Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Literature 8/e , the most popular introduction of its kind, is organized into three genresFiction, Poetry, and Drama. As in past editions, the authors' collective poetic voice brings personal warmth and a human perspective to the discussion of literature, adding to students' interest in the readings. This edition reflects a balance of classic works along with contemporary and non-Western authors. More theory has been added through the addition of new casebooks and new critical essays.

Table of Contents


Fable, Parable, and Tale.

W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra.

* Aesop, The North Wind and the Sun.

Chuang Tzu, Independence.

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death.
The Short Story.
John Updike, A & P.
Writer's Perspective--John Updike on Writing, Why Write?
Writing Critically--What's The Plot?
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily.

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart.

James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues.

* Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P. O.
Writer's Perspective--James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African-American Writer.
Writing Critically--How Point of View Shapes a Story.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall.

Alice Walker, Everyday Use.

Isaac Bashevis Singer, Gimpel the Fool (Translated by Saul Bellow).
Writer's Perspective--Isaac Bashevis Singer on Writing, The Character of Gimpel.
Writing Critically--How Character Creates Action.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Kate Chopin, The Storm.

Jack London, To Build a Fire.

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake.

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets.
Writer's Perspective--Amy Tan on Writing, Setting the Voice.
Writing Critically--How Time and Place Set a Story.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.

William Faulkner, Barn Burning.

Guy De Maupassant, The Necklace.

* Ha Jin, Saboteur.
Writer's Perspective--Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style.
Writing Critically--Be Style Conscious.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Stephen Crane, The Open Boat.

* F. Scott Fitzgerald, Babylon Revisited.

Luke 15: 11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son.

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Harrison Bergeron.
Writer's Perspective--Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction.
Writing Critically--Stating the Theme.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums.

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery.

* Octavio Paz, My Life with the Wave.

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.
Writer's Perspective--Ursula K. Le Guin on Writing, On "The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas".
Writing Critically--Recognizing Symbols.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, An Analysis of the Symbolism In Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums".
Further Suggestions For Writing.


Ralph Lombreglia, Jungle Video.
Writer's Perspective--Ralph Lombreglia on Writing, Creating "Jungle Video".
Writing Critically--Know What You're Judging.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


* Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych.

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis.
Writer's Perspective--Franz Kafka on Writing, Discussing The Metamorphosis.
Writing Critically--Leaving Things Out.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, Kafka's Greatness.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Flannery O'Connor.

* Good Country People.

A Good Man Is Hard to Find.

Flannery O'Connor on Flannery O'Connor.

Flannery O'Connor, The Element of Suspense in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find".

On Her Catholic Faith.

The Serious Writer and the Tired Reader.

* Yearbook Cartoons.
Critics on Flannery O'Connor.

* Robert Brinkmeyer Jr., Flannery O'Connor and Her Readers.

* J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit.

* Mary Jane Schenck, Deconstructing "A Good Man Is Hard to Find".

* Kathleen Feeley, Comic Perversion in " Good Country People".
Raymond Carver.


* A Small, Good Thing.

* What We Talk About When We Talk About Love.
Raymond Carver on Raymond Carver.

Commonplace but Precise Language.

* My Biases in Fiction*.

Honesty in Writing.
Critics on Raymond Carver.

* Tess Gallagher, The Origins of "Cathedral".

* Tom Jenks, The Origin of "Cathedral".

* Paul Skenazy, Carver and Minimalism.

* Arthur Saltzman, Carver's Characterization.
Writing Critically-How One Story Illuminates Another.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions For Writing.


* Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path.

* Anjana Appachana, The Prophecy.

* Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings.

Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark.

Robert Olen Butler, A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain.

Willa Cather, Paul's Case.

John Cheever, The Five-Forty-Eight.

Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Pet Dog.

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour.

Sandra Cisneros, Barbie-Q.

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal.

Gabriel Garcia Mrquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown.

Langston Hughes, On the Road.

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat.

* Kazuo Ishiguro, A Family Supper.

