Loose-leaf Version for Exploring American Histories, Volume 1 A Brief Survey with Sources

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Exploring American Histories offers an entirely new approach to teaching the U.S. survey that puts investigating sources and thinking about the many stories of American history right at the center of your course. The distinctive format integrates primary documents and a brief narrative into one cost-effective and easy-to-use volume. Exploring American Histories features Bedford/St. Martin’s new digital history tools, including LearningCurve, an adaptive quizzing engine that garners over a 90% student satisfaction rate, and LaunchPad, the all new interactive e-book and course space that puts high quality easy-to-use assessment at your fingertips. Easy to integrate into your campus LMS, and featuring video, additional primary sources, a wealth of adaptive and summative quizzing, and more, LaunchPad cements student understanding of the text while helping them make progress toward learning outcomes.  It’s the best content joined up with the best technology. Available in combined and split volumes and in a number of affordable print and digital formats.

Author Biography

Nancy A. Hewitt (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) is Professor of History and of Women’s and Gender Studies at Rutgers University. Her publications include Southern Discomfort: Women’s Activism in Tampa, Florida, 1880s-1920s, for which she received the Julia Cherry Spruill Prize from the Southern Association of Women Historians, Women’s Activism and Social Change: Rochester, New York, 1822-1872, and the edited volume No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism. She is currently working on a biography of the nineteenth-century radical activist Amy Post and a book that recasts the U.S. woman suffrage movement.

Steven F. Lawson (Ph.D., Columbia University) is Professor Emeritus of History at Rutgers University. His research interests include U.S. politics since 1945 and the history of the civil rights movement, with a particular focus on black politics and the interplay between civil rights and political culture in the mid-twentieth century. He is the author of many works including Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America since 1941, Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969, and In Pursuit of Power: Southern Blacks and Electoral Politics, 1965-1982.

Table of Contents

1 Mapping Global Frontiers, to 1585

American Histories: Malintzin and Martin Waldseemüller

Native Peoples in the Americas

Native Peoples Develop Diverse Cultures

The Aztecs, the Maya, and the Incas

Native Cultures to the North

Europe Expands Its Reach

The Mediterranean World

Portugal Pursues Long-Distance Trade

European Encounters with West Africa

Document 1.1 John Lok, The Second Voyage to Guinea, 1554

Worlds Collide

Europeans Cross the Atlantic

Document 1.2 Christopher Columbus, Reaching the West Indies, 1492

Europeans Explore the Americas

Mapmaking and Printing

The Columbian Exchange

Europeans Make Claims to North America

Spaniards Conquer Indian Empires

Document 1.3 Aztec Smallpox Victim, 1540

Spanish Adventurers Head North

Europeans Compete in North America

Spain Seeks Dominion in the Americas

Documents 1.4 and 1.5 European Depictions of the Americas: Two Views

Conclusion: A New America

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 1 Mapping America

Document 1.6 Christopher and Bartolomeo Columbus, Map of Europe and North Africa, c. 1490

Document 1.7 Martin Waldseemüller and Mathias Ringmann, Universalis Cosmographia, 1507

Document 1.8 Piri Reis Map, 1513

Document 1.9 Dauphin Map of Canada, c. 1543

Document 1.10 Map of Cuauhtinchan, 1550

2 Colonization and Conflicts, 1550–1680

American Histories: Captain John Smith and Anne Hutchinson

Religious and Imperial Transformations

The Protestant Reformation

Spain’s Global Empire Declines

France Enters the Race for Empire

Documents 2.1 and 2.2 Indians and Jesuit Missionaries in New France: Two Views

The Dutch Expand into North America

The English Seek an Empire

The English Establish Jamestown

Tobacco Fuels Growth in Virginia

Document 2.3 Simon van de Passe, Engraving of Pocahontas, 1616

Expansion, Rebellion, and the Emergence of Slavery

Document 2.4 Virginia Slave Law, 1662

The English Compete for West Indies Possessions

Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

Pilgrims Arrive in Massachusetts

The Puritan Migration

The Puritan Worldview

Dissenters Challenge Puritan Authority

Wars in Old and New England

Document 2.5 Captain John Underhill, Attack at Mystic, Connecticut, 1638

Conclusion: European Empires in North America

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 2 King Philip’s War

Document 2.6 John Easton, A Relation of the Indian War, 1675

Document 2.7 Benjamin Church, Passages Relating to Philip’s War, 1716

Document 2.8 Edward Randolph, Report on the War, 1676

Document 2.9 William Nahaton, Petition to Free an Indian Slave, 1675

Document 2.10 Mary Rowlandson, Narrative of Captivity, 1682

3 Global Changes Reshape Colonial America, 1680–1750

American Histories: William Moraley Jr. and Eliza Lucas

Europeans Expand Their Claims

English Colonies Grow and Multiply

Document 3.1 John Locke, On the State of Nature, 1690

France Seeks Land and Control

The Pueblo Revolt and Spain’s Fragile Empire

European Wars and American Consequences

Colonial Conflicts and Indian Alliances

Indians Resist European Encroachment

Document 3.2 The Tuscarora Appeal to the Pennsylvania Government, 1710

Global Conflicts on the Southern Frontier

The Benefits and Costs of Empire

Colonial Traders Join Global Networks

Imperial Policies Focus on Profits

The Atlantic Slave Trade

Document 3.3 Plan of a Slave Ship, 1789

Seaport Cities and Consumer Cultures

Labor in North America

Finding Work in the Northern Colonies

Documents 3.4 and 3.5 Pennsylvania: The Promised Land?: Two Views

Coping with Economic Distress

Rural Americans Face Changing Conditions

Slavery Takes Hold in the South

Africans Resist Their Enslavement

Conclusion: Changing Fortunes in British North America

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 3 The Production of Indigo

Document 3.6 Eliza Lucas Pinckney, Letter to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 1785

