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Literature is a conversation between writers and other writers, and between writers and readers. In Literature and Its Writers, Ann and Samuel Charters complement a rich and varied selection of stories, poems, and plays with an unparalleled array of commentaries about that literature by the writers themselves. Such "writer talk" inspires students to respond as it models ways for them to enter the conversation. In the sixth edition, the Charters continue to entice students to join the conversation, with adventurous and intriguing new literary works, more detailed coverage of literary elements, and more help with reading and writing. This anthology is now available with video! Learn more about VideoCentral for Literature.
Ann Charters received her B.A. at Berkeley and her Ph.D. at Columbia. She first met Kerouac at a poetry reading in Berkeley in 1956, and compiled a comprehensive bibliography of his work in 1967. A professor of English at the University of Connecticut, she is also the editor of Selected Letters of Jack Kerouac and the Portable Kerouac Reader,and the author of Beats and Company: Portrait of a Literary Generation.
Samuel Charters has taught creative writing and published widely in a variety of genres, including eleven books of poetry, four novels, a book of criticism on contemporary American poetry, a biography (coauthored with Ann Charters) of the poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, and translations of the poetry of Tomas Transtromer and Edith Sodergran. An ethnomusicologist, he produces blues and jazz recordings and has published many books about music, among them a history of New Orleans jazz and a study of bluesman Robert Johnson.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Connecting with Literature Sample Paper — Raymond Carver's "Creative Writing 101" Reading Literature
Thinking and Writing about Literature
Part One — FICTION
What is a Short Story?
*Old Testament, The Judgment of Solomon Grace Paley, Samuel
Reading, Thinking and Writing about Short Fiction
Close Reading Short Fiction Some Guidelines for Close Reading Sample Close Reading —Grace Paley, Samuel Critical Thinking about Short Fiction Writing about Short Fiction Sample Paper — Grace Paley's Commentary and "Samuel" Other Resources to Help Your Writing Sample Paper —Grace Paley's Point of View in "Samuel"
Plot and Point of View
Plot *Plot Summary *Raymond Carver, Popular Mechanics *Questions for Critical Thinking about Plot *Writing about Plot *Alasdair Gray, Pillow Talk Point of View *Herta Muller, Workday *Dagoberto Gilb, Love in L.A. *Questions for Critical Thinking about Point of View *Writing about Point of View *Useful Terms to Remember
Character and Setting
Character *Roberto Bolano, Jim *Questions for Critical Thinking about Character *Writing about Character Jamaica Kincaid, Girl Setting *Daniel Orozco, Orientation *Questions for Critical Thinking about Setting *Writing about Setting Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings * Useful Terms to Remember
Style and Theme
Style *David Foster Wallace, Everything is Green *Lydia Davis, Blind Date Voice Tone Irony Symbol *Franz Kafka, I Wish I Were a Red Indian *Yasunari Kawabata, The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket *Questions for Critical Thinking about Style *Writing about Style Theme Interpreting the Theme of a Story *Naguib Mahfouz, Half a Day *Rosario Morales, The Day It Happened *Questions for Critical Thinking about Theme *Writing about Theme *Useful Terms to Remember
CONVERSATIONS ON STORIES AND STORYTELLERS
Flannery O'Connor Good Country People A Good Man Is Hard to Find On Flannery O'Connor's Fiction Flannery O'Connor From Letters, 1954-55 Flannery O'Connor Writing Short Stories Flannery O'Connor The Element of Suspense in A Good Man Is Hard to Find Sally Fitzgerald Southern Sources of A Good Man Is Hard to Find Edgar Allan Poe The Cask of Amontillado The Fall of the House of Usher On Critical Views of Edgar Allan Poe's Short Stories Edgar Allan Poe The Importance of the Single Effect in a Prose Tale D.H. Lawrence On The Fall of the House of Usher and The Cask of Amontillado Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren A New Critical Reading of The Fall of the House of Usher J. Gerald Kennedy On The Fall of the House of Usher David S. Reynolds PoeÕs Art of Transformation in The Cask of Amontillado *Writing about Flannery OÕConnor and Edgar Allan Poe