James Joyce, Araby.

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl.

D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner.

Bernard Malamud, Angel Levine.

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill.

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh.

Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband.

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried.

Frank O'Connor, First Confession.

Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing.

Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds.

James Thurber, The Catbird Seat.



William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree.
Lyric Poetry.

D. H. Lawrence, Piano.

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers.
Narrative Poetry.

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence.

Robert Frost, "Out, Out-".
Dramatic Poetry.

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess.
Writer's Perspective- Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers".
Writing Critically--Can a Poem be Paraphrased?

William Stafford, Ask Me.

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me".
Writing Assignment.


Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz.

Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know.

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book.

Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter.

Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles.

* Benjamin Alire Senz, To the Desert.

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter The Person in the Poem.

Carter Revard, Birch Canoe.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal.

* Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting.

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.

Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry.

James Stephens, A Glass of Beer.

Anne Sexton, Her Kind.

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow.

Robert Creeley, Oh No.

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen.

Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage.

John Betjeman, In Westminster Abbey.

Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links.

Tess Gallagher, I Stop Writing the Poem.

Charles Causley, I Saw a Jolly Hunter.

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox.
For Review and Further Study.

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper.

Jos Emilio Pacheco, High Treason.

William Stafford, At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border.

* H. L. Hix, I Love the World, as Does Any Dancer.

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta.

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est.
Writer's Perspective--Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry.
Writing Critically--Paying Attention to the Obvious.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz".
Further Suggestions for Writing.

14. WORDS.
Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First.

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say.

Marianne Moore, Silence.

Henry Taylor, Riding a One-Eyed Horse.

Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down!

Barbara Howes, Looking Up at Leaves.

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You.
The Value of a Dictionary.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath.

John Clare, Mouse's Nest.

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead.

David R. Axelrod, The Dead Have No Respect.

* Sophie Hannah, Absence makes the Heart Grow Henry.

Kelly Cherry, Advice to a Friend Who Paints.

* Carl Sandburg, Grass.
Word Choice and Word Order.

Josephine Miles, Reason.

* Kay Ryan, Blandeur.

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid.

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment.

Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts.
For Review and Further Study.

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town.

Jonathan Holden, The Names of the Rapids.

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes.

Anonymous, Carnation Milk.

William Wordsworth, My heart leaps up when I behold.

William Wordsworth, Mutability.

Anonymous, Scottsboro.

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky.

Writer's Perspective- Lewis Carroll on Writing, Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky".
Writing Critically--How Much Difference Does a Word Make?
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


John Masefield, Cargoes.

William Blake, London.

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock.

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters.

Richard Snyder, A Mongoloid Child Handling Shells on the Beach.

Timothy Steele, Epitaph.

Geoffrey Hill, Merlin.

Walter de la Mare, The Listeners.

Robert Frost, Fire and Ice.

* Clare Rossini, Final Love Note.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears.

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World.
Writer's Perspective--Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World".
Writing Critically--The Ways a Poem Suggests.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro.

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel.

T.S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down.

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar.

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish.

Anne Stevenson, The Victory.

* Charles Simic, Fork.

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence.

Jean Toomer, Reapers.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty.
About Haiku.

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower.

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak.

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool.

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell.

Taniguchi Buson, I go.

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy.

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket.

Richard Brautigan, Haiku Ambulance.

Gary Snyder, Etheridge Knight, Penny Harter, Jennifer Brutschy, Richard Wright, Hayden Carruth, John Ridland, * Adelle Foley.
A Selection of Haiku.
For Review and Further Study.

John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art.

Walt Whitman, The Runner.

T. E. Hulme, Image.

* Chana Bloch, Tired Sex.

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter.

Gary Snyder, Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Lookout.

H. D., Heat.

Louise Glck, Mock Orange.

Billy Collins, Embrace.

John Haines, Winter News.

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning.
Writer's Perspective--Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image.
Writing Critically--Analyzing Images.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish".
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Why Speak Figuratively?