Document 3.7 George Milligen-Johnston, A Description of South Carolina, 1770

Document 3.8 Pamphlet on Cultivating Indigo, 1746

Document 3.9 Laboring for Indigo, 1773

Document 3.10 James Habersham, Letter to Benjamin Martyn, June 13, 1751

4 Religious Strife and Social Upheavals, 1680–1750

American Histories: Gilbert Tennent and Sarah Grosvenor

An Ungodly Society?

The Rise of Religious Anxieties

Cries of Witchcraft

Documents 4.1 and 4.2 The Devil’s Work: Two Views

Family and Household Dynamics

Women’s Changing Status

Document 4.3 Will of Edmund Titus, Oyster Bay, New York, 1754

Working Families

Reproduction and Women’s Roles

The Limits of Patriarchal Order

Diversity and Competition in Colonial Society

Population Growth and Economic Competition

Increasing Diversity

Expansion and Conflict

Religious Awakenings

The Roots of the Great Awakening

An Outburst of Revivals

Document 4.4 Nathan Cole, On George Whitefield Coming to Connecticut, 1740

Religious Dissension

Political Awakenings

Changing Political Relations

Dissent and Protest

Transforming Urban Politics

Document 4.5 The Trial of John Peter Zenger, 1736

Conclusion: A Divided Society

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 4 Awakening Religious Tensions

Document 4.6 George Whitefield, Marks of a True Conversion, 1739

Document 4.7 Gilbert Tennent, The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry, 1739

Document 4.8 Newspaper Report on James Davenport, 1743

Document 4.9 Charles Chauncy, Letter to Scottish Minister George Wishart, 1742

Document 4.10 Dr. Squintum’s Exaltation or the Reformation, 1763

5 Wars and Empires, 1750–1774

American Histories: George Washington and Herman Husband

A War for Empire, 1754–1763

The Opening Battles

A Shift to Global War

The Costs of Victory

Battles and Boundaries on the Frontier

Document 5.1 Pontiac, Speech to Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Huron Leaders, 1763

Conflicts over Land and Labor Escalate

Postwar British Policies and Colonial Unity

Common Grievances

Forging Ties across the Colonies

Great Britain Seeks Greater Control

Resistance to Britain Intensifies

The Stamp Act Inspires Coordinated Resistance

Documents 5.2 and 5.3 Protesting the Stamp Act: Two Views

The Townshend Act and the Boston Massacre

Document 5.4 John Dickinson, Letter from a Farmer, 1768

Continuing Conflicts at Home

Tea and Widening Resistance

Document 5.5 The Edenton Proclamation, 1774

The Continental Congress and Colonial Unity

Conclusion: Liberty within Empire

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 5 The Boston Massacre

Document 5.6 Deposition of William Wyatt, March 7, 1770

Document 5.7 Account of Boston Massacre Funeral Procession, March 12, 1770

Document 5.8 Paul Revere, Etching of the Boston Massacre, 1770

Document 5.9 Account of Captain Thomas Preston, June 25, 1770

Document 5.10 John Hancock, Oration on the Boston Massacre, 1774

6 Revolutions, 1775–1783

American Histories: Thomas Paine and Deborah Sampson

The Question of Independence

Armed Conflict Erupts

Building a Continental Army

Reasons for Caution and for Action

Documents 6.1 and 6.2 Debating Independence: Two Views

Declaring Independence

Choosing Sides

Recruiting Supporters

Document 6.3 Oneida Address to Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull, June 1775

Choosing Neutrality

Committing to Independence

Fighting for Independence

British Troops Gain Early Victories

Patriots Prevail in New Jersey

A Critical Year of Warfare

Patriots Gain Critical Assistance

Surviving on the Home Front

Governing in Revolutionary Times

Colonies Become States

Patriots Divide over Slavery

France Allies with the Patriots

Raising Armies and Funds

Document 6.4 Chevalier de Pontgibaud, A French Volunteer at Valley Forge, 1828

Indian Affairs and Land Claims

Winning the War and the Peace

Fighting in the West

War Rages in the South

An Uncertain Peace

Document 6.5 Thomas Peters, Petition to British Cabinet, 1790

A Surprising Victory

Conclusion: Legacies of the Revolution

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 6 Women in the Revolution

Document 6.6 Christian Barnes, Letter to Elizabeth Inman, April 29, 1775

Document 6.7 Deborah Champion, Letter to Patience, October 2, 1775

Document 6.8 Abigail Adams, Letter to John Adams, July 13, 1777

Document 6.9 Esther De Berdt Reed, The Sentiments of an American Woman, 1780

Document 6.10 Mary Jemison, The War’s Impact on Native Americans, 1823

7 Political Cultures, 1783–1800

American Histories: Daniel Shays and Alexander Hamilton

Postwar Problems

Officers Threaten Mutiny

Documents 7.1 and 7.2 Conflicts over Western Lands: Two Views

Indians, Land, and the Northwest Ordinance

Depression and Debt

On the Political Margins

Separating Church and State

African Americans Struggle for Rights

Document 7.3 Petition from Free Blacks of Charleston, 1791

Women Seek Wider Roles

Indebted Farmers Fuel Political Crises

Reframing the American Government

The Philadelphia Convention of 1787

Americans Battle over Ratification

Document 7.4 Amos Singletary, Speech to the Massachusetts Ratifying Convention, 1788

