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Looseleaf for Teaching Physical Education for Learning

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2019-01-30
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Table of Contents


Part 1 Understanding the Teaching/Learning Process

1 Teaching Physical Education: An Orientation

Teaching as a Profession

What Does It Mean to Act Professionally?
Professional Teachers Acquire the Skills for Best Practice

Teaching as a Goal- Oriented Activity
Types of Goals
Establishing Realistic Goals
Choosing Instructional Processes to Meet

Achieving Goals Through Processes
Criteria for a Learning Experience
Criterion One
Criterion Two 10
Criterion Three 11
Criterion Four 11

Understanding the Instructional Process 12
Prelesson and Postlesson Routines 12
Movement Task–Student Response Unit of Analysis 13
Teaching Functions 14
Management and Content Behavior 15

Looking to the Future: Becoming a Professional Teacher 16
Value Positions and Beliefs in Teaching 16
Personal Characteristics of a Teacher 17
Developing Commitment 18

Summary 19

Checking Your Understanding 19

2 Factors That Influence Learning 21

What Is Learning? 22

How Do People Learn Motor Skills? 23

Understanding the Control of Movement 24

Stages of Motor Learning 25

Requirements for Learning a Motor Skill 26
Prerequisites 27
Clear Idea of the Task 27
Motivational/Attentional Disposition to the Skill 28
Practice 28
Feedback 28

The Nature of Motor Skill Goals 29
Open and Closed Skills 29
Discrete, Serial, and Continuous Skills 31

Issues of Appropriateness in Skill Development and Learning 31
Environmental Conditions 31
Learner Abilities 32

Practice Profiles and Success Rates 33
Whole or Part 33
Practice Variability 33
Massed and Distributed Practice 35

Motivation and Goal Setting 35

Transfer of Learning 36
Bilateral Transfer 36
Intertask Transfer 36
Intratask Transfer 37

Learner Characteristics 37
Motor Ability 37
Intelligence and Cognitive Development 38

Summary 39

Checking Your Understanding 39

Part 2 Effective Teaching Skills

3 Designing Learning Experiences and Tasks 41

Criteria for a Learning Experience 42

Designing the Movement Task 42
Content Dimension of Movement Tasks 43
Goal-Setting Dimension of the Task 44
Organizational Arrangements for Tasks 46

Transitions from One Organization to Another 52

Designing Learning Experiences That Are Safe 52

Teacher Legal Liability for Student Safety 53

Student Decision Making in Environmental Arrangements 54

The Influence of the Nature of Motor Content on the Design of a Learning Experience 55
Closed Skills 57
Open Skills 58

Summary 59

Checking Your Understanding 60

4 Task Presentation 62

Getting the Attention of the Learner 63
Establishing Signals and Procedures 64
Student Preoccupation with Other
Environmental Factors 65
Inability to Hear or See 65
Inefficient Use of Time 65

Sequencing the Content and Organizational Aspects of Tasks 66

Improving the Clarity of Communication 67
Orient the Learner (Set Induction) 67
Sequence the Presentation in Logical Order 68
Give Examples and Nonexamples 68
Personalize the Presentation 68
Repeat Things Difficult to Understand 68
Draw on the Personal Experience of Students 68
Check for Understanding 68
Present Material Dynamically 69

Choosing a Way to Communicate 69
Verbal Communication 69
Demonstration 69
Media Materials 72

Selecting and Organizing Learning Cues 72
Good Cues Are Accurate 73
Good Cues Are Brief and Critical to the Skill Being Performed 73
Good Cues Are Appropriate to the Learner’s Skill Level and Age 75
Good Cues Are Appropriate for Different Types of Content 77
Cues Are More Effective If They Are Sequentially Organized and Learners Have the Opportunity to Rehearse Them 79

Summary 81

Checking Your Understanding 81

5 Content Analysis and Development 82

The Process of Content Development—Overview 83
Establish a Progression (Extension) 83
Demonstrate a Concern for Quality of Performance (Refinement) 84
Give Students an Opportunity to Apply/Assess Their Skills (Application) 85