STORIES AND STORYTELLERS
Sherman Alexie The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven COMMENTARY: Sherman Alexie, Superman and Me *Dorothy Allison Jason Who Will Be Famous Margaret Atwood Happy Endings James Baldwin Sonny's Blues COMMENTARY: James Baldwin, Autobiographical Notes Toni Cade Bambara The Lesson *Jose Antonio Burciaga La Puerta Raymond Carver Cathedral COMMENTARIES: Raymond Carver, On Writing Raymond Carver, Creative Writing 101 CONNECTION: Raymond Carver, Popular Mechanics Anton Chekhov The Lady with the Pet Dog COMMENTARY: Anton Chekhov, Technique in Writing the Short Story CONNECTION: Joyce Carol Oates, The Lady with the Pet Dog Kate Chopin Desiree's Baby The Story of an Hour COMMENTARY: Kate Chopin, How I Stumbled upon Maupassant *Stephen Crane The Open Boat COMMENTARY: Stephen Crane, The Sinking of the Commodore Junot Diaz How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or Halfie Ralph Ellison Battle Royal COMMENTARY: Ralph Ellison, The Influence of Folklore on Battle Royal William Faulkner A Rose for Emily COMMENTARY: William Faulkner, The Meaning of A Rose for Emily Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper COMMENTARIES: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Undergoing the Cure for Nervous Prostration Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, A Feminist Reading of Gilman's The Yellow Wallpaper Susan Glaspell A Jury of Her Peers COMMENTARIES: Elaine Showalter, On Glaspell's A Jury of Her Peers CONNECTIONS: Susan Glaspell, Trifles Lynn Nottage, POOF! Nathaniel Hawthorne Young Goodman Brown COMMENTARY: Herman Melville, Blackness in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown CONNECTION, Edgar Allan Poe, The Importance of the Single Effect in a Prose Tale Ernest Hemingway Hills Like White Elephants Zora Neale Hurston *Sweat COMMENTARY: Zora Neale Hurston, How it Feels to Be Colored Me CONNECTION, Alice Walker, Zora Neale Hurston: A Cautionary Tale and a Partisan View Shirley Jackson The Lottery COMMENTARY: Shirley Jackson, The Morning of June 28, 1948, and The Lottery Sarah Orne Jewett *A White Heron Ha Jin *Saboteur James JoyceAraby CONNECTION: John Updike, A&P Franz Kafka A Hunger Artist R. Crumb and David Zane Mairowitz, A Hunger Artist The Metamorphosis COMMENTARY: Gustav Janouch, Kafka's View of The Metamorphosis CONNECTION: Franz Kafka, I Wish I Were a Red Indian D.H. Lawrence The Rocking-Horse Winner CONNECTION: D.H. Lawrence, On Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher and The Cask of Amontillado Jack London To Build a Fire Guy de Maupassant The Necklace CONNECTION: Kate Chopin, How I Stumbled on Maupassant Herman Melville Bartleby, the Scrivener CONNECTION: Herman Melville, Blackness in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown Lorrie Moore How to Become a Writer Joyce Carol Oates The Lady with the Pet Dog Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? COMMENTARY: Joyce Carol Oates, Smooth Talk: Short Story Into Film CONNECTION: Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Pet Dog Tim O'Brien The Things They Carried COMMENTARY: Bobbie Ann Mason, On Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried Tillie Olsen I Stand Here Ironing ZZ Packer Brownies Grace Paley *A Conversation with My Father COMMENTARY: Paley, A Conversation with Ann Charters CONNECTION: Grace Paley, Samuel Luigi Pirandello *War CONNECTION: Luigi Pirandello, Six Characters in Search of an Author Marjane Satrapi *From Persepolis: The Veil *COMMENTARY: Sydney Plum, Reading The Veil by Marjane Satrapi Leslie Marmon Silko Yellow Woman COMMENTARY: Paula Gunn Allen, Whirlwind Man Steals Yellow Woman John Steinbeck The Chrysanthemums Amy Tan Two Kinds John Updike A&P CONNECTION: James Joyce, A&P Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Harrison Bergeron Alice Walker Everyday Use COMMENTARY: Alice Walker, Zora Neale Hurston: A Cautionary Tale and a Partisan View