9780205495214

Learning and Teaching : Research-Based Methods

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205495214

  • ISBN10:

    0205495214

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This substantially revised Fourth Edition represents one of the most up-to-date, research-based methods texts available today. This text has two specific goals: to change how teachers think about teaching and to change how they actually teach. Solidly grounded in research, the text describes practical methods in a clear, readable manner with numerous case examples and offers suggestions for applying those methods in today's diverse school environments. Kauchak and Eggen organize their discussion around three important themes in education: diversity, motivation, and technology.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Research and Teaching
1(32)
Defining Good Teaching
3(1)
Research in Teaching: An Historical Perspective
4(4)
Studies of Teacher Characteristics
5(1)
The Search for the Right Method
5(1)
School-Level Research
6(1)
Teacher Effectiveness Research: Teachers Do Make a Difference
6(2)
Beyond Effective Teaching: A Focus on Student Learning
8(1)
Contemporary Views of Teaching and Learning
8(2)
From Behaviorist to Cognitive Perspectives
8(1)
Constructivism: Students as Creators of Understanding
9(1)
Text Themes
10(3)
The Diversity of Our Learners
10(1)
Ways of Enhancing Learner Motivation
11(1)
Assessment
12(1)
The Use of Technology for Increasing Learning
13(1)
Learning to Teach
13(14)
Knowledge of Subject Matter
13(1)
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
14(1)
Knowledge of Teaching and Learning
14(1)
Teaching Strategies
15(1)
Teacher Decision Making
16(2)
Reform and No Child Left Behind
18(3)
Standards-Based Professional Development
21(2)
Advanced Professional Standards: National Board Certification
23(2)
Developing a Professional Portfolio
25(2)
Using This Book to Learn to Teach
27(6)
Student Diversity
33(41)
Capitalizing on Cultural Diversity
35(7)
Multicultural Education: The Challenge
36(1)
Theories of Minority Achievement
36(3)
Culturally Responsive Teaching
39(3)
Language Diversity
42(3)
English Dialects
42(1)
English Language Development Programs
43(2)
Students Placed at Risk: Teaching the Children of Poverty
45(5)
Students Placed at Risk: Understanding the Problem
46(1)
Resiliency: Capitalizing on Student Strengths
47(1)
Teaching Students Placed at Risk
47(2)
Motivation: The Need for Challenge
49(1)
Teaching Students with Different Learning Abilities
50(7)
Intelligence: What Does It Mean?
51(1)
Multiple Intelligences: The Work of Howard Gardner
52(1)
Intellectual Diversity: Implications for Teaching
52(5)
Learning Styles
57(3)
Field Dependence/Independence
57(1)
Conceptual Tempo: Impulsive and Reflective Learners
58(1)
Classroom Learning Styles: The Work of Dunn and Dunn
58(1)
Learning Styles: Implications for Teachers
59(1)
Students with Exceptionalities
60(6)
Inclusion
61(1)
Working with Students with Exceptionalities: Support for Classroom Teachers
61(1)
The Exceptional Student Population
62(1)
Teachers' Roles in Working with Students Having Exceptionalities
63(1)
Adapting Instruction for Students with Exceptionalities
64(1)
Technology as a Tool for Inclusion
65(1)
The Challenge of Assessment in Diverse Classrooms
66(8)
Provide Practice with Test Taking
67(1)
Teach Test-Taking Strategies
67(1)
Use Clear Language in Items
67(1)
Make Provisions for Nonnative English Speakers
68(6)
Teacher Planning: Research and Reality
74(42)
Planning: A Functional Analysis
77(2)
Variables in Instructional Planning
79(6)
The Teacher
79(1)
Learner Development
80(1)
Learner Motivation
81(1)
Content
82(1)
Teaching Context
82(2)
Materials and Resources
84(1)
Time
85(1)
A Cognitive Planning Model
85(9)
Selecting Topics
86(1)
Specifying Learning Objectives
86(5)
Preparing and Organizing Learning Activities
91(2)
Preparing Assessments
93(1)
Instructional Alignment
93(1)
Backward Design
94(1)
Long-Term, Unit, and Lesson Planning
94(6)
Long-Term Planning
95(1)
Unit Planning
96(1)
Daily Lesson Planning
97(3)
