Looseleaf for Ethics for Life: A Text with Readings

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2018-03-01
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Table of Contents

Section I The Study of Ethics 1

CHAPTER 1 Ethics: An Overview 3

What Is Ethics? 5

Normative and Theoretical Ethics 8

Philosophy and the Search for Wisdom 12

Metaphysics and the Study of Human Nature 17

Moral Knowledge: Can Moral Beliefs Be True? 24

Summary 28

CHAPTER 2 Moral Reasoning 30

The Three Levels of Thinking 31

Moral Analysis and Praxis 35

Overcoming Resistance 37

The Role of Is and Ought Statements in Ethics 44

Recognizing and Constructing Moral Arguments 47

Avoiding Informal Fallacies 52

Resolving Moral Dilemmas 65

A Final Word 70

Summary 70

CHAPTER 3 Conscience and Moral Development 72

Ethics and Human Development 72

Conscience: Culturally Relative or Universal? 74

The Affective and Cognitive Sides of the Conscience 82

Lawrence Kohlberg: The Stage Theory of Moral Development 90

Carol Gilligan: The Care Perspective 95

The Four Components of Moral Behavior 99

Moral Maturity: Moving Beyond Ethical Relativism 105

Summary 107


Section II Ethical Relativism 109

CHAPTER 4 Ethical Subjectivism: Morality Is Just a Matter of Personal Feeling 111

What Is Ethical Subjectivism? 111

What Ethical Subjectivism Is Not 114

The Roots of Ethical Subjectivism in Romantic Sentimentalism 119

The Kitty Genovese Syndrome 123

Critique of Ethical Subjectivism 125

Summary 128

  •         The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism by James Rachels 129
  •         Student Relativism by Stephen A. Satris 131

CHAPTER 5 Divine Command Theory and Civil Religion 133

Religion and Morality 134

The Divine Command Theory 135

Critique of Divine Command Theory 139

Civil Religion, Society, and National Morality 143

Religion and the Moral Community 149

Does Morality Need Religion? 152

Summary 156

  •       Euthyphro by Plato 156

CHAPTER 6 Cultural Relativism: Is Morality Dependent on Culture? 159

What Is Cultural Relativism? 160

What Cultural Relativism Is Not 162

Distinguishing between Cultural and Sociological Relativism 166

Social Darwinian Ethics: The Concept of Moral Progress 170

Ruth Benedict: Cultural Relativism as a Protest against Social Darwinism 172

Cultural Relativism and the Moral Community 176

Cultural Relativism, Cross-Cultural Criticism, and Moral Progress 184

The Holocaust and Disillusionment with Cultural Relativism 188 Critique of Cultural Relativism 191

Summary 196

  •       Anthropology and the Abnormal by Ruth Benedict 197


Section III Morality as Universal 199

CHAPTER 7 Ethical Egoism: Morality Is Acting in Our Best Self-Interest 201

What Is Ethical Egoism? 202

Thomas Hobbes: Psychological Egoism 204

Ayn Rand: Objectivist Ethics and Rational Ethical Egoism 209

Ethical Egoism and Laissez-Faire Capitalism 212

Ethical Egoism and the Moral Community 220

Self-Interest and Happiness 222

Critique of Ethical Egoism 224

Summary 228

  •        Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 229
  •       The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand 231

CHAPTER 8 Utilitarianism: The Greatest Happiness Principle 233

Utilitarianism and the Principle of Utility 234

Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Social Reform 239

John Stuart Mill: Reformulation of Utilitarianism 245

Mo Tzu: Utilitarianism as Universal Love 250

Utilitarianism and the Moral Community 252

The Principle of Utility in Public Policy 256

Critique of Utilitarianism 262

Summary 267

  •        An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy Bentham 268
  •        Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill 269

CHAPTER 9 Natural Law Theory: Morality is Part of Rational Nature 271

What is Natural Law Ethics? 271

Thomas Aquinas: Catholic Natural Law Ethics 274

Just War Theory 278

Henry David Thoreau: Natural Law Theory, and Civil Disobedience 280

Natural Law Theory and Contemporary Moral Issues 287

Critique of Natural Law Theory 292

Summary 294

  •        The Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas 295
  •        On the Duty of Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau 296

CHAPTER 10 Deontology: The Ethics of Duty 299

Deontology and Duty 299

Immanuel Kant: The Categorical Imperative 302

The Good Will and Proper Self-Esteem 308

Confucius: Duty and the Community 314

Is the Duty Not to Lie Absolute? 316

Prima Facie Deontology 321

The Duty of Justice 327

Summary 337

  •        The Analects of Confucius by Arthur Waley, Translator 338
  •        Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Ethics by Immanuel Kant 340

CHAPTER 11 Rights Ethics 342

The Emergence of Rights Ethics in Modern Society 343

John Locke: Natural Rights Ethics 348

The Marxist Critique of Natural Rights Ethics 354

Rights and Duties 358

Liberty (Negative) Rights and Welfare (Positive) Rights 363

Rights and the Moral Community 369

Critique of Rights Ethics 375

Summary 377

  •      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights by United Nations 379
  •      Two Treatises of Civil Government by John Locke 380

CHAPTER 12 Virtue Ethics and the Good Life 383

Virtue Ethics and Character 384

Aristotle: Reason and Virtue 389

Aristotle and Confucius: The Doctrine of the Mean 391

David Hume: Sentiment and Virtue 393

Nel Noddings: Feminist Care Ethics 396

Is Virtue Relative to Culture, Social Status, and Gender? 402

Moral Integrity and the Unity of Virtue 408

Virtue and Moral Education 410

Critique of Virtue Ethics 414

Summary 416

  •       Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle 417
  •       Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral   Education by Nel Noddings 419

AFTERWORD Applying Moral Theory in Real Life 421

Glossary 424

Notes 429

Photo Credits 441

Index 442

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