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Living with Earth : An Introduction to Environmental Geology

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780131424470

ISBN10:
0131424475
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/11/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $117.40

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Summary

KEY BENEFIT:Living With Earth: An Introduction to Environmental Geologyis ideal for readers with little or no scientific background, fostering a better understanding of how they interact with Earth and how their actions can affect Earthrs"s environmental health. The informal, friendly presentation is organized around a few unifying perspectives: how the various Earth systems interact with one another; how Earth affects people (creating hazards but also providing essential resources); and how people affect Earth. Greater emphasis is placed on environment and sustainability than on geology. Essential scientific foundations are presentedbut the ultimate goal is to connect students proactively to their role as stakeholders in Earthrs"s future. What Does "Living with Earth" Mean? Earth Systems; The Dynamic Geosphere and Plate Tectonics; Geosphere Materials; Earthquakes; Volcanoes; Rivers and Flooding; Unstable Land; Changing Coasts; Water Resources; Soil Resources; Mineral Resources; Energy Resources; Atmosphere Resources and Climate Change; Managing Peoplers"s Environmental Impact. MARKET: A reader-friendly reference for those who wish to learn more about human-Earth system interaction.

Author Biography

Travis Hudson is an applied and research geologist with 40 years of diverse experience studying Earth and its relation to people. While completing graduate school at Stanford University, he began his career as a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. His regional understanding of Alaska was put to good use when he became a mineral explorationist for a private company. He subsequently served as a research director for an oil company, studying regional tectonics and basin evolution, and as an exploration manager on Alaska’s North Slope, where he helped discover several oil fields. As his company had inherited significant environmental problems from its mining division, environmental remediation technology became his next focus. While managing environmental cleanups at mining-related sites, he studied environmental laws and standards, worked with regulators, and took on many community education responsibilities. Since 1996 Travis has been a consulting research geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey studying crustal character in Alaska; a field geologist exploring for mineral deposits in Alaska; and the Director of Environmental Affairs for the American Geological Institute (AGI). At AGI he coordinated the development and publication of the Environmental Awareness Series, richly illustrated 64-page books designed to educate citizens and policy-makers about the insights that Earth Science can contribute to our understanding of environmental issues. He is the author of Metal Mining and the Environment in that series, as well as many scientific contributions. Travis lives with his wife Patti in Sitka, Alaska. When he is not writing or working in the field he is often fishing on the Kenai, staking out his claim to a niche at the top of the food chain alongside the local bears.

The American Geological Institute is a nonprofit federation of 46 geoscientific and professional associations that represents more than 120,000 geologists, geophysicists, and other Earth scientists. Founded in 1948, AGI provides information services to geoscientists, serves as a voice for shared interests in the profession, plays a major role in the strengthening of Earth Science education, and strives to increase public awareness of the vital role the geosciences play in society’s use of resources and interaction with the environment. The AGI, through its broad connections with the professional Earth Science community, assembled a panel of experts to advise on the technical content of Living with Earth and review its development. The expert panel members are active scientists with long research careers in the subjects covered by the textbook. Their participation has helped ensure that the scientific content of Living with Earth is complete, current, and accurate.

The National Association of Geoscience Teachers was established in 1938 to foster improvement in the teaching of Earth Sciences at all levels of formal and informal instruction, to emphasize the cultural significance of the Earth Sciences, and to distribute knowledge of this field to the general public. Members of NAGT who serve on the advisory board of Living with Earth are Earth Science and environmental geology teachers. These teachers helped to define the scope of the book and establish pedagogic guidelines for its development, provided consultation during its creation, and reviewed text materials. The many lessons from their classroom experiences have enriched Living with Earth in a variety of ways, helping it to be a more engaging and thought-provoking book.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1.   What Does “Living with Earth” Mean?
1.1  Environmental Geology and You

1.2  How People and Earth Interact
Human Population
Resource Consumption
The Technology Factor
Earth’s Impact on People
In the News: The Increasing Costs of U.S. Natural Disasters
1.3  How Earth Systems Interact
Energy and Systems
Matter and Systems
Two Types of Systems
1.4  How Science Helps
The Scientific Method
Science in Your Future
Availability of Water
Transition from Oil to Other Energy Sources
The Effects of Global Climate Change
1.5  How to Achieve Sustainability in the Future
Sustaining Biodiversity
Carrying Capacity
Easter Island
1.6  Understanding Your Role


