9780023893216

Learning Disabilities From Theory Towards Practice

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780023893216

  • ISBN10:

    0023893214

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1997-11-03
  • Publisher: Pearson

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Unlike other books in the field, the focus of this comprehensive book is on explanatory theories of learning disabilities and the assessment and instructional/treatment programs generated within each theoretical model.By examining how theories and practices emerged in the past, the book helps readers/students understand the developmental link to the assessment and instructional practices they will use as teachers. With its broad overview of the field, this book will give current and future teachers the ability to answer the question of "why" they have chosen a particular way of arranging instruction.

Table of Contents

PART ONE THE CONTEXT AND POPULATION OF LEARNING DISABILITIES 1(54)
Chapter 1 Sociopolitical Context for Educational Services to Students with Learning Disabilities
3(26)
Social and Political Bases of Special Education
5(7)
Content and Context of Schooling
7(2)
Foundations of Learning Disabilities
9(1)
Origins of the Field of Learning Disabilities
9(3)
Legal Basis for Special Education
12(9)
Due Process Provisions
15(3)
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Provisions
18(1)
Protection in Evaluation Procedures (PEP) Provisions
18(2)
Individualized Education Program (IEP) Provisions
20(1)
Practical Classroom Applications
21(3)
Summary
24(1)
Discussion Questions
24(1)
Cases and Statutory Materials
25(1)
References
25(4)
Chapter 2 Contemporary Characteristics of Learning Disabilities
29(26)
Diane Pedrotty Rivera
Contemporary Characteristics of Learning Disabilities
30(10)
Definitions and Characteristics
30(8)
Discrepancy Formulas
38(1)
Intelligence Scores
39(1)
Other Definition Issues
39(1)
Learning Disabilities as a Lifelong Condition
40(3)
Early Childhood
40(1)
Elementary and Middle-School Years
41(1)
Adolescence
41(1)
Adulthood
42(1)
Characteristics of Learning Disabilities
43(4)
Discrepancy between Aptitude and Achievement
43(1)
Academic Deficiencies
43(1)
Motivation
44(1)
Memory
45(1)
Attention and Hyperactivity
45(1)
Social Skills
45(1)
Cognitive and Metacognitive Skills
46(1)
Perceptual Skills
46(1)
Practical Classroom Applications
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
Discussion Questions
49(1)
References
49(6)
PART TWO THE EVOLUTION OF THEORIES AND PRACTICES 55(264)
Chapter 3 The Use of Theories to Guide Practices
57(42)
Theory-Driven Professionals
58(1)
The Case for Theory Development: From Quackery to Personalistic Views to Scientific Explanations
59(4)
Quackery
59(1)
Personalistic Views
60(1)
Scientific Explanations
61(2)
Two Paradigms for Inquiry
63(3)
The Reductionistic Paradigm
63(2)
The Social Constructivistic Paradigm
65(1)
LD as a Science: The Chronology of Model Development
66(14)
Psychoneurological Model
67(2)
Biological Model
69(3)
Psychological Processing Model
72(2)
Behavioral Model
74(2)
Cognitive Metacognitive Model
76(2)
Social Constructivism Model
78(2)
Developing a Metatheory
80(2)
Theory-Driven Teachers
82(5)
Teacher Roles and Reflectivity
84(3)
Practical Classroom Applications
87(1)
Summary
88(1)
Discussion Questions
89(1)
References
90(9)
Chapter 4 The Psychoneurological Model
99(40)
The Evolution of Psychoneurological-Based Theories and Practices
106(1)
Nineteenth-Century Developments
107(1)
Manifestations in Language
107(1)
Manifestations in Perception and Reading
108(1)
Twentieth-Century Developments