Planning for Content Development: The Developmental Analysis 86
Developing Extension Tasks—The Teacher’s Progression 88
Adding the Qualities of Refinement 92
Designing Application/Assessment Experiences for Content 93
What Content Development Looks Like in a Real Lesson 95

Guidelines for Developing Different Types of Content 95
Developing Closed Skills 96
Developing Closed Skills Performed in Different Environments 98
Developing Open Skills 98

Teaching Games and Sports
The Games Stages
Considerations Using the Games Stages

Summary 105

Checking Your Understanding 105

6 Developing and Maintaining a Learning Environment 107

The Ecology of the Gymnasium 108

Establishing and Maintaining a Management System 109
Establishing Routines 109
Establishing Class Rules 113
Gaining and Maintaining the Cooperation of Students 114

Strategies for Developing Student Self-Control and Responsibility 117
Hellison’s Levels of Responsibility 118
Behavior Modification 118
Authoritative Orientations to Management 122
Group Process Strategies for Developing Self-Direction 122
Conflict Resolution 123

Discipline: What to Do If It Does Not Work 123
Deterring Problems Before They Become Problems 124
Continued Inappropriate Behavior 124
Handling Students Who Continually Misbehave 126

Summary 128

Checking Your Understanding 128

7 Teacher Functions During Activity 130

I’ve Sent the Students Off to Practice— Now What? 131

Setting Priorities of What to Do First 133

Maintaining a Safe Learning Environment 134

Clarifying and Reinforcing Tasks for Learners 134

Maintaining a Productive Learning Environment 135

Observing and Analyzing Student Responses 136
Positioning of the Teacher 137
Determining a Plan for Observing Large Groups 137
Knowing What to Look For 138

Providing Feedback to Learners 139
Evaluative and Corrective Feedback 140
Congruency of Feedback 140
General versus Specific Feedback 141
Negative versus Positive Feedback 142
The Target of Feedback 143
Timing of Feedback 144
Use of Feedback to Promote Student Understanding 144

Changing and Modifying Tasks for Individuals and Small Groups 144
Extending the Task for Individuals 145
Designing Applying/Assessment Task for Individuals 145
Changing the Task Completely for Individuals 146
Refining the Task for Individuals 146

Indirectly Contributing Behaviors 146
Attending to Injured Students 146
Engaging in Off- Topic Discussions 147
Dealing with the Personal Needs of Students 147
Participating with Students and Officiating 148

Noncontributing Behaviors 148

Summary 148

Checking Your Understanding 149

8 Teaching Strategies 151

Direct and Indirect Instruction 152

The Teaching Strategy as a Delivery System 155
Selection of Content 156
Communication of Tasks 156
Progression of Content 156
Provision for Feedback and Evaluation 156

The Teaching Strategies Described 156
Interactive Teaching 157
Station Teaching 160
Peer Teaching 162
Cooperative Learning 166
Self-Instructional Strategies 169
Cognitive Strategies 172
Team Teaching 175

Selecting a Teaching Strategy 179

Summary 179

Checking Your Understanding 179

9 Student Motivation, Personal Growth, and Inclusion 181

Motivation in Learning 183

Theories of Motivation—The Why of Behavior 183
Behaviorism 183
Social Learning Theory 183
Self-Determination Theory 183
Achievement Goal and Social Goals Theory 184
Interest Theories 185
Designing Experiences to Develop Personal and Situational Interest 186

Implications of Theories of Motivation 186

Promoting Personal Growth Through Personal Interaction 190

Motivation and Personal Growth Through Instructional Decision Making 192
Planning 192
Selection of Tasks and Design of Learning Experiences 193
Presentation of Units and Tasks 194
Organizational Arrangements 195
Teacher Functions During Activity 195
Pacing of Lessons 196
Assessment of Tasks, Units, and Lessons 196

Teaching Affective Goals as a Lesson Focus 196
The Unique and Shared Affective Goals of Physical Education 197
Instructional Strategies for Teaching Affect 197

Physical Education for Inclusion 199
Becoming Aware 200
Developing a Climate for Inclusion 201

Building Equity 202
Gender Equity 202
Ethnic and Cultural Differences 203
Disadvantaged Students 203
Students with Disabilities 204

