Section 2.2 Litigation in the Courts 66

2.2.1 Overview 66

2.2.2 Judicial (academic) deference 67

2.2.3 Managing litigation and the threat of litigation 73

Section 2.3 Alternative Dispute Resolution 74

2.3.1 Overview 74

2.3.2 Types of ADR 75

2.3.3 Applications to colleges and universities 78

Section 2.4 Institutional Management of Liability Risk 82

2.4.1 Overview and suggestions 82

2.4.2 Risk management strategies 83

2.4.3 Enterprise risk management 86

Part Two The College and Its Governing Board and Staff 87

3 The College’s Authority and Liability 89

Section 3.1 The Question of Authority 89

3.1.1 Overview 89

3.1.2 Trustee authority 93

Section 3.2 Institutional Tort Liability 93

3.2.1 Overview 93

3.2.2 Negligence 98

3.2.2.1 Overview 98

3.2.2.2 Premises liability 101

3.2.2.3 Liability for injuries related to on-campus instruction 105

3.2.2.4 Liability for injuries in off-campus courses 108

3.2.2.5 Liability for cocurricular and social activities 112

3.2.2.6 Student suicide 115

3.2.3 Educational malpractice and related claims 119

3.2.4 Defamation 121

Section 3.3 Institutional Contract Liability 125

Section 3.4 Institutional Liability for Violating Federal Constitutional Rights (Section 1983 Liability) 130

3.4.1 Overview 130

3.4.2 Eleventh Amendment immunity 132

4 The College and Its Employees 137

Section 4.1 Overview of Employment Relationships 137

Section 4.2 Employment Contracts 140

4.2.1 Defining the contract 140

4.2.2 The at-will doctrine 140

Section 4.3 Collective Bargaining 141

4.3.1 Overview 141

4.3.2 The public-private dichotomy in collective bargaining 142

4.3.3 Collective bargaining and antidiscrimination laws 142

Section 4.4 Personal Liability of Employees 146

4.4.1 Overview 146

4.4.2 Tort liability 147

4.4.2.1 Overview 147

4.4.2.2 Negligence 148

4.4.2.3 Defamation 150

4.4.3 Contract liability 154

4.4.4 Constitutional liability (personal liability under Section 1983) 155

4.4.4.1 Qualified immunity 155

4.4.4.2 Issues on the merits: State-created dangers 158

Section 4.5 Employment Discrimination 162

4.5.1 Overview: The interplay of statutes, regulations, and constitutional protections 162

4.5.2 Sources of law 164

4.5.2.1 Title VII 164

4.5.2.2 Equal Pay Act 177

4.5.2.3 Title IX 180

4.5.2.4 Section 1981 181

4.5.2.5 Americans with Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act of 1973 182

4.5.2.6 Age Discrimination in Employment Act 188

4.5.2.7 Constitutional prohibitions against employment discrimination 190

4.5.2.8 Executive Orders 11246 and 11375 193

4.5.2.9 Laws prohibiting sexual orientation discrimination 194

4.5.2.10 Laws prohibiting transgender discrimination 197

Section 4.6 Affirmative Action 201

4.6.1 Overview 201

4.6.2 Affirmative action under Title VII 203

4.6.3 Affirmative action under the equal protection clause 207

4.6.4 State regulation of affirmative action 211

4.6.5 Conclusions 212

Section 4.7 Application of Nondiscrimination Laws to Religious Institutions 213

Part Three The College and Its Faculty 221

5 Special Issues in Faculty Employment 223

Section 5.1 Overview 223

Section 5.2 Faculty Contracts 224

5.2.1 Overview 224

5.2.2 Academic custom and usage 229

5.2.3 Part-time faculty 231

5.2.4 Contracts in religious institutions 233

Section 5.3 Faculty Collective Bargaining 239

Section 5.4 Application of Nondiscrimination Laws to Faculty Employment Decisions 245

