9780190625276

Marine Biology Function, Biodiversity, Ecology

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190625276

  • ISBN10:

    0190625279

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-07-14
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

With its clear and conversational writing style, comprehensive coverage, and sophisticated presentation, Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, Fifth Edition, is regarded by many as the most authoritative marine biology text. Over the course of five editions, Jeffrey Levinton has balanced his organismal and ecological focus by including the latest developments on molecular biology, global climate change, and ocean processes.

Author Biography


Jeffrey S. Levinton is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University.

Table of Contents


PREFACE

PRINCIPLES OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE ECOLOGY

CHAPTER 1: Sounding the Deep
Marine Biology as a Discipline
Historical Background of Marine Biology
Observation and Hypothesis Testing
Habitats and Life Habits: Some Definitions
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 2: The Oceanic Environment
The Open Oceans and Marginal Seas
Topography and Structure of the Ocean Floor
The Ocean Above the Seabed
Circulation in the Open Sea: Patterns and Causes
Seawater Density and Vertical Ocean Circulation
The Edge of the Sea
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 3: Climate Oscillations and Climate Change
Climate change: Oscillations and Long-Term Trends
Climate Oscillations
Going Deeper 3.1 The Triple Key to Ocean Climate Understanding
The Greenhouse Effect and Changing Ocean Climate
Effects of Climate Change on Sea Level, Circulation, Ocean Chemistry and Biological Factors
Going Deeper 3.2 Solubility
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 4: Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology
Ecological Interactions
The Ecological Hierarchy
Interactions on the Scale of Individuals
The Population Level
The Community Level: Structure and Interspecies Interactions
The Ecosystem Level
Species, Genetic Variation, Evolution, and Biogeography
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

MARINE ORGANISMS: FUNCTION AND ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER 5: The Chemical and Physical Environment
Measures of Physiological Performance
Temperature
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 5.1 Keeping Your Legs Warm: A Sea Turtle Tale
Salinity
Oxygen
Going Deeper 5.1 Quantifying the Relationship Between Body Size and Oxygen Consumption Rate
Light
Hot Topics in Marine Biology 5.2: Crystal Eyes, Past and Present
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 6: Life in a Fluid Medium
Introduction
Density, Viscosity, and Reynolds Number
Going Deeper 6.1 Is Seawater Always Seawater? A Tale from the Regions of Intermediate Reynolds Number
Moving Water
Water Moving over Surfaces and Obstructions, Such as Organisms
Using Water Motion for Biological Advantage
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 7: Reproduction, Dispersal, and Migration
Ecological and Evolutionary Factors in Sex
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 7.1 A Lover and a Fighter
Reproduction, Demography, and Life Cycles
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 7.2 Sharks Find Their Way Home
Larval Dispersal: The Long and the Short Haul
Planktonic Larvae: Getting through Major Obstacles to the Final Destination
The Macroscale: Major Separations Lead to Biogeographic Structure
Planktonic Dispersal: Why Do They Do It?
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

ORGANISMS OF THE OPEN SEA

CHAPTER 8: Plankton
Introduction and Definitions
Marine Viruses
Marine Bacteria and Archaea
Eukaryotic Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Gelatinous Zooplankton
Molecular Techniques to Identify Planktonic Microorganismal Diversity
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 9: Marine Vertebrates and Other Nekton
Cephalopods
Fish
Mammals
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 9.1 Whales and Wonder Dogs
Marine Birds
Marine Reptiles
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 10: The Open Sea: Distributions and Adaptations
Spatial Processes that Create Plankton Patches in the Open Sea
Hot Topics in Marine Biology 10.1 Blue Whale Diving: Balancing Food and Energy Needs
Movement of Nekton on Local and Ocean-Level Scales
Descending to the Depths - Organic Matter Transfer and Adaptations to Infrequent Meals and Low Light
The Big Picture: Scales of Processes in Time and Space
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE WATER COLUMN

CHAPTER 11: Processes in the Water Column
Critical Factors in Plankton Abundance
The Seasonal Pattern of Plankton Abundance
Water Column Parameters and the Spring Diatom Increase
Light
Going Deeper 11.1 The Basics of Photosynthesis
Nutrients Required by Phytoplankton
Rate of Nutrient Uptake
Harmful Algal Blooms
Phytoplankton Succession and the Paradox of Phytoplankton Coexistence
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 11.1 Angry Birds and Lost Seals: Solution of the Effects of a Mysterious Poison
The Microbial Loop: Nutrient Cycling by Viruses, Heterotrophs, and Chemoautotrophs
Zooplankton Grazing in the Sea
Going Deeper 11.2 Quantification of the Effect of Grazing
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 12: Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate Change
Productivity and Biomass
Food Webs and Food Chains
Measuring Primary Productivity
Going Deeper 12.1 How to Calculate Productivity Using the Oxygen Technique
Going Deeper 12.2 Using the Radiocarbon Technique to Estimate Productivity
Geographic Distribution of Primary Productivity
Global Climate Change and the Global Carbon Pump
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

