Learning and Memory: Basic Principles, Processes, and Procedures

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-10-13
  • Publisher: Psychology Pres

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This text explores the core principles of learning and memory in a clear, reader-friendly style, covering animal learning and human memory in a balanced fashion.

Table of Contents

The Origins of the Study of Learning
Philosophy of Epistemology
Contemporary Influences
The Definition of Learning
Some Caveats
The Learning/Performance Distinction
Learning: A Recapitulation
The Relationship between the Terms Learning and Memory
Basic and Applied Research
Common Sense and Common Knowledge
Why Animals?
Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Learning
The Behavioral Approach
The Cognitive Approach
The Neuropsychological Approach
Habituation and Other Forms of Simple Stimulus Learning
The Orienting Response
Methods of Studying Habituation
Parametric Features of Habituation
Explanations of Habituation
Nonlearning Explanations
Physiological Theories
Cognitive Theories
Perceptual Learning
Other Effects of Stimulus Exposure
Preference for Familiar Stimuli
Priming Facilitation
Recapitulation: The Effects of Repeated Stimulus Presentation
Habituation to Warning Signals
Exposure Therapy for Fears
Classical Conditioning
The Definition of Classical Conditioning
Methods of Studying Classical Conditioning
Some Representative Procedures
What Stimuli Can Serve as CSs?
What Stimuli Can Serve as USs?
Basic Phenomena of Conditioning
The Role of Contiguity
Other Factors Affecting Conditioning
Prior Exposure
Compound CSs
CS-US Relevance
Conditioned Inhibition
What Is Learned in Classical Conditioning?
So, What Is Learned in Pavlovian Conditioning?
The Role of Awareness in Conditioning
Extensions of Conditioning
Conditioning with Drug USs and the Development of Tolerance
Modification of Immune System Response
Applications of Conditioning
The Conditioning Theory of Phobias
Systematic Desensitization
Instrumental Conditioning: Reward
Definition and History
Thorndike and Trial-and-Error Learning
Skinner and Operant Learning
Methods of Study
Positive Reinforcement
Reinforcement Variables Affecting Acquisition
Amount and Quality of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Delay of Reinforcement
Secondary Reinforcement
Social Reinforcement
Theories of Reinforcement
Reinforcers as Stimuli
Reinforcers as Behaviors
Reinforcers as Strengtheners
Reinforcers as Information
So, What Is Reinforcement?
Is Reinforcement Necessary for Learning?
Conscious Awareness in Human Instrumental Learning
Criticisms of the Use of Reinforcement
Response Learning
Limitations of Response Learning
Discriminative Stimulus Control
Generalization and Discrimination
Summary of Response Learning and Stimulus Learning
What Is Learned in Instrumental Conditioning?
Response-Reinforcer Learning
Stimulus-Response Learning
Stimulus-Reinforcer Learning
What Is Learned?
Habit Slips
Behavior Modification
Cognition in Animals
Instrumental Conditioning: Nonreward, Punishment, and Avoidance
Defining the Contingencies: Nonreward, Punishment, and Avoidance
The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
When Does Punishment Work?
Unwanted Side Effects of Punishment
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