Organizing the Federal Government

Hamilton Forges an Economic Agenda

Years of Crisis, 1792–1796

Foreign Trade and Foreign Wars

The Whiskey Rebellion

Further Conflicts on the Frontier

The First Party System

The Adams Presidency

The Election of 1800

Conclusion: A Young Nation Comes of Age

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 7 The Whiskey Rebellion

Document 7.5 Resolution to the Pennsylvania Legislature, 1791

Document 7.6 The Pittsburgh Resolution, 1794

Document 7.7 George Washington, Proclamation against the Rebels, 1794

Document 7.8 Alexander Hamilton, Letter to George Washington, August 5, 1794

Document 7.9 Alexander Hamilton, Tully’s Pamphlet, 1794

Document 7.10 Francis Kemmelmeyer, George Washington Reviewing Army Troops, 1794

8 New Frontiers, 1790–1820

American Histories: Parker Cleaveland and Sacagawea

Creating an American Identity

Education for a New Nation

Literary and Cultural Developments

Document 8.1 Susanna Rowson, Charlotte Temple, 1791

The Racial Limits of American Culture

Emigration and Colonization

Building a National Capital

Extending U.S. Borders

A New Administration Faces Challenges

Document 8.2 Mary Hassal, Secret History, 1808

Incorporating the Louisiana Territory

The Supreme Court Extends Its Reach

Democratic-Republicans Expand Federal Powers

Remaking the U.S. Economy

The U.S. Population Grows and Migrates

Technology Reshapes Agriculture and Industry

Transforming Household Production

Documents 8.3 and 8.4 Industrial Beginnings in Massachusetts: Two Views

Technology, Cotton, and Slaves

Conclusion: New Frontiers and New Challenges

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 8 Race Relations in the Early Republic

Document 8.5 Thomas Jefferson, Letter to the Marquis de Chastellux, 1785

Document 8.6 Meriwether Lewis, Journal Entry, 1805

Document 8.7 Confession of Solomon, September 1800

Document 8.8 Andrew Jackson, Runaway Slave Advertisement, 1804

Document 8.9 Robert Sutcliff, Travels in Some Parts of North America, 1812

Document 8.10 Free Blacks in Philadelphia Oppose Colonization, 1817

9 Defending and Redefining the Nation, 1809–1832

American Histories: Dolley Madison and John Ross

Conflicts at Home and Abroad

Tensions at Sea and on the Frontier

Document 9.1 Tecumseh, Speech to William Henry Harrison, 1810

War Erupts with Britain

Expanding the Economy and the Nation

Governments Fuel Economic Growth

Americans Expand the Nation’s Borders

Regional Economic Development

Economic and Political Crises

The Panic of 1819

Slavery in Missouri

Documents 9.2 and 9.3 Protesting the Missouri Compromise: Two Views

Redefining American Democracy

Expanding Voting Rights

Racial Restrictions and Antiblack Violence

Political Realignments

The Presidential Election of 1828

Jacksonian Democracy in Action

A Democratic Spirit?

Confrontations over Tariffs and the Bank

Document 9.4 General Jackson Slaying the Many Headed Monster, 1836

Contesting Indian Removal

Conclusion: The Nation Faces New Challenges

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 9 The Panic of 1819

Document 9.5 Auction in Chatham Square Street, 1820

Document 9.6 James Flint, Account of the Panic, 1820

Document 9.7 Virginia Agricultural Society, Antitariff Petition, 1820

Document 9.8 James Kent, Arguments against Expanding Male Voting Rights, 1821

Document 9.9 Nathan Sanford, Arguments for Expanding Male Voting Rights, 1821

10 Slavery Expands South and West, 1830–1850

American Histories: James Henry Hammond and Solomon Northrup

Planters Expand the Slave System

A Plantation Society Develops in the South

Urban Life in the Slave South

The Consequences of Slavery’s Expansion

Document 10.1 Edward Strutt Abdy, Description of Washington D.C., Slave Pen, 1833

Slave Society and Culture

Slaves Fuel the Southern Economy

Developing an African American Culture

Resistance and Rebellion

Planters Tighten Control

Harsher Treatment for Southern Blacks

Documents 10.2 and 10.3 Debating Slavery: Two Views

White Southerners without Slaves

Planters Seek to Unify Southern Whites

Democrats Face Political and Economic Crises

Continued Conflicts over Indian Lands

Document 10.4 Petition of the Women’s Councils to the Cherokee National Council, 1831