Chapter 2.   Earth Systems
2.1  Earth’s Geosphere
The Geosphere’s Origin
The Compositional Structure of the Geosphere
The Core
The Mantle
The Crust
The Physical Structure of the Geosphere
The Inner and Outer Core
The Lower Mantle
The Mantle Transition Zone
The Upper Mantle
The Asthenosphere
The Lithosphere
2.2  Earth’s Atmosphere
The Atmosphere’s Origin
The Second Atmosphere  
The Third Atmosphere
The Compositional Structure of the Atmosphere
The Homosphere
The Heterosphere
The Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
The Troposphere
The Stratosphere
The Mesosphere
The Thermosphere
2.3  Earth’s Hydrosphere
Origin of Earth’s Water
In the News: Deep Impact—Investigating Water’s Origin
Reservoirs in the Hydrosphere
        The World Ocean
Glaciers, Ice Caps, and Ice Sheets
The Water Cycle
You Make the Call: Whose Water Is It?
2.4  Earth’s Biosphere
Life’s Beginnings
Evolution
Establishing the Foundation
Darwin and Wallace
Natural Selection
Extinctions
Mass Extinctions
The Passenger Pigeon
What You Can Do: Investigate Mass Extinctions
2.5  Understanding Geologic Time and Earth History
Relative Geologic Ages
Sedimentary Rocks
Fossil Succession
The Geologic Time Scale
Absolute Geologic Ages
Natural Clocks
Radiometric Dating
Rates of Earth-System Processes
People’s Place in Earth History

Chapter 3.   The Dynamic Geosphere and Plate Tectonics
3.1  Early Thoughts About Moving Continents
Setting the Stage
Alfred Wegener and Continental Drift
3.2  Explaining Moving Continents—Plate Tectonics
Wandering Magnetic Poles
Exploring the Ocean Basins
Seafloor Spreading
Magnetic Stripes
Earthquakes Provide Another Test
Plate Tectonics Today
3.3  Plate Boundaries—Where the Action Is
In the News: Watching Earth Move
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Transform Plate Boundaries
You Make the Call: Living on a Plate Boundary
3.4  Plate Tectonics—The Big Picture
Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes
What You Can Do: Keep Track of Earthquakes
Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes
Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building
Accretion along the Continental Margin
Compression at Convergent Plate Boundaries
Collision of Continents at Convergent Plate Boundaries
The Role of Magma
Plate Tectonics and Mineral Resources

Chapter 4.   Geosphere Materials

4.1  The Geosphere’s Chemical Composition
The Composition of the Geosphere
The Composition of the Crust
4.2  Minerals—Where Elements Reside
Making Minerals
Quartz—the Silicon and Oxygen Mineral
Physical Properties and Occurrence
Silicosis
The Feldspars
Physical Properties and Occurrence
Changing Feldspars
The Ferromagnesium Minerals
Olivine and Pyroxene
Changing Olivine and Pyroxene to Serpentine
In the News: 9/11 Dust
Biotite and Amphibole
Living (and Dying) with Fibrous Amphibole
Other Minerals—the Sulfides, Oxides, and Carbonates
Sulfides
Oxides
Carbonates
What You Can Do: Investigate Mineral Use
4.3  Rocks—Where Minerals Reside
Making Oceanic Crust
Making Continental Crust
Changing Rocks in the Rock Cycle
Igneous Rocks and Crustal Melting
Weathering and Erosion
Sedimentation and Lithification
Metamorphism
4.4  Using Rocks
What You Can Do: Investigate Rock Use
Aggregate
Aggregate Mining and the Environment
Physical Disturbances
Dust and Noise
Congestion and Safety
You Make the Call: Aggregate Mining in Your Neighborhood

Chapter 5   Earthquakes

5.1  Earthquake Basics
What Earthquakes Are
Where Earthquakes Occur
Transform Plate Boundaries
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Intraplate Earthquakes
Earthquakes and Faults
The Elastic Rebound Theory of Earthquakes
Creepy Faults
Earthquake Waves
Body Waves
Surface Waves
5.2  Investigating Earthquakes
Measuring Earthquakes
Strong-Motion Seismometers
Experiencing What Seismometers Measure
Earthquake Magnitude
Earthquake Intensity
What You Can Do: Map Earthquake Intensity
Locating Earthquakes
Locating the Epicenter
Determining Earthquake Depth
5.3  Earthquake Hazards
Ground Shaking
Magnitude
Distance from the Focus
Site Geology
Ground Displacement and Failure
Liquefaction
Slope Failure
Surface Ruptures
Crustal Deformation
Tsunamis
Fires
Construction Design
In the News: The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
5.4  Earthquake Prediction
Short-Term Predictions
Forecasts
Seismic Gaps
Recurrence Intervals
Making Forecasts
5.5  Mitigating Earthquake Hazards
Earthquake Hazards Mapping
What You Can Do: Investigate Earthquake Hazards
Engineering for Earthquakes
Emergency Response
Earthquake Early Warning Systems
Public Education and Preparedness
In the News: Tsunami Education Saves Lives
Tsunami Warning Systems
You Make the Call: Who Is Responsible for Tsunami Warning Systems?