Discussion of Affective Goals for Physical Education 206

Summary 207

Checking Your Understanding 207

10 Planning 209

Establishing Goals and Objectives for Learning 211
Writing Learning Outcomes in Terms of What Students Will Learn 211
Levels of Specificity in Educational Objectives 213
Objectives in the Three Learning Domains 215

Writing Learning Outcomes Consistent with Content Standards 215

Planning Physical Education Experiences 217

Planning the Lesson 217
Beginning the Lesson 218
Developing the Lesson 218
Ending the Lesson—Closure 219
Format for Lesson Planning 219
Planning the Curriculum 225
Developing Curriculum from a Set of Standards 226
Planning for Units of Instruction 226
Considerations in Planning Units 229
Developing the Unit 231
The Unit Plan 232

Summary 238

Checking Your Understanding 238

11 Assessment in the Instructional Process 239

The Role of Assessment in Physical Education Programs 240

Formative and Summative Assessment 241
Formative Assessment 241
Summative Assessment 242

Validity and Reliability Issues of Assessment 243
Validity of Assessment Measures 243
Reliability of Assessment Measures 244

Collecting Information: Formal and Informal Evaluation 245

Alternative Assessment 246
Checklists 246
Rating Scales 247
Scoring Rubrics 247

Types of Student Assessment 248
Observation 248
Event Tasks 250
Student Journals 255
Portfolio 256
Written Test 256
Skill Tests 257
Student/Group Projects and Reports 258
Student Logs 258
Student Interviews, Surveys, and Questionnaires 258
Parental Reports 260

Making Assessment a Practical and Important Part of Your Program 260
Establish Criteria 260
Use Self-Testing Tasks Frequently 262
Use Simple Check Sheets and Rating Scales 262
Use Peer Assessment 263
Use Thirty-Second Wonders 263
Use DVD/Computers 263
Sample Student Behavior 264
Get Comfortable with Technology 264

Preparing for Formal and High-Stakes Assessment 264

Student Grading 266
Student Achievement 266
Student Improvement 266
Student Effort 266
Student Conduct 266

Summary 267

Checking Your Understanding 267

Part 3 Context and Reflection

12 Content-Specific Pedagogy 269

Developing a Physically Active Lifestyle
Teaching Lifetime Physical Activity 271
Teaching Fitness Concepts in the Classroom 272

Curricular Alternatives to Teaching Fitness 272

Tactical and Skill Approaches to Teaching Games and Sports 284

Sport Education 286

Teaching Dance 287

Gymnastics 287

Outdoor Pursuits 287

Movement Concepts—Teaching for Transfer 289
Learning Theory Associated with the Transfer of Learning 290
Important Concepts in Physical Education 291
Teaching Movement Concepts 295

Summary 301

Checking Your Understanding 302

13 The Professional Teacher and the Continuous Learner

Professional Teachers Are Continuous Learners 307

Stay Current in Your Field Take Responsibility for Your Growth Become a Reflective Practitioner

Collecting Information on Your Teaching 312
Maintaining a Teaching Portfolio 312
Collecting Data on the Products and Processes of Teaching 312

Observing and Analyzing Your Teaching 313
Deciding What to Look For 313
Choosing an Observational Method or Tool to Collect Information 315
Collecting Data 318
Analyzing and Interpreting the Meaning of Data 319
Making Changes in the Instructional Process 319
Monitoring Change in Teaching 320

Summary 320
Checking Your Understanding 320

14 Observation Techniques and Tools 322

Observational Methods 323
Intuitive Observation 323
Anecdotal Records 325
Rating Scales 327
Scoring Rubric 329
Event Recording 329
Duration Recording 331
Time Sampling 332

Observational Tools for the Analysis of Teaching 335
Student Motor Activity: ALT-PE 335
Student Use of Time 337
Content Development: OSCD-PE 338
Teacher Feedback 339
Student Conduct 341
Qualitative Measures of Teaching Performance Scale (QMTPS) 343
Teacher Movement 347

Summary 350
Checking Your Understanding 350

Glossary 352

Index 357

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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