The Battle for Texas

Van Buren and the Panic of 1837

The Whigs Gain the White House

Document 10.5 William Henry Harrison Campaign Poster, 1840

The National Government Looks to the West

Expanding to Oregon and Texas

Pursuing War with Mexico

Debates over Slavery Intensify

Conclusion: Geographical Expansion and Political Division

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 10 Claiming Texas

Document 10.6 Mary Austin Holley, Letter to Charles Austin, 1831

Document 10.7 Colonel Gregorio Gomez, Call to Arms against the Texans, 1835

Document 10.8 Colonel William Travis, Appeal for Reinforcements, March 3, 1836

Document 10.9 Benjamin Lundy, The War in Texas, 1836

Document 10.10 Southerners Support Texas Settlers, 1837

Document 10.11 Treaty of Tehuacana Creek, October 9, 1844

11 Social and Cultural Ferment in the North, 1820–1850

American Histories: Charles Grandison Finney and Amy Post

The Growth of Cities

The Lure of Urban Life

The Roots of Urban Disorder

The New Middle Class

The Rise of Industry

Factory Towns and Women Workers

Documents 11.1 and 11.2 Life in the Mills: Two Views

Deskilling and the Response of Working Men

The Panic of 1837 in the North

Rising Class and Cultural Tensions

Document 11.3 Samuel F. B. Morse, The Dangers of Foreign Immigration, 1835

Saving the Nation from Sin

The Second Great Awakening

New Spirits Rising


Organizing for Change

Varieties of Reform

The Temperance Movement

Document 11.4 Drunkard’s Home, 1850

Utopian Communities

Document 11.5 George Ripley, Letter to Ralph Waldo Emerson, November 9, 1840

Abolitionism Expands and Divides

The Beginnings of the Antislavery Movement

Abolition Gains Ground and Enemies

Abolitionism and Women’s Rights

The Rise of Antislavery Parties

Conclusion: From the North to the Nation

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 11 The Second Great Awakening and Women’s Activism

Document 11.6 Charles Grandison Finney, What Revival Is, 1835

Document 11.7 Frances Trollope, Description of a Revival Meeting, 1832

Document 11.8 Elizabeth Emery and Mary P. Abbott, Letter to the Liberator, 1836

Document 11.9 Pastoral Letter to the Liberator, 1837

Document 11.10 Sarah Grimké, Response to the Pastoral Letter, 1837

12 Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises, 1848–1861

American Histories: John C. Frémont and Dred Scott

Claiming the West

Traveling the Overland Trail

Document 12.1 Elizabeth Smith Geer, Oregon Trail Diary, 1847

The Gold Rush

A Crowded Land

Expansion and the Politics of Slavery

California and the Compromise of 1850

Document 12.2 John C. Calhoun, On the Compromise of 1850, 1850

The Fugitive Slave Act Inspires Northern Protest

Pierce Encourages U.S. Expansion

Sectional Crises Intensify

Popularizing Antislavery Sentiment

Documents 12.3 and 12.4 Slavery in Literature: Two Views

The Kansas-Nebraska Act Stirs Up Dissent

Document 12.5 John Magee, Forcing Slavery down the Throat of a Freesoiler, 1856

Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856

The Dred Scott Decision

From Sectional Crisis to War

John Brown’s Raid

The Election of 1860

The Lower South Secedes

Conclusion: The Coming of the Civil War

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 12 Visions of John Brown

Document 12.6 State Register (Springfield, Illinois), The Irrepressible Conflict, 1859

Document 12.7 Henry David Thoreau, A Plea for Captain John Brown, 1859

Document 12.8 John Brown, Letter to E.B. from Jail, November 1, 1859

Document 12.9 Reverend J. Sella Martin, Day of Mourning Speech, December 2, 1859

Document 12.10 A Southern Paper Reacts to Brown’s Execution, December 3, 1859

Document 12.11 Currier and Ives, John Brown on His Way to Execution, 1863

13 Civil War, 1861–1865

American Histories: Frederick Douglass and Rose O’Neal Greenhow

The Nation Goes to War

The South Embraces Secession

Documents 13.1 and 13.2 Debating Secession in Georgia: Two Views

Both Sides Prepare for War

Fighting for Union or against Slavery?

Debating the Role of African Americans

Document 13.3 Charlotte Forten, Life on the Sea Islands, 1864

Fighting for the Right to Fight

Union Politicians Consider Emancipation

War Transforms the North and the South

Life and Death on the Battlefield

Document 13.4 Timothy H. O’Sullivan, Burial of Federal Dead, Fredericksburg, Virginia, May 1864

The Northern Economy Booms

Urbanization and Industrialization in the South

Women Aid the War Effort

Dissent and Protest in the Midst of War

The Tide of War Turns

Key Victories for the Union

African Americans Contribute to Victory

The Final Battles and the Promise of Peace

Document 13.5 Eleanor Cohen Seixas, Journal Entry, February 1865

Conclusion: An Uncertain Future

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 13 Civil War Letters

Document 13.6 Fred Spooner, Letter to His Brother Henry, April 30, 1861

Document 13.7 John Hines, Letter to His Parents, April 22, 1862

Document 13.8 Ginnie Ott, Letter to Enos Ott, November 21, 1864

Document 13.9 Katharine Prescott Wormeley, Letter to Her Mother, May 26, 1862

Document 13.10 Thomas Freeman, Letter to His Brother-in-Law, March 26, 1864

14 Emancipations and Reconstructions, 1863–1877

American Histories: Jefferson Long and Andrew Johnson

Prelude to Reconstruction

African Americans Embrace Emancipation

Reuniting Families Torn Apart by Slavery

Free to Learn

Black Churches Take a Leadership Role

National Reconstructions

Abraham Lincoln Plans for Reunion

Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction

Johnson and Congressional Resistance

Documents 14.1 and 14.2 Debating the Freedmen’s Bureau: Two Views

Congressional Reconstruction

The Struggle for Universal Suffrage

Document 14.3 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, On Suffrage, 1869