ORGANISMS OF THE SEABED

CHAPTER 13: Benthic Microorganisms, Seaweeds, and Sea Grasses
The Big Picture: Domains of Life
Bacteria
Eukarya
Sea Grasses
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 14: The Diversity of Benthic Marine Invertebrates
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 14.1 Where Did All This Invertebrate Diversity Come From?
Kingdom Protista: Single-Celled Organisms
Phylum Porifera: Sponges, Simplest of Animals
Phylum Cnidaria: Hydrozoans, Jellyfish, Anemones, and Corals
Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms
Phylum Nemertea: Ribbon Worms
Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms
Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms
Phylum Sipuncula: Peanut Worms
Phylum Pogonophora: Gutless Wonders
Phylum Mollusca: Shelled Invertebrates (Mostly)
Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed Appendages
The Lophophorate Phyla
Phylum Bryozoa: Moss Animals
Phylum Brachiopoda: Lingulas and Lampshells
Phylum Phoronida: Wormlike Animals with a Lophophore
Phylum Echinodermata: Animals with Fivefold Symmetry
Phylum Chordata: The Sea Squirts
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 15: Benthic Life Habits
Introduction
Life in Mud and Sand
Going Deeper 15.1 Measuring Grain Size of Sediments
Deposit Feeding in Soft Sediments
Suspension Feeding
Benthic Carnivores
Benthic Herbivores
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

COASTAL BENTHIC ENVRIONMENTS

CHAPTER 16: The Tidelands: Rocky Shores, Soft-Substratum Shores, Marshes, Mangroves, Estuaries, and Oyster Reefs
Rocky Shores and Exposed Beaches
Soft-Sediment Interactions in Protected Intertidal Areas
Invasions and the Reorganization of Intertidal Communities
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 16.1 Seastar Catastrophe: Disease, Its Spread and Its Diagnosis
Spartina Salt Marshes
Mangrove Forests
Estuaries
Oyster Reefs
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 17: The Shallow Coastal Subtidal: Sea Grass Beds, Rocky Reefs, Kelp Forests, and Coral Reefs
Sea Grass Beds
The Rocky Reef-Kelp Forest System
Subtidal Rocky Reefs
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 17.1 Reorganization of a Rocky Subtidal Ecosystem: A Cod and Lobster Tale
Kelp Forests
Coral Reefs
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

FROM THE SHELF TO THE DEEP SEA

CHAPTER 18: Benthos from the Continental Shelf to the Deep Sea
The Subtidal Landscape
Sampling the Subtidal Soft-Bottom Benthos
Sediment Type and Benthic Distribution
The Deep-Sea Gradient
The Shelf-Deep-Sea Gradient
Deep-Sea Island Hotspots of High Diversity
Pressure Change
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 19: Polar Marine Biology
Introduction
Arctic Marine Systems
Antarctic Marine Systems
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 20: Biodiversity and Conservation of the Ocean
Diversity, Speciation, Extinction, and Biogeographic Factors
Major Gradients of Species Diversity
Going Deeper 20.1 Measuring Biodiversity in Terms of Species Number and Relative Distribution
Explanations of Regional Diversity Differences
Conserving Marine Biodiversity
Marine Invasions
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

HUMAN IMPACT ON THE SEA

CHAPTER 21: Fisheries and Food from the Sea
The Fishery Stock and Its Variability
Stocks and Markers
Fishing Techniques and Their Effects
Life History and Stock Size
Stock Health and Production
Going Deeper 21.1 A Simple Model to Explain the Stock-Recruitment Model and Maximum Sustainable Yield
Going Deeper 21.2 Age-Based or Life-History Stage-Based Population Models
Fisheries Impact and Management
Hot Topics in Marine Biology 21.1 Fin-Ale for Sharks?
Causes and Cures of Stock Reduction
Overexploitation of Whales: A Case History
Other Types of Loss
Disease as a Major Danger to Coastal Fisheries
Mariculture
Hot Topics in Marine Biology 21.2 Shellfisheries: Which Will Fall to Ocean Acidification?
Drugs from the Sea: Marine Natural Products
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

CHAPTER 22: Environmental Impacts of Industrial Activities and Human Populations
Human Effects on the Marine Environment
Measuring the Impact of Pollutants on Populations and Communities
Toxic Substances
Hot Topics In Marine Biology 22.1 Is the Gulf of Mexico Adapted to Oil?
Nutrient Input and Eutrophication
Thermal Pollution and Power Station Fish Mortality
Global Environmental Change and the Ocean
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

BONUS MOLECULAR TOOLS CHAPTER ONLINE
Introductions and Definitions
Genomics
Biodiversity Through Metagenomics
Proteomics
Chapter Summary
Review Questions

GLOSSARY
MARINE BIOLOGY JOURNALS
INDEX

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