108(13)
Manifestations in Language
108(3)
Manifestations in Perception
111(6)
Manifestations in Reading
117(4)
Reactions to "Processing Instructional Models" in Reading Research
121(2)
Modern Controversial Psychoneurological Research
123(4)
Modern Controversial Views
123(2)
Neurophysiological Retraining
125(2)
Recent Psychoneurological Advances
127(2)
Practical Classroom Applications
129(2)
Summary
131(1)
Discussion Questions
132(1)
References
133(6)
Chapter 5 The Biological Model
139(46)
Effects of Prenatal and Perinatal Events on Atypical Learning
142(17)
Individuals Hereditary-Familial Endownments
143(3)
Early and Recent Hereditary-Familial Views
146(4)
Genetic Controversies in LD Research
150(2)
High-Risk Factors in Maternal-Fetal Interactions
152(1)
Early Teratogenic Research
153(1)
Drugs
154(2)
Maternal Infections
156(3)
Perinatal Events and Atypical Learning
159(2)
Prematurity
159(2)
Newborn Assessment
161(1)
Postnatal Events and Effects on Atypical Learning
161(14)
Biological-Chemical Research: Psychostimulants
162(4)
Dietary Factors
166(5)
Megavitamin Research
171(2)
Toxic Influences
173(2)
Practical Classroom Applications
175(1)
Summary
176(1)
Discussion Questions
177(1)
References
178(7)
Chapter 6 The Psycholinguistic Model
185(30)
Ann Goldman
Mediation Model
186(3)
Perception
189(1)
Wepman and Mykelbust
190(2)
Kirk and the Development of a Functional Framework for Psycholinguistics
192(2)
Development of the ITPA
194(10)
Clinical Model of the ITPA
194(7)
Early Interpretation of the ITPA
201(1)
Construct Validity of the ITPA
202(2)
Psycholinguistic Training
204(1)
Remedial Programs
205(3)
Experimental Remedial Models
207(1)
Conclusions on Remedial Training Effects
208(1)
Practical Classroom Applications
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Discussion Questions
211(1)
References
212(3)
Chapter 7 The Behavioral Model
215(42)
Kim Stoddard
Greg Valcante
The Behavioral Model
216(4)
A Change in Focus
217(4)
Assumptions
219(1)
A Behavioral View of LD
219(1)
Assessment Issues and Approaches
220(5)
Identification of Students
220(1)
Direct Observation of Student Academic Performance
220(1)
Measurement Strategies
220(1)
Graphic Data Display
221(1)
Data-Based Decision Making
221(1)
Curriculum-Based Assessment
221(4)
Instructional Issues and Approaches
225(23)
Programmed Learning
225(1)
Precision Teaching
226(7)
Engineered Classroom
233(2)
Direct Instruction
235(7)
Peer Tutoring
242(2)
Self-Management
244(4)
Effectiveness of Behavioral Programs
248(1)
Practical Classroom Applications
248(3)
Summary
251(1)
Discussion Questions
251(1)
References
252(5)
Chapter 8 The Cognitive Model
257(26)
Monica Lambert
Foundations of the Cognitive Model
258(3)
Application of the Cognitive Model
261(13)
Cognitive Behavior Modification
262(2)
Learning Strategies
264(9)
Other Applications
273(1)
Perspective on the Cognitive Model
274(1)
Practical Classroom Applications
275(3)
Summary
278(1)
Discussion Questions
279(1)
References
279(4)
Chapter 9 The Social Constructivism Model
283(36)
The Theoretical Basis of Social Constructivism
284(2)
The Political Basis: A Grass Roots Movement
286(1)
The Tenets of Social Constructivistic Instruction
287(6)
Child-Directed Learning
288(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
289(1)
Teacher as Facilitator
289(1)
Strategic Learning
290(2)
Positive Teaching and Corrective Feedback
292(1)
Minilessons
292(1)
Applications to Language Arts Curriculum and Learning Activities
293(5)
Language as the Basis for Learning
293(1)
Word Identification through Meaning: Psycholinguistic Basis
293(1)
Immersion in Reading Activities
294(3)