CONNECTION: Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat Eudora Welty A Worn Path COMMENTARY: Eudora Welty, Is Phoenix Jackson's Grandson Really Dead?William Carlos Williams The Use of Force Tobias Wolff Say Yes PART TWO — POETRY 8. What is a poem? Marianne Moore, Poetry (1935) *Pablo Neruda, Poetry Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica Ann Menebroker, A Mere Glimpse *Fred Voss, How Many Times Can We Follow Dante Down Into Hell? *Victor Hernado Cruz today is a day of great joy *Commentary: James Tate, "Like it or not we are a part of our time." 9. Reading, Thinking, and Writing about PoetryReading Poetry Close Reading Paraphrase Guidelines for Reading Poetry Sample Close Reading — Linda Pastan, To a Daughter Leaving Home Critical Thinking about Poetry Writing about Poetry Sample Paper —A Moving Lyric: Pastan's "To a Daughter Leaving Home" 10. RHYME Emily Dickinson, A word is dead Alliteration Assonance Walt Whitman, A Farm Picture Onomatopoeia Rhyme A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now *Georgia Douglas Johnson, I Want to Die While You Love me A Range of Rhyme Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning Connection: Anne Sexton, An Obsessive Combination of Ontological Inscape, Trickery and Love Rhymed Poems for Further Reading Sir Thomas Wyatt, They Flee from Me Ben Jonson, On My First Son Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time *Robert Browning, A Woman's Last Word *e. e. cummings, when God lets my body be Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz *Anne Sexton, And One for My Dame *Dana Gioia, Summer Storm Rhyme and Popular Songs Lou Reed, Chelsea Girls *Natalie Merchant, Jealousy *Writing about Rhyme *Useful Terms to Remember 11. POETIC METER *Edgar Lee Masters, Petit, the Poet Accent and Meter *Mary Coleridge, A Clever Woman *Ralph Waldo Emerson, from The Humble Bee *Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from The Song of Hiawatha *Christina Rossetti, What are heavy? sea-sand and sorrow Blank Verse *Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Books, books, books! The Stanza *Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Life Poems for Further Reading *Thomas Hood, from The Bridge of Sighs *Mary Coleridge, Eyes *Thomas Hardy, I need not go *Robert Hayden, A Road in Kentucky *Writing about Poetic Meter *Useful Terms to Remember 12. THE MEANING OF WORDS Tone *Carl Sandburg, Grass Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory Words and Their Meaning Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky Denotative and Connotative Meaning Diction Syntax Imagery Elizabeth Bishop, The Bight A Close Reading of The Bight Figurative and Literal Language Simile and Metaphor *William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old Lady Personification John Keats, To Autumn Rolf Aggestam , Lightning Bolt *Les Murray, The Cows on Killing Day * Other Figures of Speech Symbol, Apostrophe, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Paradox, Oxymoron, Hyperbole, Understatement Poems for Further Reading *Sylvia Plath, Metaphors *Louis Gluck, The Wild Iris *Kate Gleason, After Fighting for Hours *Writing about Tone and Figurative Language *Useful Terms to Remember 13. TRADITIONAL FORMS *The Structural Elements: The Couplet, Stanza, Quatrain, Octave, Tercet Narrative Poetry The Ballad Ballads for Further Reading Anonymous, The Daemon Lover Anonymous, Barbara Allan *Amy Lowell, Evelyn Ray The Ode John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind The Elegy Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard *Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane The Sonnet William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold Sonnets for Further Reading Francisco Petrarch, Love's Inconsistency *Lady Mary Wroth, When last I saw thee, I did not thee see John Donne, Death, Be Not Proud *William Wordsworth, Upon Westminster Bridge, Sept. 3, 1802 Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Countee Cullen, Yet I Do Marvel *Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why *Gwendolyn Brooks, The Rites for Cousin Vit *June Jordan, Something Like A Sonnet for Phillis Miracle Wheatley The Sestina