Chapter 6.   Volcanoes

6.1  Volcano Basics
What Volcanoes Are
Defining and Counting Volcanoes
Types of Magmas
Types of Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes
Flood Basalts
Cinder Cones
Stratovolcanoes
Large Calderas
Eruption Magnitude
The Benefits of Volcanoes
6.2  Volcanoes: Where and Why
Volcanoes at Divergent Plate Boundaries
Volcanoes at Convergent Plate Boundaries
Volcanoes Within Plates
The Coast Might Be Toast (Someday)
What You Can Do: Investigate Volcanism in Your State
6.3 Volcanic Hazards
Hazards of Stratovolcanoes
Ash Hazards on the Ground
Ash Hazards in the Atmosphere
Pyroclastic Flows
Lahars
A Stratovolcano in Action: Mount St. Helens
Hazards of Shield Volcanoes
Lava Flows
Shield Volcanoes in Action: Kilauea
Volcanic Gases
Hazards to People
Hazards to Plant Life
Climate Changes
In the News: Getting Your Own Weekly Volcano Report
6.4  Living with Volcanoes
Going to War with Pele
How Science Helps
Volcanology—a Hazardous Profession
Hazard Assessments
Monitoring Volcanic Activity
Monitoring Eruption Precursors
Volcanic Crisis Response
Pinatubo: A Successful Crisis Response
What Made the Difference?
How Communities Respond to Volcanic Hazards
You Make the Call: Living in the Shadow of Mount Rainier

Chapter 7   Rivers and Flooding
7.1  River Basics
Watersheds
What You Can Do: Investigate Your Watershed
Flow, Discharge, and Channels
Base Level
Longitudinal Profiles and Gradient
Erosion
Sediment Transport
Sediment Deposition
Floodplains
7.2  Floods
What Floods Are
Precipitation and Flooding
Intensity
Duration
Timing
Failing Dams and Flooding
Failure of Landslide Dams
Failure of Ice Dams
Failure of Constructed Dams
Land Use and Flooding
Effect of Cultivation
Loss of Wetlands
Urbanization
In the News: The Eastern Deluge of 2006
Man-Made Floods  
Types of River Floods
Flash Floods
Riverine Floods
7.3  Measuring and Forecasting Floods
Hydrographs
What You Can Do: Investigate Real-Time Stream Gage Data
Flood Recurrence Intervals
The 100-Year Flood
Flood Probability
Limitations of Historical Data
7.4  Living with Floods
Flood Hazards
Mitigating Floods: The Structural Approach
Channel Alteration
Flood-Control Dams
You Make the Call: Would You Build the Three Gorges Dam?
Diversion Channels/Floodways
Detention Ponds
The Mississippi River Flood-Control System
Pros and Cons of the Structural Approach
Mitigating Floods: The Nonstructural Approach
The U.S. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
Relocations and Voluntary Buyouts
Sustainable Floodplain Management

Chapter 8.   Unstable Land

8.1  Slope Stability Basics
The Driving Force—Gravity
Resisting Gravity
Slope Materials
Slope Steepness
Water Content
Vegetation
8.2  Types of Unstable Land
Slope Failures
Falls
Slides
Flows
What You Can Do: Tour an Earthflow
Creep
Complex Mass Movements
Subsidence
Regional Subsidence
Karst-Related Subsidence
Mining-Related Subsidence
8.3  Causes of Land Failure
Weather
Hurricanes
El Niño
In the News: Landslide Weather
You Make the Call: What Would You Do with La Conchita?
Earthquakes
Wildfires
Slope Steepening
People and Slope Failure
People and Subsidence
Subsidence in California’s San Joaquin Valley
Regional Subsidence and Cities
Groundwater Pumping and Sinkholes
Urbanization and Sinkholes
8.4  Living with Unstable Land
Living with Unstable Slopes
Assessing Slope Hazards
Acting on Hazard Information
What You Can Do: Investigate Unstable Slopes in Your Community
Engineering Stronger Slopes
What You Can Do: Monitor the U.S. Highway 50 Landslide
Living with Subsidence
Regional Subsidence
Karst-Related Subsidence
Mine-Related Subsidence