Repeated Exposures to Books
297(1)
Practice Activities
297(1)
Natural Text
297(1)
Integration of Reading and Writing
298(5)
Language-Experience Approach
298(2)
Process Conferencing Model
300(1)
Genre-Based Model
301(1)
Invented Spelling
302(1)
Applications to Math, Science, and Social Science Curriculum and Learning Activities
303(2)
Curricular Issues
304(1)
Instructional Procedures
304(1)
Critique of Social Constructivistic Models
305(6)
Authenticity
305(1)
Child-Centered Instruction
306(1)
Social Elitism
307(1)
Polarized Zealots
308(1)
Research Base
309(2)
Practical Classroom Applications
311(2)
Summary
313(1)
Discussion Questions
314(1)
References
314(5)
PART THREE EXPANSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF THE FIELD 319(114)
Chapter 10 Classroom Inclusion of Students with Learning Disabilities
321(40)
Lori Korinek
Christine S. Walther-Thomas
Factors Influencing Contemporary Special Education
322(5)
Changes in the School-Age Population
322(1)
Changes in School Standards and Student Performance Expectations
323(1)
Changes in Instructional Practices
324(1)
Changes in Service Delivery
325(2)
The Regular Education Initiative (REI) Debate
327(3)
Arguments to Support the REI
327(2)
Arguments Against the REI
329(1)
Theoretical Perspectives on Team Problem Solving in Schools
330(1)
Mental Health Consultation
330(1)
Behavior Consultation
331(1)
Process Consultation
331(1)
Group Problem Solving in Schools: Expert and Collaborative Models
331(2)
The Expert Consultant
331(1)
The Collaborative Consultant
332(1)
Collaborative Service Delivery Approaches
333(6)
Collaborative Structures to Facilitate Teamwork
333(6)
Maintaining a Collaborative Ethic in Alternative Service Delivery
339(1)
Research Related to Collaborative Service Delivery
339(2)
Students Participation on Collaborative Teams for Enhanced Integration
341(1)
Family Participation on Collaborative Teams
341(1)
Administrative Support and Participation
342(1)
Selecting Structures to Facilitate Inclusion
343(1)
Principles of Effective Collaboration
344(6)
Changes in Educational Settings
345(1)
Characteristics of Effective Teams
346(1)
Principles of Effective Team Communication
347(3)
Practical Classroom Applications
350(1)
Summary
351(1)
Discussion Questions
352(1)
References
353(8)
Chapter 11 Family Research and Practices
361(56)
Families
363(3)
Family Definitions and Compositions
363(3)
Family Theories
366(1)
Family Perspectives and Themes
366(16)
Evolution Theory
366(4)
Psychoanalytical Theory
370(2)
Psychosocial Theory
372(1)
Behavioral Theory
372(1)
Structural-Functional Theory
373(2)
Exchange Theory
375(1)
Family Development Theory
376(1)
Family Stress and Coping Theory
377(1)
Systems Theories
378(2)
Feminism
380(1)
Phenomenology Theory and Ways of Knowing
381(1)
Family Theories Summary
382(1)
American Family History and Teachers' Roles
382(15)
Early Families
382(2)
Early-20th-Century Families
384(5)
Mid-20th-Century Families
389(2)
Modern American Families
391(6)
The Importance of Family Research to Teachers Instructing Students with LD
397(9)
Practical Classroom Applications
406(2)
Summary
408(1)
Discussion Questions
408(1)
References
409(8)
Chapter 12 Future Trends and Issues in the Field of Learning Disabilities
417(16)
Continuing Dilemmas
418(4)
The Trouble with Definitions
418(2)
LD or Not LD?
420(1)
Diagnostic-Prescriptive Dreams Go On
421(1)
Planning for the Future
422(6)
Categories for the Future
422(4)
Inclusion
426(2)
What Works, Works
428(1)
LD in Perspective
428(2)
Summary
430(1)
Discussion Questions
431(1)
References
431(2)
Index 433

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