and the Villanelle Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night Dramatic Poetry *William Shakespeare, "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow", from Macbeth The Dramatic Monologue Robert Browning My Last Duchess The Pattern Poem George Herbert, Easter Wings *Guillame Apollinaire, Hail World *Guillame Apollinaire, It's Raining *The Epigram, the Aphorism, and the Limerick Dorothy Parker, from A Pig's Eye View of Literature:The lives and Times of John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and George Gordon, Lord Byron *James Richardson, from Vectors: Five Hundred Aphorisms and Ten-Second Essays Dylan Thomas, The last time I slept with the Queen Wendy Cope, "The fine English poet, John Donne" J. Walker, On T. S. Eliot's Prufrock Richard Leighton Green, Apropos Coleridge's Kubla Khan A. Cinna, On Hamlet *Poems for Further Reading Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud *Christina Rossetti, A Birthday Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses Commentaries: Erica Jong, Devouring Time: Shakespeare's Sonnets; Percy Bysshe Shelley, from A Defence ofPoetry; * Writing about Poetic Forms *Useful Terms to Remember 14. OTHER FORMS of POETRY *H. D., The Pool Imagism Imagist Poems for Further Reading Ezra Pound, In a Station at the Metro T. E. Hulme, Images *D. H. Lawrence, The White Horse H. D., Oread *Amy Lowell, Meeting House Hill William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird*Classical Chinese Verse and Japanese Haiku*Li Ta'I Po, A Song of Changgan *Ezra Pound, The River Merchant's Wife, A Letter *Charles Wright After Reading Tu Fu, I Go Outside to the Dwarf Orchard *An Introduction to Haiku *Yone Noguchi, "Bits of song . . ." *Matsuo Basho, The summer grass — Down this road It's spring Old pond *Lafcadio Hearne, Old Pond *Taniguchi Buson, On the anniversary of Basho's death The sparrow chirps *Kobayashi Issa, Sitting with my father Children's imitations of cormorants *Masaoka Shiki, A thawed pond Night and again *Some Contemporary Haiku*Robert Spiess, an aging willow Ronald Baatz, as though the whole earth*Matsuo Allard, an icicle the moon *Alexis Rotella, just friends *John Carley, buoyed up on the rising tide *Cheryl Savageau, Department of Labor Haiku *Poetry in Open Form and the Lyric Poem *The Lyric Poem Today *Philip Levine, The Lost Angel *Confessional Mode *Anne Sexton, The Fortress *Connections: See Marilyn Chin, Audre Lorde, Sharon Olds , Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, Alicia Suskin Ostriker The Prose Poem Marcia Southwick, A Star Is Born in the Eagle Nebula *Eve Wood, Recognition *Claribel Alegria, Carmen Bomba: Poet Poems for further study *Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quincineara Li-Young Lee, Eating AloneNick Carbo, American Adobo Marisa de los Santos, Because I Love You, *Luis J. Rodriguez, Carrying My Tools Commentaries: Ezra Pound, On the Principles of Imagism *Amy Lowell, Vers libre (free verse), a verse/form based on cadence *Writing About Other Poetic Forms *Useful Terms to Remember 15. POETS RESPOND TO OTHER POETS John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer Quotation Paraphrase Allusion Samuel Charters, A Man Dancing Alone on an Island in Greece Imitation Parody Leigh Hunt, Jenny Kissed Me T. S. Kerrigan, Elvis Kissed Me *Argument *Philip Larkin, This Be The Verse *Carol Rumens, This Be The Verse (Philip Larkin) Address and Tribute Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California Commentary:Marilyn Chin, On the Canon*Writing about Poets' Responses to other Poets 16. POETS and THEIR WORLDS: Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes, and Tomas Transtršmer The World of Emily Dickinson *Commentary: Emily Dickinson, on Elizabeth Barrett Browning, I think I was enchanted *Elizabeth Barrett Browning, When our two souls stand up *Emily Bronte, Last Lines *Christina Rossetti, Remember *Christina Rossetti, from Sing-Song EMILY DICKINSON You love me — you are sure — I'm "wife" — I've finished that — I taste a liquor never brewed Wild Nights — Wild Nights! "Hope" is the thing with feathers — *Success is counted sweetest There's a certain slant of light I'm Nobody! Who are