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle.

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?

Jon Stallworthy, Sindhi Woman.
Metaphor and Simile.

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood-a Loaded Gun.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall.

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand.

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors.

N. Scott Momaday, Simile.

* Louise Bogan, The Crows.

Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low-in my Regard.

Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home.
Other Figures.

James Stephens, The Wind.

Chidiock Tichborne, Elegy, Written with His Own Hand.

Margaret Atwood, You fit into me.

John Ashberry, The Cathedral Is.

George Herbert, The Pulley.

Theodore Roethke, I Knew a Woman.
For Review and Further Study.

Robert Frost, The Silken Tent.

Denise Levertov, Leaving Forever.

Jane Kenyon, The Suitor.

Robert Frost, The Secret Sits.

* H. D., The Pool.

A. R. Ammons, Coward.

Kay Ryan, Turtle.

Robinson Jeffers, Hands.

Robert Burns, Oh, my love is like a red, red rose.
Writer's Perspective--Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor.
Writing Critically--How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

18. SONG.
Singing and Saying.

Ben Jonson, To Celia.

Anonymous, The Cruel Mother.

Run D.M.C., Peter Piper.

William Shakespeare, Take, O, take those lips away.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory.

Paul Simon, Richard Cory.

Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan.

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham.

Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues.

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues.
For Review and Further Study.

John Lennon and Paul McCartney, Eleanor Rigby.

* Bob Dylan, The Times They Are A-Changin'.

* Marilyn Nelson, Ballad of Aunt Geneva.

William Blake, Jerusalem.
Writer's Perspective--Paul McCartney on Writing, Creating "Eleanor Rigby".
Writing Critically--Is There a Difference Between Poetry and Song?
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

19. SOUND.
Sound as Meaning.

Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance.

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?

John Updike, Recital.

Frances Cornford, The Watch.

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal.

Emanuel di Pasquale, Rain.

Aphra Behn, When maidens are young.
Alliteration and Assonance.

A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock.

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Voice.

Janet Lewis, Girl Help.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls.

William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga.

* James Reeves, Rough Weather.

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus.

Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: After the Praying.

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur.

Fred Chappell, Narcissus and Echo.

Robert Frost, Desert Places.
Reading and Hearing Poems Out Loud.

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane.

William Shakespeare, Full fathom five thy father lies.

* Chryss Yost, Lai with Sounds of Skin.

T.S. Eliot, Virginia.
Writer's Perspective- T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry.
Writing Critically--Is it Possible to Write about Sound?
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Stresses and Pauses.

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break.

Ben Jonson, Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears.

Alexander Pope, Atticus.

Sir Thomas Wyatt, With serving still.

Dorothy Parker, Rsum.

Max Beerbohm, On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm.

Thomas Campion, Rose-cheeked Laura, come.

Vachel Lindsay, Factory Windows Are Always Broken.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme.

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty.

William Carlos Williams, The Descent of Winter.

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!

David Mason, Song of the Powers.

Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie.
Writer's Perspective--Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing "We Real Cool".
Writing Critically--Freeze-Framing the Sound.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Formal Patterns.

John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable.

Robert Graves, Counting the Beats.

John Donne, Song ("Go and catch a falling star").

Phillis Levin, Brief Bio.

Ronald Gross, Yield.
The Sonnet.

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds.

Michael Drayton, Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why.

Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night.

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You.

* Jared Carter, Roadside Crosses.

R. S. Gwynn, Scenes from the Playroom.

Timothy Steele, Summer.

Alexander Pope, Sir John Harrington, Robert Herrick, William Blake, E. E. Cummings, Langston Hughes, J. V. Cunningham, John Frederick Nims, Stevie Smith, Brad Leithauser, * Dick Davis, * Anonymous, Hilaire Belloc, Wendy Cope, A selection of epigrams.

W. H. Auden, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, Cornelius Ter Maat, Clerihews.
Other Forms.

* Robert Pinsky, ABC.