Chapter 9.   Changing Coasts

9.1  Coastal Basics
Waves
Measuring Waves
Waves in Deep Water
Waves in Shallow Water
Wave Refraction
Nearshore Currents
Longshore Drift
Rip Currents
Tides
What You Can Do: Keep Track of Tides
Sea Level Change
Global Sea Level Change
Local Sea Level Changes
9.2  Coastal Features
The Atlantic Coast
Florida’s Living Coast
The Gulf of Mexico Coast
The Pacific Coast
The Alaska Coast
A Closer Look at Beaches
Beach Anatomy
Beach Materials
Sediment Supply
The Beach in Action
9.3  Coastal Erosion and Sedimentation
Coastal Erosion
Beach Erosion
Sea Cliff Erosion
Coastal Sedimentation
Where Sediment Is Deposited
The Mississippi River Delta
In the News: Sustaining the Mississippi Delta
9.4  Coasts and Storms
Hurricanes
Winter Storms
Coastal Storm Hazards
Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans
You Make the Call: What Do We Do with New Orleans?
9.5  Living with Changing Coasts
Hard Stabilization
Seawalls, Bulkheads, and Revetments
Breakwaters
Groins and Jetties
Soft Stabilization
Beach Nourishment
Saving Miami Beach
Dune Restoration
Managing Sediments
Dredging
Sediment Contamination
Mitigating Coastal Storm Hazards
Coastal Zone Management
You Make the Call: Dealing with Falmouth’s Changing Coast

Chapter 10.   Water Resources
10.1  Water Resources
Surface-Water Resources
The Colorado River
In the News: Great Lakes Water Wars
Groundwater Resources
The High Plains Aquifer
You Make the Call: Who Wins in Las Vegas?
Surface and Groundwater Connections
Making Fresh Water—Desalination
10.2  How People Use Water
Water Use in the United States
Freshwater Use
Public Water Supplies
Irrigation
Electric Power Generation
        Other Water Uses
10.3  Water Withdrawal and the Environment
Dams
Groundwater Mining
Land Subsidence
Groundwater Pumping and Surface Water
Saltwater Intrusion
10.4  Water Quality and Pollution
Dr. John Snow and Water-Borne Disease
Natural Water Quality
Pure Rainwater?
Arsenic in Natural Water
Parasites in Natural Water
Pollution and Water Quality
Microbes
Inorganic Contaminants
Human-Made Chemicals
Sediment
Sources of Pollutants
Point Sources
Nonpoint Sources
Groundwater Pollution—A Special Problem
What You Can Do: Investigate Your Water Quality
10.5  Sustaining Water Resources
Water Treatment
Recycling Wastewater
Conservation—Using Less Water
Household Water Conservation
Community Water Conservation
Water-Saving Agriculture
Results of Water Conservation
Resource Management—Making Better Use of Water Resources
Groundwater Management
Comprehensive Water Management

Chapter 11.   Soil Resources

11.1  What Soil Resources Are
Soil Definitions
Soil Functions
Food and Fiber
Water Storage and Cleaning
Waste Recycling
Soil as Habitat
Earth Systems Interactions
11.2  How Soils Form
Soil-Forming Processes
The Soil Profile
Soil Variations
11.3  Soil Properties
Physical Properties
Compositional Properties
Biological Properties
Soil Quality
11.4  Soil Degradation and Loss
Erosion
Soil Contamination
Salination
Fertilizers
In the News: Pathogens in Your Produce
Pesticides
Biodiversity Depletion
Nutrient Depletion
You Make the Call: Is Ethanol a Sustainable Energy Resource?
Urbanization and Soil
11.5  Sustaining Soil Resources
Soil Conservation
What You Can Do: Use Your Local Soil Conservation District
Soil Remediation
Bioremediation
Phytoremediation
Desalination of Soil
Soil Protection

Chapter 12.   Mineral Resources

12.1  What Mineral Resources Are
What You Can Do: Investigate Mineral Resource Economics
Making Mineral Deposits
The Shapes of Mineral Deposits
12.2  Finding, Mining, and Processing Mineral Resources
Finding Mineral Resources
Trenching
Drilling
Infrastructure
In the News: Donlin Creek Gold Deposit
Mining Mineral Resources
Open-Pit mining
Underground Mining
The West’s Legacy—Abandoned Mine Lands
Processing Mineral Resources
Milling
Flotation
Tailings
Leaching
Recovering Metals from Ore Concentrate
12.3  Environmental Concerns
Physical Disturbances
Surface Water Quality
Spills
Erosion  
Discharge of Acid Rock Drainage
Groundwater Quality
Soil Quality
Air Quality
Dust
Smelter Emissions
12.4  Mineral Resources in the Future
Future Mineral Resource Needs
Recycling
Sustainability and Mineral Resource Use
You Make the Call: Where Should Mining Occur?