you? After Great Pain — a formal feeling comes — Much Madness is divinest Sense I died for Beauty — but was scarce I heard a fly buzz — when I died — Because I could not stop for death — A narrow Fellow in the Grass Commentaries: Thomas Wentworth Higgins, from Emily Dickinson's Letters Thomas Bailey Aldrich, In Re Emily Dickinson Richard Wilbur, On Emily Dickinson The World of Robert Frost *Commentary: Octavio Paz, Meeting Robert Frost *Thomas Hardy, An August Midnight *Edward Arlington Robinson, Eros Tyrannos *Edgar Lee Masters, Mabel Osborne *Edgar Lee Masters, Lucinda Matlock *Edward Thomas, Early One Morning ROBERT FROST *In White The Pasture Mending Wall Home Burial Birches To Earthward Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening The Road Not Taken After Apple Picking Commentaries: Rose C. Feld, An Interview with Robert Frost *Carol Frost, From Sincerity and Inventions: On Robert Frost Philip L. Gerber, On Frost's After Apple Picking James Wright, The Music of Robert Frost's Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening The World of Langston Hughes Commentaries from the Harlem Renaissance *W. E. B. DuBois, from The Souls of Black Folk Alain Locke, from The New Negro Poems Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers James Weldon Johnson, The Creation Angelina Weld Grimke, The Black Finger Angelina Weld Grimke, Tenebris *Claude McKay, The Tropics in New York Claude McKay, If We Must Die *Jean Toomer, Lyrics from Cane Countee Cullen, From Heritage Countee Cullen, Incident LANGSTON HUGHES Mother to Son *Negro *Love Again Blues I, Too Song for a Dark Girl House in the World Commentaries Langston Hughes, A Toast to Harlem Jessie Fauset, Meeting Langston Hughes Arnold Rampersad, Langston Hughes as Folk Poet A Conversation about Tomas Transtromer 17. POEMS and POETS W. H. Auden Musee des Beaux Arts Stop All the Clocks Lay your sleeping head, my love Elizabeth Bishop *Manners *Sandpiper The FishOne Art Commentary, Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop's One ArtWilliam Blake from Songs of Innocence: Introduction The Lamb Holy Thursday The Little Boy Lost The Little Boy Found from Songs of Experience: Introduction The Sick Rose The Tyger London A Poison Tree The Garden of Love Anne Bradstreet To My Dear and Loving Husband Before the Birth of One of Her Children In Memory of My Dear Grand-Child Elizabeth Bradstreet, Who Deceased August, 1665, Being a Year and a Half Old Gwendolyn Brooks We Real Cool The Mother The Bean Eaters Connection: Robert Hayden, On Negro Poetry Marilyn Chin How I Got That Name *Sad Guitar Samuel Taylor Coleridge Kubla Khan, or, a Vision in a Dream Frost at Midnight Connection: Richard Leighton Green, Apropos Coleridge's Kubla Khan Billy Collins *The Only Day in Existence Momento Mori *Today e. e. Cummings somewhere I have never traveled Buffalo Bill's *goodby betty, don't remember me in Just— John Donne A Valediction: Forbidding Morning The Sun Rising *The Flea Batter my heart, three-personed God Connection: Wendy Cope, That fine English poet John Donne Rita Dove Singsong The Pond, Porch-View, Six p.m.,Early Spring T. S. Eliot The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Commentary: Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, On T. S. Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Connection: J. Walker, On T. S. Eliot's "Prufrock" Louise Gluck First Memory *Happiness Seamus Heaney Digging Mid-Term Break Gerard Manley Hopkins The Windhover Pied Beauty God's Grandeur Thou art indeed just, Lord Commentary: Bernard Bergonzi, On Hopkins' The Windhover John Keats *Bright Star Ode to a Nightingale When I have fears Robert Lowell Skunk HourFor the Union Dead *Epilogue Commentary: Robert Lowell, An Explication of Skunk Hour Sharon Olds Parents Day *I Go Back to May 1937 Sex without Love *Commentary: Ann Charters, The Woman in the Dark Raincoat, a Reading by Sharon Olds Sylvia Plath Morning Song Daddy *Commentary: Richard Wilbur, "Cottage Street, 1953" Adrienne Rich Aunt Jennifer's Tigers Diving into the Wreck Anne Sexton * Obsessive Combination of Ontological Inscape, Trickery and Love *To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph *Pain for a Daughter *Connection: W. H. Auden, Musee des Beaux ArtsGary Soto Mexicans Begin Jogging *Oranges Waiting at the Curb, Lynwood, California, 1967 Walt Whitman From A Song of Myself, 1, 6, 50-52 *Commentary: Walt Whitman reviews Leaves of Grass Commentary: Ezra Pound,What I Feel about Walt Whitman William Carlos Williams Spring and All *Danse Russe *from March *The Widow's Lament in Springtime Connection: A Red Wheelbarrow (p. 000) and To Waken an Old Lady *Commentary: Spirit of 76, the poet writes to a publisher William Wordsworth Ode: Intimations of Immortality The world is too much with us Commentary: William Wordsworth, From the Introduction to Lyrical BalladsJames Wright Evening A Blessing Lying on a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota Connection: James Wright, The Music of Robert Frost's Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening *Commentary: Sven Birkerts, James Wright's "Hammock," A Sounding William Butler Yeats The Lake Isle of Innisfree The Second Coming*The Wild Swans at Coole 18. THEMES for THINKING and WRITING about POETRY *In Wonder at the Natural World *Commentary:Henry David Thoreau, from Walden, "It is difficult to begin without borrowing . . ." *Thomas Lovell Beddoes, A Lake *John Clare, The Sky Lark *Robinson Jeffers, Hurt Hawks *Mary Oliver, Sleeping in the Forest *John Casteen, Night HuntingWomen's Consciousness, Women's Voices *Commentary: Elizabeth Barrett Browning, from Aurora Leigh, "Books, books, books!" *Ruth Stone, In an Iridescent Time Alicia Suskin Ostriker, The Change *Marilyn Hacker, Rondeau After a Transatlantic Telephone Call *Anne Waldman, Stereo*Jenny Bornholdt, The Boyfriends *Daisy Zamora, Precisely Black Consciousness, Black Voices Commentary:Robert Hayden, On Negro PoetryPhillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America *Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Theology Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Sympathy James Weldon Johnson, Sunset in the Tropics Robert Hayden,Those Winter Sundays Etheridge Knight, The Idea of Ancestry Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham *Allen Polite, Song Amiri Baraka, Legacy Audre Lorde, Hanging Fire Lucille Clifton, to miss ann*Poetry of Protest and Social Concern Commentary:David Wojahn, On Political Poetry Nikki Giovanni, Adulthood Carolyn Forche, The Colonel *Pat Mora, Elena Joan Jobe Smith, Feminist Arm Candy for the Mafia Fred Voss, I Once Needed a Chance Too *Sarah Holbrook, Canvassing *Turning Protest into Song *Bob Dylan, Blowin' in the Wind *Country Joe McDonald, I-Feel-Like-I'm Fixin'-To-Die Rag The Faces of War *Commentary: Stephen Crane, from The Red Badge of Courage *Herman Melville, Shiloh Stephen Crane, War is Kind Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est Randall Jarrrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Ed Webster, from San Joaquin Valley Poems *Forest Hamer, My Father's Vietnam Tour Near Over19. Contemporary Movements in Poetry Poetry of the Beat Generation Commentary:John Clellon Holmes, from This is the Beat Generation *Bonnie Bremser, Artist Meeting with the Beats, from Poets and Odd Fellows *Ray Bremser, Blues for BonnieÑTake 1, January 1960 *Allen Ginsberg, Sunflower Sutra *Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Dog *Frank O'Hara, The Day Lady Died *Diane Di Prima, Revolutionary Letter #3 Gregory Corso, I am 25 *Edward Sanders, After a Year of Isolation Poetry of the Chaps and Zines Commentary:Gerald Locklin, The Small Presses and Little Magazines, A Few Reflections Ann Menebroker, Repossessed *Tom Kryss, Things Thrown Away a. levy, perhaps (#5) *Robert E. McDonough, Resume *Susan Grimm, Things I Can Know Joan Jobe Smith, The Carol Burnett Show Ronald Baatz, The Oldest Songs Gerald Locklin, So It Goes *Gerald Locklin, Friday Night Lights *Writing about Themes in PoetryPART THREE — DRAMA 20. What is a Play? August Strindberg, The Stronger 21. Reading, Thinking and Writing about Drama Reading Drama Guidelines for Reading Drama Sample Close Reading — August Strindberg, The Stronger Critical Thinking about Drama Writing about Drama Sample Paper — A Reader's Response to the Opening Lines of Strindberg's The Stronger 22. The Elements