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night.

Robert Bridges, Triolet.

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina.
Writer's Perspective--Robert Graves on Writing, Poetic Inspiration and Poetic Form.
Writing Critically--Turning Points.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Denise Levertov, Six Variations (Part III).

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill's.

W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death.

William Carlos Williams, The Dance.

Stephen Crane, The Heart.

Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford.

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird.

Gary Gildner, First Practice.

Carolyn Forch, The Colonel.
Visual Poetry.

George Herbert, Easter Wings.

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow.

Terry Ehret, from Papyrus.

Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat.

Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse.

E. E. Cummings, in Just-.

Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling.

Lucille Clifton, Homage to my hips.

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red.

Alice Fulton, What I Like.
Writer's Perspective--Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future.
Writing Critically--Lining Up for Free Verse.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


T.S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript.

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork.

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones.

Matthew 13:24-30, The Parable of the Good Seed.

George Herbert, Redemption.

John Ciardi, Most Like an Arch This Marriage.

Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken.

Christina Rossetti, Uphill.

Gjertrud Schnackenberg, Signs.
For Review and Further Study.

Robinson Jeffers, The Beaks of Eagles.

Sara Teasdale, The Flight.

William Carlos Williams, Poem ("As the cat").

Ted Kooser, Carrie.

* Rafael Campo, What the Body Told.

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover.

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar.
Writer's Perspective--William Butler Yeats on Writing, Poetic Symbols.
Writing Critically--How to Read a Symbol.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay.

D. H. Lawrence, Bavarian Gentians.

Thomas Hardy, The Oxen.

William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us.

H. D., Helen.

Louise Bogan, Medusa.
Personal Myth.

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming.

Dick Allen, Night Driving.

James Dickey, The Heaven of Animals.

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School.
Myth and Popular Culture.

Charles Martin, Taken Up.

A. D. Hope, Imperial Adam.

Robert Frost, Never Again Would Birds' Song Be the Same.

Anne Sexton, Cinderella.
Writer's Perspective--Anne Sexton on Writing, Transforming Fairy Tales.
Writing Critically--Demystifying Myth.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H.D.'s "Helen".
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus.

Julia Alvarez, The women on my mother's side were known.

Culture, Race, and Ethnicity.

Claude McKay, America.

* Rhina P. Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilinge.

Samuel Menashe, The Shrine Whose Shape I Am.

Francisco X. Alarcn, The X in My Name.

Wendy Rose, For the White Poets Who Would Be Indian.

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It.

Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu.

* Emily Grosholz, Listening.

Donald Justice, Men at Forty.

Adrienne Rich, Women.
For Review and Further Study.

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, To Li Po.

Andrew Hudgins, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead.

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceaera.

Alastair Reid, Speaking a Foreign Language.

* Lynn Emanuel, Self-Portrait.

Philip Larkin, Aubade.
Writer's Perspective--Julia Alvarez on Writing, Discovering My Voice in English.
Writing Critically--Poetic Voice and Personal Identity.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Is Poetic Translation Possible?

Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos.

Pablo Neruda, translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many.
World Poetry.

* Li Po, Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text).

* Li Po, Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (literal translation).

* Li Po, translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight.

Octavio Paz, Con Los Ojos Cerrados.

Octavio Paz, translated by John Felstiner, With Our Eyes Shut.

Horace, Carpe Diem Odes I (11).

Horace, translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, James Michie,* A. E. Stallings, Odes I.

Omar Khayyam, Rubai.

Omar Khayyam, translated by Edward FitzGerald, Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah, Dick Davis, Rubai.

Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are.

Wendy Cope, From Strugnell's Rubiyt.

Hugh Kingsmill, What, still alive at twenty-two?

Bruce Bennett, The Lady Speaks Again.

Gene Fehler, If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent.

* Aaron Abeyta, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Tortilla.
Writer's Perspective--Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda.
Writing Critically--Parody Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face.

Grace Treasone, Life.

Stephen Tropp, My Wife Is My Shirt.

Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger-moaned for Drink.

Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment.

William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark.

Julia A. Moore, Little Libby.

Frederick Turner, On the Death of an Infant.

Ted Kooser, A Child's Grave Marker.

Wallace McRae, Reincarnation.

Recognizing Excellence.

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium.

Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness.

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias.

William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun.

Robert Hayden, The Whipping.

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art.

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain!.

Carl Sandburg, Fog.

Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus.

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee.
Writer's Perspective--Edgar Allan Poe on Writing, A Long Poem Does Not Exist.
Writing Critically--How to Begin Evaluating a Poem.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


* Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica.

Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, Octavio Paz, J. V. Cunningham, Elizabeth Bishop, William Stafford, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Bly, Some Definitions of Poetry.

Ha Jin, Missed Time.

Emily Dickinson.

Success is counted sweetest.

* Water, is taught by thirst.

* I taste a liquor never brewed.

Wild Nights - Wild Nights!

I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain.

I'm Nobody! Who are you?

The Soul selects her own Society.

After great pain, a formal feeling comes.

This is my letter to the World.

* I heard a Fly buzz - when I died.

I started Early - Took my Dog.

Because I could not stop for Death.

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church.

* The bustle in a House.

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant.
Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson.

* Photos of Emily Dickinson's Room in Amherst, Massachusetts.

* Facsimile of Manuscript to "Some keep the Sabbath going to Church".

Emily Dickinson, Recognizing Poetry.

* Emily Dickinson, Self-Description.
Critics on Emily Dickinson.

* Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Meeting Emily Dickinson.

* Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts.

* Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson.

* Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death".

* Judith Farr, A Reading of "My life had stood a loaded Gun".
Langston Hughes.

The Negro Speaks of Rivers.

Mother to Son.

* Dream Variations.

* Lenox Avenue: Midnight.

The Weary Blues.

I, Too.

Song for a Dark Girl.

* Battle of the Landlord.


Subway Rush Hour.


Harlem Dream Deferred.

Theme for English B.


Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes.

* Photo of Lenox Avenue, Harlem in 1925.

* Photo of cover of FIRE!!

Langston Hughes, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.

* Langston Hughes, The Harlem Renaissance.
Critics on Langston Hughes.

* Arnold Rampersad, Hughes as an Experimentalist.

* Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson, Langston Hughes and Harlem.

Darryl Pinckney, Black Identity in Langston Hughes.

* Peter Townsend, Langston Hughes and Jazz.

* Onwuchekwa Jemie, A Reading of "A Dream Deferred".
Suggestions for Writing.


Anonymous, Edward.

The Three Ravens.

The Twa Corbies.

Western Wind.

Last Words of the Prophet (Navajo Mountain Chant).

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach.

John Ashbery, At North Farm.

Margaret Atwood, Siren Song.

W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening.

Muse des Beaux Arts.

Elizabeth Bishop, Filling Station.

William Blake, The Tyger.

The Sick Rose.

Eavan Boland, Anorexic.

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother.

A Street in Bronzeville: Southeast Corner.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Grief.

How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways.

Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister.

Geoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty.

G. K. Chesterton, The Donkey.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan.

* Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters.

E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond.

John Donne, Death be not proud.

The Flea.

A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning.

Rita Dove, Daystar.

John Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham.

T.S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.

Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways.

Robert Frost, Birches.

Mending Wall.

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California.

Dana Gioia, California Hills in August.

* Thom Gunn, The Man with Night Sweats.

Donald Hall, Names of Horses.

Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain.

During Wind and Rain.


Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays.

Seamus Heaney, Digging.

Mother of the Groom.

Anthony Hecht, Adam.

George Herbert, Love.

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins to Make Much of Time.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall.

Thou art indeed just, Lord, if I contend.

The Windhover.

A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now.

To an Athlete Dying Young.

Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner.

Robinson Jeffers, To the Stone-cutters.

Ben Jonson, On My First Son.

Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood.