Remaking the South

Whites Reconstruct the South

Black Political Participation and Economic Opportunities

Document 14.4 Sharecropping Agreement, 1870

White Resistance to Congressional Reconstruction

The Unmaking of Reconstruction

The Republican Retreat

Congressional and Judicial Retreat

The Presidential Compromise of 1876

Conclusion: The Legacies of Reconstruction

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 14 Testing and Contesting Freedom

Document 14.5 Mississippi Black Code, 1865

Document 14.6 Richard H. Cain, Federal Aid for Land Purchase, 1868

Document 14.7 Ellen Parton, Testimony on Klan Violence, 1871

Document 14.8 The Force Act, 1871

Document 14.9, Thomas Nast, Colored Rule in a Reconstructed (?) State, 1874

Document 14.10 What the Centennial Ought to Accomplish, 1875

15 Frontier Encounters, 1865–1896

American Histories: Annie Oakley and Geronimo

Opening the West

The Great Plains

Federal Policy and Foreign Investment

Conquest of the Frontier

Indian Civilizations

Changing Federal Policy toward Indians

Indian Defeat

Reforming Indian Policy

Indian Assimilation and Resistance

The Mining Frontier

The Business of Mining

Document 15.1 Granville Stuart, Gold Rush Days, 1925

Life in the Mining Towns

Ranching and Farming Frontiers

The Life of the Cowboy

Documents 15.2 and 15.3 Cowboy Myths and Realities: Two Views

Farmers Head West

Women Homesteaders

Document 15.4 Gro Svendson, Letter from a Homesteader, 1863

The Economy of Farming on the Great Plains

Pushing Farther West

Mormons Head West


Document 15.5 White Caps Flier, 1890

The Chinese in the Far West

Conclusion: The Ambiguous Legacy of the Frontier

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 15 American Indians and Whites on the Frontier

Document 15.6 James Michael Cavanaugh, Support for Indian Extermination, 1868

Document 15.7 Thomas Nast, "Patience until the Indian Is Civilized—So to Speak," 1878

Document 15.8 Helen Hunt Jackson, Challenges to Indian Policy, 1881

Document 15.9 Zitkala-Ša, Life at an Indian Boarding School, 1921

Document 15.10 Chief Joseph, Views on Indian Affairs, 1879

16 American Industry in the Age of Organization, 1877–1900

American Histories: Andrew Carnegie and John Sherman

America Industrializes

The New Industrial Economy

Innovation and Inventions

Building a New South

Industrial Consolidation

The Growth of Corporations

Document 16.1 Horace Taylor, What a Funny Little Government, 1900

Free Markets and Rugged Individuals

The Doctrine of Success

Challenges to Laissez-Faire

Society and Culture in the Gilded Age

Wealthy and Middle-Class Pleasures

Document 16.2 The Delineator, 1900

Changing Gender Roles

Black America and Jim Crow

National Politics in the Era of Industrialization

Why Great Men Did Not Become President

Documents 16.3 and 16.4 The Making of a Great President: Two Views

Congressional Inaction

An Energized and Entertained Electorate

Conclusion: Industry in the Age of Organization

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 16 Debates about Laissez-Faire

Document 16.5 William Graham Sumner, A Defense of Laissez-Faire, 1883

Document 16.6 Edward Bellamy Looking Backward, 2000–1887, 1887

Document 16.7 Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth, 1889

Document 16.8 Henry Demarest Lloyd, Critique of Wealth, 1894

17 Workers and Farmers in the Age of Organization, 1877–1900

American Histories: John McLuckie and Mary Elizabeth Lease

Working People Organize

The Industrialization of Labor

Document 17.1 John Morrison, Testimony on the Impact of Mechanization, 1883

Organizing Unions

Clashes between Workers and Owners

Document 17.2 Emma Goldman, Reflections on the Homestead Strike, 1931

Working-Class Leisure in Industrial America

Farmers Organize

Farmers Unite

Populists Rise Up

Documents 17.3 and 17.4 Farmers and Workers Organize: Two Views

The Depression of the 1890s

Depression Politics

Document 17.5 Walter Huston, "Here Lies Prosperity," 1895

Political Realignment in the Election of 1896

The Decline of the Populists

Conclusion: A Passion for Organization

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 17 The Pullman Strike of 1894

