Managing Public Sector Projects: A Strategic Framework for Success in an Era of Downsized Government

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-03-17
  • Publisher: Routledge
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In line with the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) and of the PMBOK ┬« (Project Management Body of Knowledge), Kassel establishes a framework that managers in the public sector can follow to bring projects to successful conclusions. The book clearly explains both technical concepts and political issues, from properly allocating risks in drafting contracts to dealing with downsized staffs and privatized functions and operations. The concepts are illustrated by more than 30 real-life examples, from infrastructure reconstruction in Iraq to the Big Dig in Boston.Ń

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xix
Introductionp. xxi
Acknowledgmentsp. xxvii
Introducing Public Sector Project Managementp. 1
Public Sector Project Management-Getting beyond the Confusionp. 2
What Are Public Projects?p. 2
Journalists' Questionsp. 3
What Is Public Sector Project Management?p. 5
The Project Visionp. 5
Financing Public Projectsp. 6
Project versus Program and General Managementp. 7
Who Are the Public Sector Project Managers?p. 8
Types of Public Sector Project Managersp. 9
Skills, Attributes, and Requirements of Public Sector Project Managersp. 11
Continuity and Change in Public Sector Project Managementp. 11
Leadership and Managerial Competenciesp. 11
Ethics and Internal Controlsp. 13
Rules and Regulationsp. 14
Downsized Government and ˘the Hollow State÷p. 15
Bashing the Bureaucracyp. 16
Managerial and Political Pushbackp. 16
Political Ideologyp. 17
How Public Projects Succeed and Failp. 18
Endnotesp. 19
A Strategic Framework for Public Sector Project Managementp. 23
The Framework and the Principal-Agent Challengep. 25
Starting with the Right Planp. 25
Selecting the Right Agentsp. 27
Selecting the Most Experienced and Motivated Agentsp. 28
Entering into the Right Agreementsp. 29
Allocating Contract Riskp. 30
Contracts and Asymmetry of Informationp. 33
Monitoring and Controlling the Project Executionp. 33
Ensuring Adequate Information about the Project Workp. 34
Enforcing Appropriate Agreementsp. 35
Maintaining Active Involvement in the Operation and Maintenance of the Asset or Assets Created by the Projectp. 36
Placing the Strategic Management Framework in Contextp. 37
Endnotesp. 38
Project Planning, Part 1: Getting the Concept Rightp. 41
Getting It Right: The Preliminary Steps of Public Sector Project Planningp. 43
Identifying the Correct Problemp. 45
Questioning Presumptionsp. 47
Understanding the Project Context and Stakeholdersp. 51
Understanding and Complying with Legal Requirementsp. 52
Developing Realistic Preliminary Project Cost Estimatesp. 56
Analogy-Based and Parametric Cost Estimatingp. 57
Life-Cycle and Independent Cost Estimatesp. 58
Concluding the Preliminary Project Planning Phase with a Feasibility Studyp. 59
Endnotesp. 61
Project Planning, Part 2: Developing and Refining the Processp. 65
The Project Accountability Structurep. 66
Establishing the Right Project Internal Control Structurep. 66
The GAO's Five Standards for Internal Controlsp. 67
Control Environmentp. 67
Risk Assessmentp. 67
Control Activitiesp. 68
Control Activities Specific for Information Systemsp. 68
Information and Communicationsp. 68
Monitoringp. 69
Project Documentationp. 69
Preventing Fraud in Public Projectsp. 74
Developing Clear Project Specificationsp. 75
Specifications and Alternative Project Delivery Methodsp. 78
Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Contractsp. 80
Performance versus Design Specificationsp. 82
Concluding the Intermediate Planning Stagep. 84
Endnotesp. 85
Project Planning, Part 3: Finalizing the Processp. 89
Developing the Project Schedulep. 89
Owner's Schedule in a Design-Bid-Build Public Construction Projectp. 91
Scheduling the Project Workp. 95
The Work Breakdown Structurep. 95
Development of a Logic Diagramp. 97
Determination of the Schedule's ˘Critical Path÷p. 98
Putting It All Together: The Importance of Realistic Schedulingp. 100
Refining Project Cost and Risk Estimatesp. 100
Refining the Cost Estimatep. 101
Refining Risk Assessmentsp. 102
Technology Risksp. 103
Brainstorming and Sensitivity Analysis in Assessing Risksp. 104
Putting It All Together: Developing Realistic Presumptions behind Cost and Risk Estimatesp. 105
Questioning Presumptionsp. 106
Moving from a Realistic Cost Estimate to an Affordable Project Budgetp. 107
Presenting Cost Estimates and Budgets to Project Stakeholdersp. 108
Pulling Together the Planning Stepsp. 109
Endnotesp. 112
Selecting the Best Agents, Part 1: Building the Project Teamp. 115
Who Is on the Project Management Team?p. 116
What Are the Team Dynamics?p. 116
Establishing a Cohesive and Committed Teamp. 117
Ensuring That Team Personnel Are Qualifiedp. 121
The Need for Clear Lines of Authority and Communicationp. 123
Maintaining Clear Lines of Authority When Using Contractorsp. 123
Ensuring an Appropriate Managerial Accountability Structurep. 126
Coaching the Team on Legal Requirements and Ethical Practicesp. 130
Motivating the Project Teamp. 131
Endnotesp. 134
Selecting the Best Agent, Part 2: Contractors and Consultantsp. 137
Procuring Contractors and Consultantsp. 138
Public Sector Procurement Rulesp. 138
Key Characteristics of a Successful Procurement Systemp. 139
Transparencyp. 140
Accountabilityp. 141
Integrityp. 143
Competitionp. 146
Barriers to Competition in Long-Term Contractingp. 149
Proprietary Specificationsp. 151
Organizational Alignment and Leadershipp. 151
