9780190628703

Living Philosophy A Historical Introduction to Philosophical Ideas

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190628703

  • ISBN10:

    0190628707

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-06-30
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Living Philosophy, Second Edition, is a historically organized, introductory hybrid text/reader that guides students through the story of philosophical thought from the Pre-Socratics to the present, providing cultural and intellectual background and explaining why key issues and arguments remain important and relevant today. Women philosophers are well represented throughout the text. They include Mary Wollstonecraft, Simone de Beauvoir, Hélène Cixous, Martha Nussbaum, Alison Jaggar, Annette Baier, Virginia Held, and many more. Non-Western philosophers are also included: Avicenna, Averroës, Maimonides, Buddha, Lao-Tzu, and Confucius.

Featuring an exceptionally clear and accessible writing style, this unique volume brings philosophy to life with well-chosen excerpts from philosophers' works, abundant in-text learning aids, and compelling color photos and illustrations.

FEATURES

* A comprehensive introductory chapter lays the groundwork for philosophical thinking

* "Then and Now," "Details," and "Portrait" boxes throughout the text demonstrate the value and relevance of philosophy

* Additional pedagogical aids--chapter objectives and summaries, marginal critical thinking questions, essay/discussion questions, and a glossary--make the material even more engaging and accessible

* In-depth coverage of philosophical writing includes step-by-step coaching in argument basics and multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking skills

* Charts, tables, and color photos keep students visually engaged

* A "How to Write a Philosophy Paper" appendix offers concise, step-by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay

Author Biography


Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of numerous books, including Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Tenth Edition (2016), Bioethics, Third Edition (2016), The Power of Critical Thinking, Fifth Edition (2015), and Philosophy Here and Now, Second Edition (2015), all published by Oxford University Press.