Document 17.6 George Pullman, Testimony before the U.S. Strike Commission, 1894

Document 17.7 Eugene V. Debs, On Radicalism, 1902

Document 17.8 Jennie Curtis, Testimony before the U.S. Strike Commission, 1894

Document 17.9 Report from the Commission to Investigate the Chicago Strike, 1895

Document 17.10 Grover Cleveland, Reflections on the Pullman Strike, 1904

18 Cities, Immigrants, and the Nation, 1880–1914

American Histories: Beryl Lassin and Maria Vik

A New Wave of Immigrants

Immigrants Arrive from Many Lands

Creating Immigrant Communities

Document 18.1 Anzia Yerzierska, Immigrant Fathers and Daughters, 1925

Hostility toward Recent Immigrants

Document 18.2 The Stranger at Our Gate, 1899

The Assimilation Dilemma

Becoming an Urban Nation

The New Industrial City

Cities Expand Outward and Upward

How the Other Half Lived

Document 18.3 Rose Schneiderman, The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911

Urban Politics at the Turn of the Century

Political Machines and City Bosses

Documents 18.4 and 18.5 Muckrakers and Political Machines: Two Views

Urban Reformers

Conclusion: A Nation of Cities

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 18 "Melting Pot" or "Vegetable Soup"?

Document 18.6 Israel Zangwill, The Melting Pot, 1908

Document 18.7 "Be Just—Even to John Chinaman," 1893

Document 18.8 Alfred P. Schultz, The Mongrelization of America, 1908

Document 18.9 Randolph S. Bourne, Trans-national America, 1916

Document 18.10 Jacob Riis, The Color Line in New York, 1891

19 Progressivism and the Search for Order, 1900–1917

American Histories: Gifford Pinchot and Gene Stratton-Porter

The Roots of Progressivism

Progressive Origins


Humanitarian Reform

Female Progressives and the Poor

Document 19.1 Jane Addams, Civic Housekeeping, 1910

Fighting for Women’s Suffrage

Document 19.2 Nannie Helen Burroughs, Suffrage for Black Women, 1915

Progressivism and African Americans

Documents 19.3 and 19.4 Addressing Inequality: Two Views

Morality and Social Control


The Crusade against Vice

Immigration Restriction

Good Government Progressivism

Municipal and State Reform

Conservation and Preservation of the Environment

Presidential Progressivism

Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

Taft Retreats from Progressivism

The Election of 1912 and the Progressive Mandate

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Agenda

Conclusion: The Progressive Legacy

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 19 Progressivism and Social Control

Document 19.5 Frances Willard, On Behalf of Home Protection, 1884

Document 19.6 Abstinence Poster, 1919

Document 19.7 Indiana Sterilization Law, 1907

Document 19.8 The Immigration Act of 1917

Document 19.9 "Sanitary Precaution," c. 1914

20 Empire and Wars, 1898–1918

American Histories: Alfred Thayer Mahan and José Martí

The Awakening of Imperialism

The Economics of Expansion

Cultural Justifications for Imperialism

Gender and Empire

Document 20.1 Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man’s Burden," 1899

The War with Spain

Cuba Libre

The War of 1898

A Not-So-Free Cuba

The Philippine War

Extending U.S. Imperialism, 1899–1913

Theodore Roosevelt and "Big Stick" Diplomacy

Document 20.2 Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life, 1899

Opening the Door in China

Wilson and American Foreign Policy, 1912–1917

Diplomacy and War

Making the World Safe for Democracy

Document 20.3 Robert La Follette, Antiwar Speech, 1917

Fighting the War at Home

Government by Commission

Winning Hearts and Minds

Documents 20.4 and 20.5 African Americans and the War: Two Views

Waging Peace

The Failure of Ratification

Conclusion: An American Empire

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 20 Imperialism versus Anti-Imperialism

Document 20.6 The Hawaiian Memorial, 1897

Document 20.7 Albert Beveridge, The March of the Flag, 1898

Document 20.8 "There’s Plenty of Room at the Table," 1906

Document 20.9 Anti-Imperialism Letter, 1899

Document 20.10 "Civilization Begins at Home," 1898

21 An Anxious Affluence, 1919–1929

American Histories: D. C. Stephenson and Ossian Sweet

Postwar Turmoil

The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties

The Red Scare, 1919–1920

Racial Violence in the Postwar Era

People of Plenty

Government Promotion of the Economy

Americans Become Consumers

Document 21.1 General Electric Refrigerator Advertisement, 1928

Perilous Prosperity

Challenges to Social Conventions

Breaking with the Old Morality

The African American Renaissance

Document 21.2 Claude McKay, If We Must Die, 1919

Marcus Garvey and Black Nationalism

Culture Wars

Nativists versus Immigrants

Resurrection of the Ku Klux Klan

Documents 21.3 and 21.4 Men and Women of the KKK: Two Views

Fundamentalism versus Modernism

Politics and the Fading of Prosperity

The Battle for the Soul of the Democratic Party

Where Have All the Progressives Gone?