Integrating the Curriculum: Interdisciplinary and Thematic Units
100(4)
An Integrated Continuum
101(1)
Designing and Implementing Integrated Units
101(2)
Research on Integrated Planning
103(1)
Research on Teacher Planning
104(3)
Planning for Diversity: Differentiating Instruction
107(9)
Varying Time
107(1)
Varying Learning Objectives
108(1)
Adapting Instructional Materials
108(1)
Offering Different Learning Activities
109(1)
Technology as a Tool for Differentiating Instruction
109(7)
Effective Teaching: The Research Base
116(33)
Classroom Climate: A Prerequisite to Learning
119(4)
Acceptance and Caring: The Human Dimension of Teaching
119(2)
A Safe and Orderly Learning Environment
121(1)
A Learning-Focused Classroom
122(1)
Effective Teaching and the Concept of Time
123(3)
Allocated Time: Priorities in the Curriculum
123(1)
Instructional Time: Time from a Teacher's Perspective
124(1)
Engaged Time: Time from a Learner's Perspective
125(1)
Academic Learning Time: The Role of Success
126(1)
A General Instructional Model
126(1)
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
127(9)
Teacher Attitudes
127(4)
Teacher Attitudes, Learner Diversity, and Motivation
131(1)
Effective Communication
131(4)
Organization
135(1)
Effective Lesson Beginnings
136(2)
Review
136(1)
Focus
136(2)
Developing the Lesson
138(1)
Ending Lessons Effectively
139(10)
Closure
140(1)
Assessment and Effective Teaching
141(8)
Increasing Learning through Student Involvement
149(33)
Student Involvement: A Key to Learning and Motivation
155(1)
Learner Involvement: The Need for Clear Learning Objectives
155(1)
Student Involvement: The Role of Content Representations
156(3)
Effective Content Representation: Using Technology
158(1)
Effective Content Representations: Accommodating Learner Diversity
159(1)
The Role of Teacher Questioning in Student Learning
159(3)
Using Questioning to Assess Current Understanding
160(1)
Increasing Student Motivation
160(1)
Guiding New Learning
161(1)
Questions: Their Influence on Student Thinking
161(1)
Elements of Effective Questioning
162(8)
Questioning Frequency
163(1)
Equitable Distribution
163(2)
Prompting
165(1)
Effective Questioning: Increasing Student Motivation
166(2)
Repetition for Emphasis
168(1)
Wait Time
169(1)
Effective Questioning: Involving Students from Diverse Backgrounds
170(1)
Classroom Questions: Additional Issues
170(12)
Low-and High-Level Questions
170(1)
Selecting Students
171(1)
Callouts
172(1)
Choral Responses
173(9)
Creating Productive Learning Environments: Classroom Management
182(35)
The Importance of Classroom Management
184(1)
Classroom Management: A Definition
184(4)
Management Goals: Learning and Self-Regulation
185(1)
Creating Responsibility-Oriented Classrooms
186(1)
Classroom Management: An Historical Perspective
187(1)
Planning for Classroom Management
188(6)
Student Characteristics
188(2)
The Physical Environment
190(1)
Classroom Rules: Establishing Standards for Behavior
191(3)
Procedures: Creating An Efficient Learning Environment
194(1)
Implementing Management Plans
194(12)
Implementing Plans: The First 10 Days
196(5)
Learner Diversity: Challenges to Home--School Communication
201(1)
The Relationship between Management and Instruction
202(2)
The Role of Assessment in Classroom Management
204(2)
Management Interventions
206(11)
An Intervention Continuum
206(2)
Dealing with Individual Problems
208(1)
Serious Management Problems: Violence and Aggression
209(8)
Direct Instruction
217(32)
Direct Instruction in the Total Instructional Perspective
221(1)
Direct Instruction
221(20)
Direct Instruction: The Research Base
222(1)
Forms of Content Taught by Direct Instruction
223(7)
Goals of Direct Instruction
230(3)
Planning for Direct Instruction
233(2)
Implementing Direct Instruction Lessons
235(6)
The Role of Assessment in Direct Instruction
241(8)
The Motivational Benefits of Effective Feedback
242(7)
Lecture Discussions: Teaching Organized Bodies of Knowledge
249(26)
Organized Bodies of Knowledge: Integrating Facts, Concepts, and Generalizations
253(1)
Using Lectures to Teach Organized Bodies of Knowledge
253(2)
Lecture Discussions: Alternatives to Standard Lectures