5.4.1 Overview 245

5.4.2 Judicial deference and remedies for tenure denial 246

Section 5.5 Affirmative Action in Faculty Employment Decisions 255

Section 5.6 Standards and Criteria for Faculty Personnel Decisions 260

5.6.1 General principles 260

5.6.2 Terminations of tenure for cause 262

5.6.3 Denial of tenure 266

Section 5.7 Procedures for Faculty Employment Decisions 271

5.7.1 General principles 271

5.7.2 The public faculty member’s right to constitutional due process 274

5.7.2.1 Overview 274

5.7.2.2 Nonrenewal of contracts 275

5.7.2.3 Denial of tenure 279

5.7.2.4 Termination of tenure 283

5.7.3 The private faculty member’s procedural rights 290

6 Faculty Academic Freedom and Freedom of Expression 295

Section 6.1 General Concepts and Principles 295

6.1.1 Faculty freedom of expression in general 295

6.1.2 Other constitutional rights supporting faculty freedom of expression 296

6.1.3 Academic freedom: Basic concepts and distinctions 298

6.1.4 Professional versus legal concepts of academic freedom 300

6.1.5 The foundational constitutional law cases 303

6.1.6 External versus internal restraints on academic freedom 310

6.1.7 "Institutional" academic freedom 312

6.1.8 "International" academic freedom 314

Section 6.2 Academic Freedom in Teaching 323

6.2.1 In general 323

6.2.2 The classroom 326

6.2.3 Grading 341

6.2.4 Private institutions 345

Section 6.3 Academic Freedom in Research and Publication 347

Section 6.4 Academic Freedom in Religious Colleges and Universities 356

Part Four The College and Its Students 361

7 The Student-Institution Relationship 363

Section 7.1 The Legal Status of Students 363

7.1.1 Overview 363

7.1.2 The age of majority 364

7.1.3 The contractual rights of students 365

7.1.4 Student academic freedom 373

7.1.5 Students’ legal relationships with other students 391

Section 7.2 Admissions 392

7.2.1 Basic legal requirements 392

7.2.2 Arbitrariness 394

7.2.3 The contract theory 396

7.2.4 The principle of nondiscrimination 397

7.2.4.1 Race 397

7.2.4.2 Sex 402

7.2.4.3 Disability 407

7.2.4.4 Age 412

7.2.4.5 Immigration status 413

7.2.5 Affirmative action programs 417

7.2.6 Readmission 447

Section 7.3 Financial Aid 449

7.3.1 General principles 449

7.3.2 Federal programs 453

7.3.3 Nondiscrimination 458

7.3.4 Affirmative action in financial aid programs 460

7.3.5 Discrimination against noncitizens 465

7.3.5.1 Documented (immigrant and nonimmigrant) students 465

7.3.5.2 Undocumented students 469

Section 7.4 Student Housing 473

7.4.1 Overview 473

7.4.2 Discrimination claims 475

7.4.3 Searches and seizures 484

Section 7.5 Campus Computer Networks 492

7.5.1 Freedom of speech 492

7.5.2 Right to privacy 501

7.5.3 Liability issues 504

Section 7.6 Campus Security 507

7.6.1 Security officers 507

7.6.2 Protecting students against violent crime 512

7.6.3 Federal statutes and campus security 517

Section 7.7 Other Support Services 522

7.7.1 Overview 522

7.7.2 Services for students with disabilities 522

7.7.3 Services for international students 524

Section 7.8 Student Records 527

7.8.1 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) 527

7.8.2 State law 533

8 Student Academic Issues 545

Section 8.1 Overview 545

Section 8.2 Grading and Academic Standards 546

Section 8.3 Online Programs 555

8.3.1 Overview 555

8.3.2 Student legal claims about online programs 556

Section 8.4 Academic Accommodations for Students with Disabilities 558

8.4.1 Overview 558

8.4.2 Requests for programmatic or other accommodations 562

8.4.2.1 Domestic programs 562

8.4.2.2 Study abroad programs 573

8.4.2.3 Online programs 574

Section 8.5 Sexual Harassment of Students by Faculty Members 577

Section 8.6 Academic Dismissals and Other Academic Sanctions 599

8.6.1 Overview 599

8.6.2 Contract issues and fiduciary duty issues 600

8.6.3 Constitutional issues 603

8.6.4 Discrimination issues 610

8.6.5 Procedures for academic sanctions 614

8.6.5.1 Public institutions 614

8.6.5.2 Private institutions 618

9 Student Disciplinary Issues 621

Section 9.1 Disciplinary and Grievance Systems 621

9.1.1 Overview 621

9.1.2 Establishment of systems 622

9.1.3 Codes of student conduct 623

9.1.4 Judicial systems 629

Section 9.2 Disciplinary Rules and Regulations 634

9.2.1 Overview 634