Financial Crash

Conclusion: The Roaring Twenties

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 21 The Abrams Case and the Red Scare

Document 21.5 Mollie Steimer, Trial Testimony, 1918

Document 21.6 "Workers—Wake Up!!," 1917

Document 21.7 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Abrams v. United States Dissent, 1919

Document 21.8 Zechariah Chafee Jr., Freedom of Speech in Wartime, 1919

Document 21.9 Billy Ireland, "We Can’t Digest the Scum," 1919

Document 21.10 A. Mitchell Palmer, The Case against the Reds, 1920

22 Depression, Dissent, and the New Deal, 1929–1940

American Histories: Eleanor Roosevelt and Luisa Moreno

The Great Depression

Hoover Faces the Depression

Hoovervilles and Dust Storms

Challenges for Minorities

Document 21.1 Andy Wright, Plea from One of the Scottsboro Nine, 1937

Families under Strain

The Season of Discontent

The New Deal

Roosevelt Restores Confidence

Steps toward Recovery

Direct Assistance and Relief

Document 22.2 Minnie Hardin, Letter to Eleanor Roosevelt, 1937

New Deal Critics

The New Deal Moves to the Left

Expanding Relief Measures

Establishing Social Security

Organized Labor Strikes Back

A Half Deal for Minorities

Twilight of the New Deal

Documents 22.3 and 22.4 Packing the Supreme Court: Two Views

Conclusion: New Deal Liberalism

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 22 The Depression in Rural America

Document 22.5 Ann Marie Low, Dust Bowl Diary, 1934

Document 22.6 The Life of a White Sharecropper, 1938

Document 22.7 Sharecropping Family in Washington County, Arkansas, 1935

Document 22.8 John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies, 1936

Document 22.9 Frank Stokes, Let the Mexicans Organize, 1936

Document 22.10 Report of the Great Plains Committee, 1937

23 World War II, 1933–1945

American Histories: J. Robert Oppenheimer and Fred Korematsu

The Road toward War

The Growing Crisis in Europe

The Challenge to Isolationism

The United States Enters the War

Documents 23.1 and 23.2 American Reactions to Pearl Harbor: Two Views

Global War

War in Europe

War in the Pacific

Ending the War

Evidence of the Holocaust

The Home-Front Economy

Managing the Wartime Economy

New Opportunities for Women

Documents 23.3 and 23.4 Women Workers during Wartime: Two Views

Everyday Life on the Home Front

Fighting for Equality at Home

The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement

Document 23.5 Letter from Black Soldiers, 1943

Struggles for Mexican Americans

The Ordeal of Japanese Americans

Conclusion: The Impact of World War II

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 23 The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb

Document 23.6 Recommendations on the Immediate Use of Nuclear Weapons, June 16, 1945

Document 23.7 Petition to the President of the United States, July 17, 1945

Document 23.8 President Harry S. Truman, Press Release on the Atomic Bomb, August 6, 1945

Document 23.9 Hiroshima, August 6, 1945

Document 23.10 U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1946

Document 23.11 Father Johannes Siemes, Eyewitness Account of the Hiroshima Bombing, 1945

24 The Opening of the Cold War, 1945–1954

American Histories: George Kennan and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

The Origins of the Cold War, 1945–1947

Mutual Misunderstandings

Documents 24.1 and 24.2 Reactions to Soviet Policy in Europe: Two Views

The Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan and Economic Containment

Document 24.3 Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet Objections to the Marshall Plan, 1947

The Cold War Hardens, 1948–1952

Military Containment

The Korean War

Document 24.4 Helen Stevenson, Letter from Korea, 1951

The War and the Imperial Presidency

Peacetime Challenges, 1945–1948

Coming Home

Economic Conversion and Labor Discontent

The Postwar Civil Rights Struggle

Document 24.5 To Secure These Rights, 1947

The Election of 1948

The Anti-Communist Consensus, 1945–1954

Loyalty and Americanism


Conclusion: The Cold War and Anticommunism

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 24 McCarthyism and the Hollywood Ten

Document 24.6 Ronald Reagan, Testimony before HUAC, 1947

Document 24.7 John Howard Lawson, Testimony before HUAC, 1947

Document 24.8 Herblock, "Fire!," 1949

Document 24.9 Lillian Hellman, Letter to HUAC, 1952

Document 24.10 Arthur Miller, Reflections on HUAC, 2000

25 Troubled Innocence, 1950–1961

American Histories: Alan Freed and Grace Metalious

The Boom Years

Economic Boom

Baby Boom

Suburban Boom

Documents 25.1 and 25.2 Living the Suburban Dream: Two Views

The Culture of the 1950s

The Rise of Television

Wild Ones on the Big Screen

The Influence of Teenage Culture

The Lives of Women

Religious Revival

Document 25.3 Billy Graham, What’s Wrong with Our World?, 1958

Beats and Other Nonconformists

The Civil Rights Movement

School Segregation and the Supreme Court

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

White Resistance to Desegregation

The Sit-Ins

Document 25.4 Ella Baker, Bigger than a Hamburger, 1960

The Eisenhower Era

Modern Republicanism

Eisenhower and the Cold War

Cold War Interventions

Early U.S. Intervention in Vietnam

The Election of 1960

Conclusion: Cold War Politics and Culture

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 25 Teenagers in Postwar America

Document 25.5 Dick Clark, Your Happiest Years, 1959

Document 25.6 Richard Gehman, The Nine Billion Dollars in Hot Little Hands, 1957

Document 25.7 Chevrolet Advertisement, 1954

Document 25.8 Charlotte Jones, Letter on Elvis, 1957

Document 25.9 Todd Gitlin, Reflections on the 1950s, 1987

Document 25.10 The Desegregation of Central High School, 1957

26 The Liberal Consensus and Its Challengers, 1960–1973

American Histories: Earl Warren and Bayard Rustin

The Politics of Liberalism

Kennedy’s New Frontier

Document 26.1 Edmund Valtman, The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962

