9780674004429

Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780674004429

  • ISBN10:

    0674004426

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-11-15
  • Publisher: Harvard Univ Pr

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Summary

they also afford unique insight into how John Rawls has transformed our view of this history.

Table of Contents

Editor's Foreword xi
A Note on the Texts xxi
Introduction: Modern Moral Philosophy, 1600--1800 1(1)
A Difference between Classical and Modern Moral Philosophy
1(2)
The Main Problem of Greek Moral Philosophy
3(2)
The Background of Modern Moral Philosophy
5(3)
The Problems of Modern Moral Philosophy
8(3)
The Relation between Religion and Science
11(3)
Kant on Science and Religion
14(3)
On Studying Historical Texts
17(4)
Hume
Morality Psychologized and the Passions
21(15)
Background: Skepticism and the Fideism of Nature
21(3)
Classification of the Passions
24(3)
Outline of Section 3 of Part III of Book II
27(4)
Hume's Account of (Nonmoral) Deliberation: The Official View
31(5)
Rational Deliberation and the Role of Reason
36(15)
Three Questions about Hume's Official View
36(1)
Three Further Psychological Principles
37(3)
Deliberation as Transforming the System of Passions
40(3)
The General Appetite to Good
43(2)
The General Appetite to Good: Passion or Principle?
45(6)
Justice as an Artificial Virtue
51(18)
The Capital of the Sciences
51(2)
The Elements of Hume's Problem
53(3)
The Origin of Justice and Property
56(2)
The Circumstances of Justice
58(1)
The Idea of Convention
59(5)
Examples and Supplementary Remarks
61(3)
Justice as a Best Scheme of Conventions
64(2)
The Two Stages of Development
66(3)
The Critique of Rational Intuitionism
69(15)
Introduction
69(1)
Some of Clarke's Main Claims
70(5)
The Content of Right and Wrong
75(2)
Rational Intuitionism's Moral Psychology
77(1)
Hume's Critique of Rational Intuitionism
78(3)
Hume's Second Argument: Morality Not Demonstrable
81(3)
The Judicious Spectator
84(21)
Introduction
84(1)
Hume's Account of Sympathy
85(3)
The First Objection: The Idea of the Judicious Spectator
88(3)
The Second Objection: Virtue in Rags Is Still Virtue
91(2)
The Epistemological Role of the Moral Sentiments
93(3)
Whether Hume Has a Conception of Practical Reason
96(2)
The Concluding Section of the Treatise
98(7)
Appendix: Hume's Disowning the Treatise
101(4)
Leibniz
His Metaphysical Perfectionism
105(18)
Introduction
105(3)
Leibniz's Metaphysical Perfectionism
108(3)
The Concept of a Perfection
111(3)
Leibniz's Predicate-in-Subject Theory of Truth
114(5)
Some Comments on Leibniz's Account of Truth
119(4)
Spirits as Active Substances: Their Freedom
123(20)
The Complete Individual Concept Includes Active Powers
123(4)
Spirits as Individual Rational Substances
127(4)
True Freedom
131(3)
Reason, Judgment, and Will
134(5)
A Note on the Practical Point of View
139(4)
Kant
Groundwork: Preface and Part I
143(19)
Introductory Comments
143(3)
Some Points about the Preface: Paragraphs 11--13
146(3)
The Idea of a Pure Will
149(3)
The Main Argument of Groundwork I
152(2)
The Absolute Value of a Good Will
154(3)
The Special Purpose of Reason
157(1)
Two Roles of the Good Will
158(4)
The Categorical Imperative: The First Formulation
162(19)
Introduction
162(2)
Features of Ideal Moral Agents
164(3)
The Four-Step CI-Procedure
167(3)
Kant's Second Example: The Deceitful Promise
170(2)
Kant's Fourth Example: The Maxim of Indifference
172(3)
Two Limits on Information
175(2)
The Structure of Motives
177(4)
The Categorical Imperative: The Second Formulation
181(19)
The Relation between the Formulations
181(2)
Statements of the Second Formulation
183(2)
Duties of Justice and Duties of Virtue
185(2)
What Is Humanity?
187(3)
The Negative Interpretation
190(4)
The Positive Interpretation
194(1)
Conclusion: Remarks on Groundwork II:46--49 (427--429)
195(5)
The Categorical Imperative: The Third Formulation
200(17)
Gaining Entry for the Moral Law
200(3)
The Formulation of Autonomy and Its Interpretation
203(2)
The Supremacy of Reason
205(3)
The Realm of Ends
208(3)
Bringing the Moral Law Nearer to Intuition
211(3)
What Is the Analogy?
214(3)
The Priority of Right and the Object of the Moral Law
217(18)
Introduction
217(2)
The First Three of Six Conceptions of the Good
219(4)
The Second Three Conceptions of the Good
223(3)
Autonomy and Heteronomy
226(4)
The Priority of Right
230(2)
A Note on True Human Needs
232(3)
Moral Constructivism
235(18)
Rational Intuitionism: A Final Look
235(2)
Kant's Moral Constructivism
237(1)
The Constructivist Procedure
238(3)
An Observation and an Objection
241(2)
Two Conceptions of Objectivity
243(4)
The Categorical Imperative: In What Way Synthetic A Priori?
247(6)
The Fact of Reason
253(20)
Introduction
253(2)
The First Fact of Reason Passage
255(3)
The Second Passage: §§--8 of Chapter I of the Analytic
258(3)
The Third Passage: Appendix I to Analytic I, Paragraphs 8--15
261(3)
Why Kant Might Have Abandoned a Deduction for the Moral Law
264(2)
What Kind of Authentication Does the Moral Law Have?
266(2)
The Fifth and Sixth Fact of Reason Passages
268(3)
Conclusion
271(2)
The Moral Law as the Law of Freedom
273(18)
Concluding Remarks on Constructivism and Due Reflection
273(2)
The Two Points of View
275(2)
Kant's Opposition to Leibniz on Freedom
277(3)
Absolute Spontaneity
280(2)
The Moral Law as a Law of Freedom
282(3)
The Ideas of Freedom
285(4)
Conclusion
289(2)
The Moral Psychology of the Religion, Book I
291(18)
The Three Predispositions
291(3)
The Free Power of Choice
294(4)
The Rational Representation of the Origin of Evil
298(5)
The Manichean Moral Psychology
303(3)
The Roots of Moral Motivation in Our Person
306(3)
The Unity of Reason
309(20)
The Practical Point of View
309(2)
The Realm of Ends as Object of the Moral Law
311(2)
The Highest Good as Object of the Moral Law
313(4)
The Postulates of Vernunftglaube
317(2)
The Content of Reasonable Faith
319(3)
The Unity of Reason
322(7)
Hegel
His Rechtsphilosophie
329(20)
Introduction
329(2)
Philosophy as Reconciliation
331(5)
The Free Will
336(4)
Private Property
340(4)
Civil Society
344(5)
Ethical Life and Liberalism
349(24)
Sittlichkeit: The Account of Duty
349(3)
Sittlichkeit: The State
352(6)
Sittlichkeit: War and Peace
358(4)
A Third Alternative
362(3)
Hegel's Legacy as a Critic of Liberalism
365(8)
Appendix: Course Outline 373(4)
Index 377

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