Table of Contents


*=New to this Edition
Each chapter ends with Writing and Reasoning, Review Notes, Key Terms, Notes, and For Further Reading.
Preface
CHAPTER 1. WHY PHILOSOPHY
1.1 Philosophy: The Quest for Understanding
The Good of Philosophy
Philosophical Terrain
Details: Your Philosophical Beliefs
Details: Main Divisions of Philosophy
1.2 Socrates and the Examined Life
Portrait: Plato
Then and Now: Socrates Café
1.3 Thinking Philosophically
Reasons and Arguments
Details: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms
Reading Philosophy
Portrait: Hypatia
Fallacious Reasoning
CHAPTER 2. THE PRE-SOCRATICS AND THE SOPHISTS
2.1 Thales and Anaximander
2.2 Heraclitus
Then and Now: The (Ancient) Theory of Evolution
Portrait: Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans
2.3 Parmenides
Details: Zeno's Paradoxes
2.4 Democritus
2.5 Protagoras and the Sophists
Then and Now: Moral Relativism and Tolerance
Readings
Aristotle: Metaphysics
Aristotle: On the Heavens
Heraclitus: Fragment
Parmenides: On Nature
Plato: "Theatetus"
CHAPTER 3. SOCRATES: AN EXAMINED LIFE
3.1 The Philosophical Gadfly
3.2 The Socratic Method
Portrait: Early Women Philosophers Themistoclea, Arignote, and Theano
3.3 Knowledge and Ignorance
Details: Socrates in the Clouds
3.4 Socrates' Trial and Death
Details: Socrates' Last Minutes
Then and Now: Your Examined/Unexamined Life
Readings
Xenophon: Symposium
Plato: Symposium
Plato: The Republic
Plato: Apology
CHAPTER 4. PLATO: THE REALLY REAL
4.1 Plato's Life and Times
Portrait: Diotima of Mantinea
4.2 Knowledge and Reality
Believing and Knowing
Reason and the Forms
Details: Critiques of the Forms
Plato's Rationalism
Then and Now: Modern Platonism
4.3 Allegory of the Cave
4.4 Immortality, Morality, and the Soul
The Immortal Soul
The Three-Part Soul
The Moral Soul
Details: The Ring of Gyges
4.5 The Individual and the State
Readings
Plato: Meno
Plato: Phaedo
* Plato: Meno
Plato: The Republic
G.M.A. Grube: Plato's Thought
Julia Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic
CHAPTER 5. ARISTOTLE: REASON AND NATURE
5.1 The Life of Aristotle
Portrait: Aristotle and Alexander
5.2 Logic, Knowledge, Truth
Then and Now: Aristotle and Modern Science
5.3 Physics and Metaphysics
Substance
Change
Cause
Purpose
Details: Aristotle's God
5.4 Happiness, Virtue, and the Good
Details: Aristotle's Soul
Readings
J.L. Ackrill, Aristotle the Philosopher
Diogenes Laertius: Lives of the Philosophers
Anthony Gottlieb: The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance
Aristotle: Metaphysics
Aristotle: Posterior Analytics
Aristotle: Physics
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics
CHAPTER 6. EASTERN THOUGHT
6.1 Hinduism
Beginnings
The Vedas
Then and Now: The Caste System
After the Vedas
Hindu Philosophies
Details: Hinduism and Modernity
6.2 Buddhism
Buddhist Complexities
The Buddha's Teachings
Portrait: The Buddha
* Then and Now: Buddhism and Science
Details: Buddhism and Violence
6.3 Daoism
6.4 Confucianism
Details: The Confucian Canon
Readings
Kalama Sutra
Ajahn Sumedho
Dhammacakapparattana Sutta
Walpola Rahula: What the Buddha Thought
The Chuang Tzu
Tao-te Ching
Analects
John B. Noss: A History of the World's Religions
CHAPTER 7. THE HELLENISTIC ERA
7.1 Epicurus
7.2 Epictetus
Portrait: Lucretius
7.3 Sextus Empiricus
Then and Now: Stoicism Today
Details: The Self-Destruction of Skepticism
Readings
Epicurus: Letter to Menoeceus
A.A. Long: Hellenistic Philosophers: Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics
Epictetus: Encheiridion
Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Pyrrhonism
CHAPTER 8. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
8.1 Between Ancient and Modern
8.2 Augustine
Truth
The Hierarchy of Being
Good and Evil
8.3 Anselm and Aquinas
Anselm
Aquinas
Details: Science and the Uncaused Universe
8.4 Avicenna and Maimonides
Avicenna
Maimonides
Portrait: Averro:es
8.5 Hildegard of Bingen
8.6 William of Ockham
Then and Now: Modern Realism about Universals
Readings
Augustine: Confessions
Augustine: On Free Will
Anselm: Proslogium
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason
Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica
Hildegard: Causae et Curae
Frederick Copleston: A History of Philosophy: Volume II: Medieval Philosophy: From Augustine to Duns Scotus
CHAPTER 9. DESCARTES: DOUBT AND CERTAINTY
9.1 The Pursuit of Knowledge
Then and Now: The Scientific (and Philosophical) Revolution
9.2 Plato's Rationalism
Details: Innate Ideas
9.3 Descartes' Doubt
Details: Living in the Matrix
9.4 Descartes' Certainty
Portrait: René Descartes
Readings
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy
CHAPTER 10. FROM HOBBES TO HUME
10.1 Hobbes
10.2 Locke
Then and Now: The Defeat of Relativism
10.3 Berkeley
10.4 Hume
Portrait: David Hume