Human Capital Managementp. 152
Knowledge and Information Managementp. 152
Due Diligence in Selecting Contractors and Consultantsp. 154
Selecting the Best Agents: Putting It All Togetherp. 154
Endnotesp. 155
Enacting Advantageous Agreementsp. 159
The Essential Elements of Contractsp. 160
Allocating Contract Risksp. 160
The Contract Pricing Structurep. 161
Firm-Fixed-Price Contractsp. 162
Fixed-Price Incentive Contractsp. 162
Cost-Reimbursement Contractsp. 163
Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee Contractsp. 163
Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee and Cost-Plus-Award-Fee Contractsp. 164
Getting the Incentives Rightp. 164
Cost-Plus-a-Percentage-of-Cost Contractsp. 166
The Contract Pricing Structure and Project Planningp. 166
Contract Provisions and Project Riskp. 168
Implied Warranties and Dutiesp. 171
Express Contractual Guarantees and Warrantiesp. 172
Breach-or-Contract Provisionsp. 174
Clear Scopes of Workp. 174
Endnotesp. 176
Controlling Public Projectsp. 179
Measuring Project Progressp. 179
Updating Project Recordsp. 181
Analyzing the Project Data Using Earned Value Managementp. 183
Evaluating and Correcting Project Problemsp. 187
Focusing on Quality in Projectsp. 188
Controlling Cost Growth and Cost Overrunsp. 190
Enforcing Agreementsp. 193
Partnering and Change Ordersp. 195
Keeping Stakeholders Informed of the Project's Progressp. 195
Endnotesp. 196
Project Closeout and Beyondp. 199
Final Steps in the Closeout Processp. 200
Evaluating the Contractorp. 200
Publicizing the Completed Projectp. 201
The Project or Program Operational Stagep. 201
Maintaining Public Projects over the Long Termp. 203
Conclusionp. 207
Endnotesp. 208
Discussion Examples Used in This Bookp. 211
Master List of Tips for Success for Public Sector Project Managersp. 215
Project Planning: Getting the Concept Rightp. 215
Correctly identifying the problemp. 215
Questioning presumptionsp. 216
Understanding the project context and stakeholdersp. 216
Developing realistic preliminary project cost and risk estimatesp. 216
Developing and Refining Project Planning (internal controls and project specifications)p. 217
Establishing the right project internal control structurep. 217
Two important project control activitiesp. 217
Developing clear project specificationsp. 217
Specifications and alternative project delivery methodsp. 218
Performance versus design specificationsp. 218
Finalizing Project Planning (schedule and cost estimation)p. 218
Developing the project schedulep. 218
Scheduling the project workp. 219
Refining the cost estimatep. 219
Refining risk assessmentsp. 219
Developing realistic presumptions behind cost and risk estimatesp. 220
Building the Project Teamp. 220
Establishing a committed and cohesive teamp. 220
Ensuring the team personnel are qualifiedp. 220
The need for clear lines of authority and communicationp. 221
Ensuring an appropriate managerial accountability systemp. 221
Coaching the project team on legal requirements and ethical practicesp. 221
Motivating the project teamp. 222
Procuring Contractors and Consultantsp. 222
Successful public procurement characteristic: Transparencyp. 222
Successful public procurement characteristic: Accountabilityp. 222
Successful public procurement characteristic: Integrityp. 223
Successful public procurement characteristic: Competitionp. 223
Successful public procurement characteristic: Knowledge and information managementp. 223
Successful procurement characteristic: Due diligence in selecting contractors and consultantsp. 224
Enacting Advantageous Agreementsp. 224
The contract pricing structurep. 224
Contract provisions and project riskp. 224
Clear scopes of workp. 225
Controlling Public Projectsp. 225
Measuring project progressp. 225
Updating project recordsp. 225
Analyzing the project datap. 225
Evaluating and correcting project problemsp. 226
Focusing on quality in projectsp. 226
Controlling cost growth and cost overrunsp. 226
Project Closeout and Beyondp. 227
Final steps in the closeout processp. 227
The project or program operational stagep. 227
Maintaining public projects over the long termp. 227
Websites of Interest to Public Sector Project Managersp. 229
American Academy of Certified Public Managersp. 229
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)p. 229
American Management Associationp. 230
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)p. 230
American Public Works Associationp. 230
American Society for Qualityp. 230
The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE International)p. 230
Building Design and Constructionp. 230
Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO)p. 231
Construction Management Association of Americap. 231
The Construction Specifications Institutep. 231
Defense Contract Audit Agencyp. 231
Defense Contract Management Agencyp. 231
Federal Acquisition Institutep. 231
Federal Acquisition Regulation Homepagep. 232
Federal Business Opportunitiesp. 232
International Cost Engineering Councilp. 232
The International Council on Systems Engineeringp. 232
The International Journal of Project Managementp. 232
The National Center for Public Productivityp. 232
The National Certified Public Manager Consortiump. 233
Past Performance Information Retrieval Systemp. 233
Project Management Institutep. 233
The Public Managerp. 233
Public Works Management and Policyp. 233
R.S. Meansp. 233
The Society of Cost Estimating and Analysisp. 234
The United States Government Accountability Officep. 234
The University of Wisconsin Certified Public Manager Programp. 234
Referencesp. 235
Indexp. 245
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