Containment in Southeast Asia

Johnson Escalates the War in Vietnam

Document 26.2 George Olsen, Letter Home from Vietnam, 1969

Civil Rights

Freedom Rides

The Government Responds on Civil Rights

Freedom Summer and Voting Rights

Reforming the Social Order

The Great Society

The Warren Court

Challenges to the Liberal Center

Movements on the Left

Women’s Liberation

Power to the People

Document 26.3 Chicano Student Movement of Aztlán, 1969

The Revival of Conservatism

Documents 26.4 and 26.5 Liberalism and Conservatism: Two Views

Conclusion: Liberalism and Its Discontents

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 26 Freedom Summer

Document 26.6 Prospectus for Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964

Document 26.7 Nancy Ellin, Letter Describing Freedom Summer, 1964

Document 26.8 Letter from a Freedom Summer Volunteer, 1964

Document 26.9 White Southerners Respond to Freedom Summer, 1964

Document 26.10 Fannie Lou Hamer, Address to the Democratic National Convention Credentials Committee, 1964

Document 26.11 Lyndon B. Johnson, Monitoring the MFDP Challenge, 1964

27 The Conservative Ascendancy, 1968–1992

American Histories: Allan Bakke and Anita Hill

Richard M. Nixon, War, and Politics, 1969–1974

The Election of President Nixon

The Failure of Vietnamization

Cold War Realism and Détente

Pragmatic Conservatism at Home

The Nixon Landslide and Disgrace, 1972–1974

The Challenges of the 1970s

Jimmy Carter and the Limits of Affluence

The Persistence of Liberalism

Document 27.1 Combahee River Collective, Black Feminist Statement, 1977

Racial Struggles Continue

The Conservative Political Ascendancy

The New Right Revival

Document 27.2 Jerry Falwell, We Must Return to Traditional Religious Values, 1980

The Triumph of Ronald Reagan

Documents 27.3 and 27.4 Morning in America: Two Views

The Implementation of Social Conservatism

The George H.W. Bush Presidency

Conclusion: The Conservative Legacy

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 27 The Affirmative Action Debate

Document 27.5 Lyndon B. Johnson, Freedom Is Not Enough, 1965

Document 27.6 Title IX of the Education Amendments Regulations, 1975

Document 27.7 Nathan Glazer, Affirmative Discrimination, 1975

Document 27.8 Lewis Powell, Opinion in Bakke Case, 1978

Document 27.9 Nell Irvin Painter, Whites Say I Must Be on Easy Street, 1981

Document 27.10 Bob Dole, Call to End Affirmative Action, 1995

28 Ending the Cold War, 1977–1991

American Histories: George Shultz and Barbara Deming

Carter’s Diplomacy, 1977–1980

The Perils of Détente

Challenges in the Middle East

Document 28.1 Robert Ode, Iran Hostage Diary, 1979–1980

Reagan’s Cold War Policy, 1981–1988

"The Evil Empire"

Human Rights and the Fight against Communism

Fighting International Terrorism

The Nuclear Freeze Movement

Documents 28.2 and 28.3 The Nuclear Freeze Movement: Two Views

The Road to Nuclear De-escalation

The Fall of the Iron Curtain

The Breakup of the Soviet Union

Document 28.4 Mikhail Gorbachev, Speech to the United Nations, 1988

Globalization and the New World Order

Managing Conflict after the Cold War

Conclusion: Farewell to the Cold War

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 28 The Iran-Contra Scandal

Document 28.5 The Boland Amendment, 1982

Document 28.6 CIA Freedom Fighters’ Manual, 1983

Document 28.7 Tower Commission Report, 1987

Document 28.8 Ronald Reagan, Speech on Iran-Contra, 1987

Document 28.9 Oliver North, Testimony to Congress, July 1987

Document 28.10 George Mitchell, Response to Oliver North, 1987

29 The Challenges of a New Century, 1993 to the present

American Histories: Bill Gates and Kristen Breitweiser

Transforming American Society

The Computer Revolution

Business Consolidation

Document 29.1 Bo Yee, The New American Sweatshop, 1994

The Changing American Population

Politics at the End of the Twentieth Century

The Clinton Presidency

Global Challenges and Economic Renewal

The New Millennium

George W. Bush and Compassionate Conservatism

The United States at War

Document 29.2 Farnaz Fassihi, Report from Baghdad, 2004

The Decline of the Bush Presidency

Challenges Ahead

The Great Recession

The Rise of Barack Obama

Documents 29.3 and Documents 29.4 The Great Recession: Two Views

An Unfinished Agenda

Conclusion: Technology and Terror in a Global Society

Chapter Review — LearningCurve

Document Project 29 The Uses of September 11

Document 29.5 George W. Bush, The Axis of Evil, 2002

Document 29.6 Diana Hoffman, "The Power of Freedom," 2002

Document 29.7 Daniel Harris, The Kitschification of September 11, 2002

Document 29.8 Khaled Abou El Fadl, Response to September 11, 2001

Document 29.9 Anti-Muslim Discrimination, 2011

Document 29.10 Brian Gallagher, Hundred-Mile Marine, 2012


Glossary of Key Terms



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