10.5 Spinoza
Details: Russell on Spinoza
10.6 Leibniz
Readings
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan
John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
George Berkeley: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Discourse on Metaphysics
CHAPTER 11. KANT'S REVOLUTION
11.1 The Small-Town Genius
11.2 The Knowledge Revolution
Portrait: Copernicus
Then and Now: Conceptualizing the World
11.3 The Moral Law
Ethics and Morality
Details: Moral Relativism
Kant's Theory
Readings
Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason
Immanuel Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals
CHAPTER 12. JOHN STUART MILL AND UTILITARIANISM
12.1 The Philosopher-Reformer
12.2 Mill's Utilitarianism
Portrait: Jeremy Bentham
Details: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule
Then and Now: Utilitarianism and the Death Penalty
12.3 Critiques of the Theory
Details: Mill's View of Personal Freedom
Reading
John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
CHAPTER 13. HEGEL AND MARX
13.1 Hegel
Portrait: Hegel
13.2 Marx
Details: Einstein on Socialism
Then and Now: Is the United States a Socialist Country?
Readings
Hegel: Lectures on the History of Philosophy
Marx: The Communist Manifesto
CHAPTER 14. EXISTENTIALISM
14.1 The Existential Tone
14.2 Kierkegaard
14.3 Nietzsche
Details: Nietzsche: Myths and Rumors
Portrait: Schopenhauer
14.4 Heidegger
14.5 Sartre
Portrait: Sartre
Details: The Stir Caused by Sartre
14.6 Camus
Then and Now: Existentialism in Literature and Film
Readings
Patrick Gardiner: Kierkegaard: A Very Short Introduction
Søren Kierkegaard: Either/Or
Søren Kierkegaard: The Point of View
Søren Kierkegaard: Journal
Søren Kierkegaard: Concluding Unscientific Postscript
Friedrich Nietzsche: Thus Spake Zarathustra
Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil
Friedrich Nietzsche: Thus Spake Zarathustra
Friedrich Nietzsche: The Gay Science
Martin Heidegger: The Basic Problems of Phenomenology
Thomas R. Flynn: Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction
Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism
Albert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus
CHAPTER 15. THE PRAGMATISTS: PEIRCE AND JAMES
15.1 The Pragmatist Way
15.2 Peirce
Details: Four Ways to Fix Belief
15.3 James
Portrait: William James
Then and Now: James and Indeterminism
Readings
William James: "Pragmatism"
Charles Sanders Peirce: "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"
William James: "The Will to Believe"
Michael Martin: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification
CHAPTER 16. FEMINIST PHILOSOPHERS
16.1 Mary Wollstonecraft
Portrait: Wollstonecraft
16.2 Simone de Beauvoir
Then and Now: Innate Gender Differences?
16.3 Feminist Ethics
Details: Ethics Terminology
16.4 Feminist Perspectives on Knowledge
Readings
Alison Ainley: "Feminist Philosophy"
Louis M. Antony: "Embodiment and Epistemology"
Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Judith Thurman: Introduction to The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir: The Second Sex
Alison Jaggar: "Feminist Ethics"
Jan Crosthwaite: "Gender and Bioethics"
Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care
Annette C. Baier: "The Need for More Than Justice"
Elizabeth Anderson: "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science"
Eve Browning Cole: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism
CHAPTER 17. THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
17.1 Wittgenstein
Portrait: Wittgenstein
Details: The Telling Gesture
17.2 Derrida and Cixous
17.3 Rawls
Then and Now: Political Terminology
17.4 Appiah
17.5 Nussbaum
17.6 Martin Luther King, Jr.
Reading s
Ludwig Wittgenstein: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Investigations
Susan Sellers: The Hélène Cixous Reader
John Rawls: A Theory of Justice
Kwame Anthony Appiah: Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers
Martha Nussbaum: The New Religious Intolerance
Martin Luther King, Jr., in A Testament of Hope
Martin Luther King, Jr.: "Nonviolence and Racial Justice"
Martin Luther King, Jr.: "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"
* CHAPER 18. THE MEANING OF LIFE
* 18.1 The Search for Meaning
* 18.2 Pessimism: Life Has No Meaning
* 18.3 Optimism: Life Can Have Meaning
* Meaning from Above
* Details: Is Religion Necessary for a Meaningful Life?
Meaning from Below
* Details: What Can and Cannot Give Life Meaning
Readings
* Leo Tolstoy: My Confession
* Arthur Schopenhauer: On the Sufferings of the World
* Julian Baggini: What's It All About?
* Paul Edwards: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
APPENDIX: How to Write a Philosophy Paper
Glossary
Credits
Index of Marginal Quotations
General Index

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