Lives Across Cultures: Cross-Cultural Human Development

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-07-21
  • Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall
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Author Biography

Harry W. Gardiner


Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, where he designed and taught courses in cross-cultural psychology, child development, humor in education, and international studies for twenty-seven years. His undergraduate degree is from American International College, in Springfield, Massachusetts; his M.A. is from the University of Hawaii; and his Ph.D. is from Manchester University in England. He has engaged in training, teaching, and research in Europe, Asia, and the United States and has traveled to more than seventy countries. Dr. Gardiner was a charter member of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, served as president of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research, and is a consulting editor for the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. In addition to publishing articles in a wide variety of journals and participating in national and international meetings, he has coauthored more than a dozen chapters on cross-cultural topics for other books.



Corinne Kosmitzki. 


Dr. KosmitzkiI was born and raised in Germany. Her interest in the lives of people led her to study clinical and counseling psychology at the Universität Münster. She earned her Ph.D. in psychology at the University of California at Berkeley. As an international student, she experienced many of the challenges discussed in this book. She has been able to share these experiences with other international students in workshops and seminars held at various universities. After being an active teacher and researcher at universities in Virginia, New Jersey, and Texas, she has returned to California. At the University of California at Berkeley, she continues to work with students and faculty from many different cultural and national backgrounds. Her travel has taken her to most of Western and Eastern Europe and North America