of Drama Anton Chekhov, A Monologue Plot Characters Dialogue Staging Theme Willy Russell, Educating Rita [excerpt] *Questions for Critical Thinking about Drama *Writing about the Elements of Drama *Useful Terms to Remember 23. Plays and Playwrights Sophocles Oedipus the King COMMENTARIES: Aristotle, On the Elements and General Principles of Tragedy Sigmund Freud, The Oedipus Complex *Fitzgerald on Translating Sophocles William Shakespeare * A Midsummer Night's Dream Hamlet, Prince of Denmark CONNECTION: CONVERSATION ON HAMLET ÐBullough, Keats, Greenblatt, Stoppard, Gielgud, Lahr, Pennington Henrik Ibsen A Doll's House COMMENTARIES: Henrik Ibsen, Notes for A Doll House George Bernard Shaw, On A Doll House Joan Templeton, Is A Doll House a Feminist Text? Liv Ullmann, On Preforming Nora in Ibsen's A Doll House Susan Glaspell Trifles COMMENTARY: Leonard Mustazza, Generic Translation and Thematic Shifts in Glaspell's Trifles and A Jury of Her Peers CONNECTIONS: Susan Glaspell, A Jury of Her Peers; Lynn Nottage, POOF! Luigi Pirandello *Six Characters in Search of an Author *COMMENTARIES: Richard Gilman, Thought is a Form of Action: on Six Characters in Search of an Author * Luigi Pirandello, from Preface to Six Characters in Search of an Author Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman COMMENTARIES: Arthur Miller, On Death of a Salesman as an American Tragedy Helge Normann Nilsen, Marxism and the Early Plays of Arthur Miller Lorraine Hansberry A Raisin in the Sun COMMENTARY: Lorraine Hansberry, An Author's Reflections: Willy Loman, Walter Younger, and He Who Must Live Lorraine Hansberry, My Shakespearean Experience Lynn Nottage POOF! Commentary: Lynn Nottage, On Writing POOF! CONNECTION: Susan Glaspell, Trifles Edwin Sanchez *Pops 24. CONVERSATION ON HAMLET AS TEXT AND PERFORMANCE Geoffery Bullough, Sources of Shakespeare's Hamlet John Keats, From a Letter to George and Thomas Keats, 21 December 1817 Stephen Greenblatt, On the Ghost in Hamlet Tom Stoppard, Dogg's Hamlet: The Encore Sir John Gielgud, On Playing Hamlet John Lahr, Review of Hamlet *Michael Pennington, On Hamlet's Madness *Some Help with Writing about Drama PART FOUR — WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE 25. Critical Perspectives and Literary Theory Formalist Criticism Biographical Criticism Psychological Criticism Mythological Criticism Historical Criticism Sociological Criticism Reader-Response Criticism Poststructuralist and Deconstructionist Criticism Gender Criticism Cultural Criticism Selected Bibliography 26. Developing Your Ideas in an Essay Keeping a Journal or Notebook to Record Your Initial Responses to the Text Using the Commentaries to Ask New Questions about What You Have Read Generating Ideas for Brainstorming, Freewriting, and Listing Organizing Your Notes into a Preliminary Thesis Sentence and Outline Writing the Rough Draft Revising Your Essay Sample Revised Draft: The Voice of the Storyteller in Eudora Welty's A Worn Path Making a Final Check of Your Finished Essay Peer Review Common Problems in Writing about Literature Guidelines for Writing an Essay about Literature 27. Basic Types of Literary Papers Explication Sample Essay: An Interpretation of Langston Hughes's The Negro Speaks of Rivers Analysis Sample Essay: Nature and Neighbors in Robert Frost's Mending Wall Comparison and Contrast Sample Essay: On the Differences between Susan Glaspell's Trifles and A Jury of Her Peers Writing about the Context of Literature 28. Writing Research Papers Three Keys to Literary Research Finding and Focusing a Topic Assigned Topics Choosing Your Own Topic Finding and Using Sources Library Research Using the Web for Research Evaluating Print and Online Sources Your Working Bibliography Working with Sources and Taking Notes Drafting Your Research Paper Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting Documenting Your Sources MLA Format In-Text or Parenthetical Citations List of Works Cited Footnotes and Endnotes Revising Your Research Paper Student Research Paper: Jennifer Silva, Emily Dickinson and Religion Glossary of Literary Terms Index of First Lines Index of Authors and TitlesGlossary of Literary TermsIndex of First Lines/Authors and Titles