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn.

On First Looking into Chapman's Homer.

When I have fears that I may cease to be.

To Autumn.

Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad.

Poetry of Departures.

Irving Layton, The Bull Calf.

Philip Levine, Animals Are Passing from Our Lives.

Stephen Shu-ning Liu, My Father's Martial Art.

Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour.

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress.

James Merrill, Charles on Fire.

Charlotte Mew, The Farmer's Bride.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo.

John Milton, Methought I saw my late espous'd saint.

When I consider how my light is spent.

* Marianne Moore, Poetry.

Frederick Morgan, The Master.

* Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman.

Howard Nemerov, The War in the Air.

Lorine Niedecker, Sorrow Moves in Wide Waves.

Yone Noguchi, Hokku.

Naomi Shihab Nye, Famous.

Sharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys Party.

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth.

Linda Pastan, Ethics.

Robert Phillips, Running on Empty.

Sylvia Plath, Daddy.

Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen.

Alexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing.

Ezra Pound, The Garret.

The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter.

Dudley Randall, A Different Image.

* John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece.

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts.

* Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin.


Edward Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy.

Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane.

Mary Jo Salter, Welcome to Hiroshima.

William Shakespeare, Not marble nor the gilded monuments.

That time of year thou mayst in me behold.

When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes.

When daisies pied and violets blue.

When icicles hang by the wall.

Charles Simic, Butcher Shop.

* Louis Simpson, American Poetry.

David R. Slavitt, Titanic.

Christopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry.

William Jay Smith, American Primitive.

W. D. Snodgrass, Disposal.

Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting.

* William Stafford, One Home.

Wallace Stevens, Peter Quince at the Clavier.

The Emperor of Ice-Cream.

Ruth Stone, Second Hand Coat.

Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Dark house, by which once more I stand.


Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill.

John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player.

Amy Uyematsu, Red Rooster, Yellow Sky.

Mona Van Duyn, Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri.

Derek Walcott, The Virgins.

Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose.

Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider.

Walt Whitman, I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing.

Richard Wilbur, The Writer.

* C. K. Williams, Hood.

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All.

To Waken an Old Lady.

Yvor Winters, At the San Francisco Airport.

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge.

James Wright, A Blessing.

Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio.

Mary Sidney Wroth, In This Strange Labyrinth.

Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me sek'.

William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop.

Long-legged Fly.

The Magi.

When You Are Old.



A Play in its Elements.

Susan Glaspell, Trifles.
Tragedy and Comedy.

John Millington Synge, Riders To The Sea.

David Ives, Sure Thing.

Garrison Keillor, Prodigal Son.
Writer's Perspective--Susan Glaspell on Drama, Creating Trifles.
Writing Critically--Conflict Resolution.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, Outside Trifles.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Greek Theater in the Age of Sophocles.
Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy.

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald).

Sophocles, Antigone (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald ).
Robert Fitzgerald, Translating Sophocles.
Critics on Sophocles.

Aristotle, Defining Tragedy.

Sigmund Freud, The Oedipus Complex.

* E. R. Dodds, On Misunderstanding Oedipus.

* A. E. Haigh, The Irony of Sophocles.

* Patricia M. Line, Antigone's Flaw.
Writing Critically-Some Things Change. Some Things Don't.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

The Theater of Shakespeare.

William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice.

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.

* A Midsummer's Night Dream.

* Ben Jonson, On His Friend And Rival William Shakespeare.
Critics on Shakespeare.

* A. C. Bradley, Hamlet's Character.

* Rebecca West, Hamlet And Ophelia.

* Jan Kott, Producing Hamlet.

Joel Wingard, Reader-Response Issues in Hamlet.

W. H. Auden, Iago as a Triumphant Villain.

Maud Bodkin, Lucifer on Shakespeare's Othello.

* Virginia Mason Vaughan, Black and White in Othello.

Anthony Burgess, An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare.

* John Russell Brown, Recognizing Love in A Midsummer's Night Dream.