9.2.2 Public institutions 634

9.2.3 Private institutions 637

9.2.4 Disciplining students with mental disorders 638

Section 9.3 Procedures for Suspension, Dismissal, and Other Sanctions 641

9.3.1 Overview 641

9.3.2 Public institutions: Disciplinary sanctions 642

9.3.2.1 Overview 642

9.3.2.2 Notice 647

9.3.2.3 Hearing 648

9.3.3 Private institutions 652

Section 9.4 Student Protests and Freedom of Speech 656

9.4.1 Student free speech in general 656

9.4.2 The "public forum" concept 659

9.4.3 Regulation of student protest 665

9.4.4 Prior approval of protest activities 673

9.4.5 Posters and leaflets 675

9.4.6 Protests in the classroom 678

Section 9.5 Speech Codes and the Problem of Hate Speech 679

9.5.1 Hate speech and the campus 679

9.5.2 The case law on hate speech and speech codes 681

9.5.3 Guidelines for dealing with hate speech on campus 689

10 Rights and Responsibilities of Student Organizations and Their Members 693

Section 10.1 Student Organizations 693

10.1.1 The right to organize 693

10.1.2 The right not to join, or associate, or subsidize 700

10.1.3 Mandatory student activities fees 701

10.1.4 Principle of nondiscrimination 708

10.1.5 Religious activities 720

Section 10.2 Fraternities and Sororities 729

10.2.1 Overview 729

10.2.2 Institutional recognition and regulation of fraternal organizations 730

10.2.3 Institutional liability for the acts of fraternal organizations 738

Section 10.3 The Student Press 742

10.3.1 General principles 742

10.3.2 Mandatory student fee allocations to student publications 744

10.3.3 Permissible scope of institutional regulation 745

10.3.4 Advertising in student publications 753

10.3.5 Obscenity 756

10.3.6 Libel 757

10.3.7 Obscenity and libel in private institutions 761

Section 10.4 Athletic Teams and Clubs 762

10.4.1 General principles 762

10.4.2 Athletes’ due process rights 763

10.4.3 Athletes’ freedom of speech 765

10.4.4 Pertinent statutory law 768

10.4.5 Athletic scholarships 769

10.4.6 Sex discrimination 774

10.4.7 Discrimination on the basis of disability 789

10.4.8 Drug testing 791

10.4.9 Tort liability for athletic injuries 797

Part Five The College and The Outside World 805

11 The College and Government 807

Section 11.1 Local Government Regulation 807

11.1.1 Overview of local government regulation 807

11.1.2 Trespass statutes and ordinances, and related campus regulations 812

11.1.3 Relations with local police 822

Section 11.2 State Government Regulation 824

11.2.1 Overview 824

11.2.2 State provision of public postsecondary education 828

11.2.3 State chartering and licensure of private postsecondary institutions 830

11.2.4 Other state regulatory laws affecting postsecondary education programs 834

11.2.4.1 Laws on gun possession 834

Section 11.3 Federal Government Regulation 838

11.3.1 Overview of federal constitutional powers over education 838

11.3.2 Federal regulation of postsecondary education 840

11.3.2.1 Overview 840

11.3.2.2 Regulation of research 842

11.3.2.3 Regulation of intellectual property 842

Section 11.4 Federal Aid-to-Education Programs 850

11.4.1 Functions and history 850

11.4.2 Legal structure of federal aid programs 851

Section 11.5 Civil Rights Compliance 853

11.5.1 General considerations 853

11.5.2 Title VI 854

11.5.3 Title IX 861

11.5.3.1 Overview 861

11.5.3.2 Title IX and peer sexual harassment 866

11.5.3.3 Claims by accusing students 869

11.5.3.4 Claims by accused students 874

11.5.4 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 879

11.5.5 Coverage of unintentional discrimination 883

12 The College and External Private Entities 887

Section 12.1 The Education Associations 887

12.1.1 Overview of the education associations 887

12.1.2 Accrediting agencies 890

12.1.3 Athletic associations and conferences 893

Section 12.2 Business Partners 894

12.2.1 Research collaboration 894

12.2.2 The research agreement 897

Appendices

A. Constitution of the United States of America: Provisions of Particular Interest to Postsecondary Education 905

B. The American Court System 911

C. Reading and Analyzing Court Opinions 915

D. Glossary of Legal Terms 919

Bibliography 927

Statute Index 939

Case Index 945

Subject Index 969

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