255(13)
The Lecture-Discussion Model: The Research Base
255(3)
Planning for Lecture Discussions
258(4)
Implementing Lecture-Discussion Lessons
262(6)
The Role of Assessment in Lecture-Discussion Lessons
268(7)
Guided Discovery: A Constructivist Approach to Instruction
275(27)
Guided Discovery: An Overview
282(1)
Guided Discovery: Theoretical Foundations
282(5)
Characteristics of Constructivism
283(3)
Guided Discovery and Student Motivation
286(1)
Misconceptions about Guided Discovery
286(1)
Planning for Guided Discovery Lessons
287(5)
Identifying Topics
287(1)
Specifying Learning Objectives
288(1)
Selecting Examples and Nonexamples
288(3)
Planning for Social Interaction
291(1)
Planning for Assessment
292(1)
Conducting Guided Discovery Lessons
292(3)
Review and Introduction
293(1)
The Open-Ended Phase
293(1)
The Convergent Phase
294(1)
Closure
295(1)
Application
295(1)
Ongoing Assessment in Guided Discovery Lessons
295(7)
Learning and Teaching in Groups
302(45)
Social Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives
304(4)
Developmental Theories
304(2)
Elaboration Theory
306(1)
Motivation Theory
306(1)
Components of Effective Group Interaction
306(2)
Using Groupwork to Facilitate Learning
308(4)
Organizing and Conducting Groupwork Activities
308(1)
Working in Pairs: Introducing Groupwork
309(1)
Working with Larger Groups
310(1)
Combining Pairs
310(2)
Groupwork with Higher-Level Tasks
312(1)
Cooperative Learning
312(16)
Cooperative Learning: Getting Started
313(2)
STAD: Student Teams-Achievement Divisions
315(5)
Jigsaw II
320(1)
Group Investigation
321(3)
Computer-Mediated Communication: Using Technology to Facilitate Cooperative Learning
324(2)
Using Cooperative Learning to Capitalize on Diversity
326(2)
Discussions
328(8)
Using Discussions to Promote Student Growth
329(1)
Promoting Cognitive Growth with Discussions: Planning
330(2)
Promoting Cognitive Growth with Discussions: Implementation
332(2)
Affective Discussions: Promoting Ethical and Moral Growth
334(2)
Peer Tutoring: Students as Resources
336(3)
Research on Peer Tutoring
337(1)
A Basic Peer Tutoring Model
337(2)
Assessing Learning in Social Interaction Strategies
339(8)
Assessing Cognitive Achievement
339(1)
Assessing Growth in Social Interaction Skills
340(7)
Problem-Based Instruction
347(40)
Problem-Based Learning
349(2)
Problem-Based Instruction: An Overview
349(1)
Problem-Based Learning: Theoretical Foundations
350(1)
Project-Based Learning
351(7)
Essential Components
351(3)
Implementing Project-Based Instruction in the Classroom
354(2)
Assessment and Project-Based Learning
356(1)
Research on Project-Based Learning
357(1)
Problem Solving
358(9)
Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems
360(1)
A Problem-Solving Model
360(3)
Helping Learners Become Better Problem Solvers
363(3)
Anchored Instruction: Technology as a Tool to Teach Problem Solving
366(1)
Inquiry Strategies
367(7)
Identifying a Question
370(1)
Forming Hypotheses
370(1)
Gathering Data
371(1)
Assessing Hypotheses
372(2)
Generalizing
374(1)
Analyzing the Inquiry Process
374(1)
Critical Thinking
374(13)
Knowledge of Content
375(1)
Basic Processes
375(1)
Metacognitive Knowledge
376(1)
Attitudes and Dispositions
376(1)
Teaching Critical Thinking in the Classroom
377(10)
Assessing Learner Understanding
387(38)
Classroom Assessment
389(4)
Formal and Informal Assessment
389(1)
Functions of an Assessment System
389(1)
Characteristics of Effective Assessment
390(1)
Teachers' Assessment Patterns
391(2)
Using Assessment to Promote Learning
393(7)
Preparing Students
395(2)
Administering Tests
397(1)
Examining Results
398(1)
Research on Classroom Testing: Implications for Teachers
399(1)
Alternative Assessment
400(5)
Performance Assessment
400(4)
Portfolio Assessment
404(1)
Designing an Assessment System
405(10)
Grades and Grading
406(2)
Communication
408(7)
Using Technology in Assessment
415(10)
Planning and Constructing Tests
415(1)
Analyzing Test Data
416(1)
Maintaining Student Records
417(8)
References 425(26)
Author Index 451(6)
Subject Index 457

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