* Lincoln Kirstein, On Producing A Midsummer's Night Dream.

* Linda Bamber, Female Power in A Midsummer's Night Dream.
Writing Critically--Breaking the Language Barrier.
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera?
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Realism and Naturalism.

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House (translated by James McFarlane).
Writer's Perspective--George Bernard Shaw on Drama, Ibsen and the Familiar Situation.
Tragicomedy and the Absurd.

* Tom Stoppard, The Real Inspector Hound.
Writer's Perspective--Tom Stoppard on Drama, Writing The Real Inspector Hound.

* Samuel Beckett, Krapp's Last Tape.
Writer's Perspective--Samuel Beckett on Drama, The Expression That There Is Nothing to Express.
Writing Critically--What's so Realistic about Realism?
Writing Assignment.
Student Essay, Helmer vs. Helmer.
Further Suggestions for Writing.

Writing Critically--Critical Performance.
Writing Assignment.
Further Suggestions for Writing.


Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman.
Writer's Perspective--Arthur Miller on Drama, Tragedy and the Common Man.

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie.
Writer's Perspective--Tennessee Williams on Drama, How to Stage The Glass Menagerie.


David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice.
Writer's Perspective--David Henry Hwang on Drama, Multicultural Theater.

Terrence McNally, Andre's Mother.
Writer's Perspective--Terrence McNally on Drama, How to Write a Play.

Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer.
Writer's Perspective--Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Drama, Writing The Cuban Swimmer.

August Wilson, Joe Turner's Come and Gone.
Writer's Perspective--August Wilson On Drama, Black Experience in America.


Discovering and Planning.
Drafting and Revising.
The Form of Your Finished Paper.
Documenting Your Sources.
Using Spell-Check Programs.
Reference Guide Summary for Citations.
Plagiarism Keeping a Journal.

Sample Student Essay (Explication).
Sample Student Essay (Analysis).
Sample Student Card Report.
Comparing and Contrasting.
further Suggestions for Writing.


Robert Frost, Design.
Sample Student Essay (Explication).
Sample Student Essay (Analysis).
Comparing and Contrasting.

Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread.
Sample Student Essay (Comparison).
How to Quote a Poem.
Before you Begin.
Suggestions for Writing.

Robert Frost, In White (early draft of Design).

How to Quote a Play.
Writing a Card Report.
Sample Student Card Report.
Reviewing a Play.
Sample Student Drama Review.
Suggestions for Writing.

Formalist Criticism.

Cleanth Brooks, The Formalist Critic.

Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues".

Robert Langbaum, On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess".
Biographical Criticism.

Virginia Llewellyn Smith, Chekhov's Attitude to Romantic Love.

Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art".

* Jeffrey Meyers, Biographical Background to "Babylon Revisited".
Historical Criticism.

Hugh Kenner, Imagism.

* Seamus Deane, Joyce's Vision of Dublin.

* Joseph Moldenhauer, "To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition.
Psychological Criticism.

Sigmund Freud, The Destiny of Oedipus.

Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in "The Tell-Tale Heart".

Harold Bloom, Poetic Influence.
Mythological Criticism.

* C. J. Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes.

Northrop Frye, Mythic Archetypes.

Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning".
Sociological Criticism.

Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form.

Daniel P. Watkins, Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner".

Alfred Kazin, Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln.
Gender Criticism.

Elaine Showalter, Toward a Feminist Poetics.

Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper".

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Freedom of Emily Dickinson.
Reader-Response Criticism.

Stanley Fish, An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily".

Robert Scholes, "How Do We Make a Poem?".

* Michael J. Colacurcio, The End of Young Goodman Brown.
Deconstructionist Criticism.

Roland Barthes, The Death of the Author.

Barbara Johnson, Rigorous Unreliability.

Geoffrey Hartman, On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal".
Cultural Studies.

Vincent B. Leitch, Poststructuralist Cultural Critique.

Mark Bauerlein, What is Cultural Studies?

Heather Glen, The Stance of Observation in William Blake's "London".




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