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xvii
About the Authorsp. xxiii
Introductionp. 1
What Is Cross-Cultural Human Development?p. 3
Cross-Cultural Human Development and the Other Social Sciencesp. 6
Some Important Themesp. 7
A Cross-Cultural Perspectivep. 7
Goals for the Fieldp. 8
An Ecological Modelp. 12
The Developmental Nichep. 14
A Developmental Orientationp. 14
A Chronological-Within-Topics Approachp. 15
Another Piece of the Developmental Puzzle: The Human Genomep. 15
Practical Applicationsp. 17
Overview of the Bookp. 18
Some Cross-Cultural Teasersp. 18
Summaryp. 19
Study Questionsp. 20
Further Readingsp. 20
Theories and Methodologyp. 21
Theories of Developmentp. 22
What Is a Theory?p. 22
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Modelp. 23
Super and Harkness's Developmental Nichep. 29
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 35
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Developmentp. 38
Erikson's Psychosocial Theoryp. 39
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Developmentp. 41
Methodology in Cross-Cultural Human Developmentp. 42
Studying Development Cross-Culturally: Some Methods, Problems, and Solutionsp. 43
Methods for Assessing Components of the Developmental Nichep. 47
Studying Ecological Systemsp. 50
Summaryp. 51
Study Questionsp. 52
Further Readingsp. 52
Developmental Analysisp. 53
Culture and Socializationp. 54
Ecological Contextp. 55
What is Socialization?p. 55
Ecological Model and the Developmental Nichep. 57
Some Cultural Variations in the Socialization of Behaviorp. 60
Pregnancy, Prenatal Development, and Birthp. 60
Infancyp. 61
Sleepp. 61
Cryingp. 68
Childhoodp. 68
Formal Versus Informal Learningp. 69
Adolescencep. 72
Rites of Passagep. 73
Adulthoodp. 76
Late Adulthoodp. 78
Cultural Views of Agingp. 78
Summaryp. 79
Study Questionsp. 80
Further Readingsp. 80
Developmental Analysisp. 81
The Family In Cultural Contextp. 83
Ecological Contextp. 84
Cultural Variations in the Family Life Cyclep. 84
Mate Selectionp. 84
Marriage and Other Long-Term Relationshipsp. 86
The Birth Process Across Culturesp. 90
The Ecology of Birthp. 91
The Transition to Parenthoodp. 95
Infancy and Childhoodp. 95
Parental Belief Systemsp. 96
Motheringp. 99
Fatheringp. 101
Adolescencep. 103
The Ecological Model and Adolescencep. 104
Cross-Cultural Differences in Adolescent Peer Relationshipsp. 105
Adulthood and Agingp. 107
Grandparenthoodp. 107
Caring for the Elderlyp. 113
The Changing Context of Familiesp. 116
Summaryp. 117
Study Questionsp. 117
Further Readingsp. 118
Developmental Analysisp. 119
Culture, Language, and Cognitionp. 121
Ecological Context: The Language-Cognition-Culture Linkp. 122
Infancyp. 125
Early Cognitive Development in Cultural Contextsp. 125
Language Acquisitionp. 126
Early Second-Language Acquisition and Bilingualismp. 128
Childhoodp. 131
Stages of Knowing and Learningp. 132
Language Skills and Language Socializationp. 134
Adolescencep. 137
Formal Operational Thinkingp. 137
Adulthoodp. 139
Reasoning and Decision makingp. 139
Late Adulthoodp. 141
Intelligence and Cognitive Agingp. 141
Language and Communication in Later Lifep. 144
Summaryp. 145
Study Questionsp. 146
Further Readingsp. 147
Developmental Analysisp. 147
Culture, Self, and Personalityp. 149
Ecological Context: Temperament, Personality, and Selfp. 150
Temperament and Heritability of Traitsp. 150
The Self: Some Cultural Perspectivesp. 151
Infancyp. 156
Temperament, Ecological Systems, and the Developmental Nichep. 156
Temperament and "Goodness of Fit"p. 157
Childhoodp. 160
The Emerging Self-Conceptp. 160
Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacyp. 162
Adolescencep. 164
Identity Formationp. 165
Social Identity Formationp. 167
Adulthoodp. 169
A Time of Stability and Changep. 169
Late Adulthoodp. 172
Personality Changes in Senescence or Illnessp. 172
The "Aging" Selfp. 173
Summaryp. 174
Study Questionsp. 174
Further Readingsp. 175
Developmental Analysisp. 175
Culture and Social Behaviorp. 177
Ecological Contextp. 178
Infancyp. 178
Child-Caretaker Relationships and Attachment Patternsp. 178
The Secure-Base Hypothesisp. 180
The Sensitivity Hypothesisp. 182
Moderators of Attachment and Social Developmentp. 183
Childhoodp. 184
Peer Culture and Social Relationshipsp. 184
Moral Development and Prosocial Orientationp. 187
Cultural Influences on Caring and Justice Orientationp. 188
Aggressionp. 190
Adolescencep. 194
Family and Peer Influences on Adolescent Social Behaviorp. 194
Cultural Influences on Adolescent Social Behaviorp. 196
Adulthoodp. 198
Work and Leisure in Middle Adulthoodp. 198
Sport as a Social Phenomenonp. 199
Late Adulthoodp. 202
Attachment, Social Support, and Well-Being in Later Adulthoodp. 202
Summaryp. 203
Study Questionsp. 204
Further Readingsp. 204
Developmental Analysisp. 205
Culture and Issues of Gender and Sexualityp. 207
Ecological Context: Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Differencesp. 208
Biological Perspectivesp. 208
Evolutionary Perspectivesp. 209
Socialization and Learning Perspectivesp. 210
Infancyp. 212
Sex Preference and Sex Ratio at Birthp. 213
Childhoodp. 214
Gender Socializationp. 214
Cultural Influences on Female and Male Socializationp. 217
Gender Relationships in Childhoodp. 222
Adolescencep. 223
Markers of Sexual Maturationp. 223
Gender, Sexuality, and Cultural Taboosp. 224
Adulthoodp. 227
Status and the Division of Labor Within the Familyp. 227
Division of Labor in the Workforcep. 228
Gender Relations in Social Status and Public Policyp. 230
Later Adulthoodp. 231
The Experience of Menopausep. 231
Divorce and Widowhoodp. 232
Gender Roles and Status in Old Agep. 233
Summaryp. 235
Study Questionsp. 235
Further Readingsp. 235
Developmental Analysisp. 237
Culture, Health, and Illnessp. 239
Ecological Context: Cultural Concepts of Health and Healingp. 240
Culture-Bound Syndromesp. 241
Medical Diagnosis Across Culturesp. 241
Illness, Stress, and Copingp. 246
Infancyp. 248
Risks to Infant Healthp. 248
Childhoodp. 250
Childhood Obesityp. 250
Childhood Mental Healthp. 251
Ecological Influences on Early Coping Behaviorp. 252
Adolescencep. 253
Eating Disordersp. 254
Culture and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)p. 256
Adulthoodp. 257
Mental Health Issuesp. 257
Acculturation and Adaptationp. 261
Later Adulthoodp. 262
Disease and Premature Agingp. 263
Cultural Views on Dementia and Alzeimer's Diseasep. 263
Coping with Chronic Illness in Older Agep. 265
The "Good" Deathp. 266
Summaryp. 267
Study Questionsp. 268
Further Readingsp. 268
Developmental Analysisp. 269
Future Trends and Applicationsp. 271
Looking Back: A Review of Major Themes and Theoriesp. 272
Ecological Modelp. 272
Developmental Nichep. 274
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theoryp. 274
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theoryp. 275
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Developmentp. 276
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Developmentp. 277
Where Do We Go from Here?p. 279
Summaryp. 290
Study Questionsp. 291
Further Readingsp. 291
Referencesp. 292
Name Indexp. 327
Subject Indexp. 332
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