Chapter 13.   Energy Resources
13.1  Energy Basics

13.2  Oil, Natural Gas, and the Environment
Oil and Natural Gas Exploration
Seismic Surveys
Drilling
Oil and Natural Gas Production
Physical Disturbances
Produced Water
Oil and Natural Gas Transportation
Marine Tanker Transport
Oil in the Sea and You
What You Can Do: Recycle Used Motor Oil
Oil Refining
Refining Safety
Refinery Disturbances
Refinery Wastes
Oil and Natural Gas Consumption
In the News: It Wasn’t Just Dust from China
Transportation fuels
Coal combustion
Greenhouse gases
13.3  Coal and the Environment
Coal Production
Coal Processing
Coal Combustion
Pollutant Emissions
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Coal’s Future
13.4  Nuclear Energy and the Environment
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Reactor Safety
Radioactive Waste Disposal
You Make the Call: Where Do We Put Nuclear Waste?
13.5  Renewable Energy and the Environment   
Biomass
 Geothermal Energy
What You Can Do: Use a Geothermal Heat Pump
    Hydropower
    Wind Power
    Solar Power
13.6  The Energy Challenges Ahead
The Cost of Oil
Energy Transitions
Oil Sands and Oil Shales
In the News: Mining Oil
A Natural Gas Age?
A Hydrogen Age?
An Energy Wild Card?
The Significance of Emissions
Sustainability
What You Can Do: Save Energy

Chapter 14.   Atmosphere Resources and Climate Change

14.1  What Atmosphere Resources Are
Compositional Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
What You Can Do: Monitor the Weather
14.2  Air Pollution
Pollutants
Volatile Organic Compounds
In the News: Why Do We Like “New Car Smell”?
Nitrogen Oxides
Sulfur Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Smog
Acid Rain
What You Can Do: Investigate Acid Rain Damage in Washington, DC
Air Pollution and the Ozone Layer
14.3  The Atmosphere and Climate Change
Atmosphere Composition and Climate; Greenhouse Gases
Solar Radiation and Climate
Brightness
Axis Tilt
Orbital Eccentricity
Earth’s Precession
Milankovitch Cycles
Tectonic Processes and Climate
Continent Size and Distribution
Mountain Ranges
Volcanoes
14.4  History of Climate Change
Paleoclimatology—Studying Past Climates
Sedimentary Records
Fossils
Oxygen Isotopes
Atmosphere Samples in Ice Cores
Sea Level History
Precambrian Atmosphere Composition and Climate
Phanerozoic Atmosphere and Climates
What You Can Do: Investigate Plate Tectonics and Climate Change
The Last Few Million Years
14.5  People and Climate Change
People and Greenhouse Gases
Assessing Climate Change
The IPCC
Climate Models
The IPCC 2007 Assessment
A Closer Look—Climate Change and Sea Level
IPCC Story Lines and Scenarios
Popular Portrayals of Sea Level Rise Due to Global Warming
The IPCC Projections
Sea Level Change after 2100
Rapid Climate Change—Another Wild Card
14.6  Dealing with Climate Change
The Kyoto Protocol
Carbon Sequestration: A Key Technology
What You Can Do: Calculate Your Contribution to Greenhouse Gases
Controlling Climate
You Make the Call: What’s the Optimum Global Climate for Earth?

Chapter 15.   Managing People’s Environmental Impact

15.1  Environmental Policy
What You Can Do: Investigate Corporate Environmental Policy
National Environmental Policy
National Environmental Policy Act
In the News: The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline
Clean Water Act
Clean Air Act
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
What You Can Do: Investigate Superfund Sites Near You
Land-Use Designations
State Environmental Policies
Special Interest Group Policies
Public Awareness and Environmental Policy
15.2  Environmental Regulation
Environmental Standards
Air Quality Standards
Water Quality Standards
Soil Quality Standards
Permitting
Enforcement
15.3  Third-Party Litigation
In the News: Protecting the Spotted Owl
15.4  Economics and Environmental Management
Business Opportunities
In Situ Uranium Leaching
Recycling Consumer Electronics
Landfill Energy
Ecotourism
Economic Influences on People’s Choices
You Make the Call: Raise Gasoline Prices?
Using Markets to Achieve Environmental Objectives
Funding Incentives
15.5  Decision Making
The Stillwater Mine Example
Our System’s Strengths




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