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9780878939794

Looking Inside the Disordered Brain

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780878939794

  • ISBN10:

    0878939792

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2015-01-13
  • Publisher: Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press

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Summary

What are the brain circuits that not only keep us alive but also allow us to thrive in our complex world, and how do even subtle disturbances within these circuits lead to abnormal behavior? Using a combination of research strategies--including neuroimaging (particularly fMRI) and abnormal and clinical psychology--this textbook addresses these timely and important questions for students of the biological, clinical, and social sciences as well as interested students from fields within the humanities, such as philosophy.

Looking Inside the Disordered Brain provides students with a working knowledge of our rapidly evolving understanding of the foundational brain circuits supporting human social, emotional, and cognitive behavior, and describes how disruptions within these circuits are associated with symptoms of common psychiatric disorders. It first establishes how specific anatomical circuits process signals we receive from our ever-changing internal and external environments to create order in our behavior. It then looks inside the disordered brain and maps specific symptoms onto dysfunction within these circuits.

The book features three neuroanatomical circuits (corticolimbic; corticostriatal; corticohippocampal) and their principal behavioral correlates (recognition and reaction; motivation and action; memory and executive control), as well as the pathological expression of dysfunction within each circuit (including depression, anxiety, phobia, mania, addiction, aggression, and disintegration of thought).

Ahmad R. Hariri emphasizes the dimensional nature of psychopathology by mapping specific symptoms within a broad diagnostic category onto disorder of the circuitry under review. For example, in major depressive disorder the symptoms of anxiety are mapped onto corticolimbic circuit dysfunction, the symptoms of anhedonia onto corticostriatal circuit dysfunction, and the symptoms of emotion dysregulation onto corticohippocampal circuit dysfunction. This is an effective strategy for introducing students to the limitations of categorical/diagnostic classifications (e.g., DSM-5) and highlighting the importance of considering behavior on a continuum from normal to abnormal.

Author Biography


Ahmad R. Hariri is Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University, where he is also Director of the Laboratory of NeuroGenetics. After completing his B.S. and M.S. in evolutionary biology at the University of Maryland, Dr. Hariri completed his doctorate through the UCLA Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program for Neuroscience with Dr. Susan Bookheimer. He next completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the National Institute of Mental Health with Dr. Daniel Weinberger. From 2003-2009, he was first Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. In 2009, Dr. Hariri received the Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology. He was also named a Highly Cited Researcher by Thomson Reuters, identifying him as 1 of only 129 investigators whose research is amongst the top 1% most cited in the field of Neuroscience and Behavior.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Getting Inside and Getting Around

*Circuit concepts and approach

*BOLD basics

*Neuroanatomical planes and directional terms



UNIT 1. THE CORTICOLIMBIC CIRCUIT FOR RECOGNITION AND REACTION

Chapter 2. The Corticolimbic Circuit: Anatomy

*Circuit hub: Amygdala (basolateral complex, central nucleus, and intercalated cell masses)

*Interconnected circuitry: thalamus, sensory association cortex, hypothalamus, brainstem, substantia innominata (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and nucleus basalis of meynert), insula, hippocampal formation, prefrontal cortex

*Basic information flow supporting recognition and reaction



Chapter 3. The Corticolimbic Circuit: Order

*Fear learning: Conditioning, extinction, recall

*Faces and facial expressions: threat, ambiguity, uncertainty, novelty

*Anxiety



Chapter 4. The Corticolimbic Circuit: Disorder

*Amygdala hyper/hypoactivity and circuit imbalance

*Exaggerated and dysregulated responses to threat

*Symptoms including depression, mania, anxiety, phobia, aggression, and abnormal social interactions



UNIT 2. THE CORTICOSTRIATAL CIRCUIT FOR MOTIVATION AND ACTION

Chapter 5. The Corticostriatal Circuit: Anatomy

*Circuit hub: Ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens)

*Interconnected circuitry: thalamus, amygdala, ventral pallidum, dorsal striatum, dorsal pallidum, prefrontal cortex, midbrain (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area)

*Basic information flow supporting motivation and action



Chapter 6. The Corticostriatal Circuit: Order

*Reward learning: classical and instrumental conditioning

*Goal-directed behavior

*Primary and secondary reinforcers

*Impulsivity



Chapter 7. The Corticostriatal Circuit: Disorder

*Ventral striatum hyper/hypoactivity and circuit imbalance

*Abnormal and dysregulated motivations and goal-directed behaviors

*Symptoms including anhedonia, mania, hyperactivity, aggression, addiction, body image distortion, overeating



UNIT 3. THE CORTICOHIPPOCAMPAL CIRCUIT FOR MEMORY AND EXECUTIVE CONTROL

Chapter 8. The Corticohippocampal Circuit: Anatomy

*Circuit hub: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

*Interconnected circuitry: Hippocampal formation (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex), neocortical association areas, midbrain

*Basic information flow supporting memory and executive control



Chapter 9. The Corticohippocampal Circuit: Order

*Long-term memory: The librarian and the library

*Executive control: Working memory, attention and response selection

*Focus and performance



Chapter 10. The Corticohippocampal Circuit: Disorder

*Hippocampal formation dysfunction: deficits in encoding and recall of long-term memories


*Symptoms including retrograde and anterograde amnesia, mild cognitive impairment, and delusions



*Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction: dysregulation of other circuits, disorganized thinking, remembering, and planning


*Symptoms including poor emotion regulation, impulse control, inattention, obsessions and compulsions, and disintegration of thought and executive control




Glossary

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