Marriages And Families: Diversity And Change

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div
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Taking an historical, cross-cultural, and global approach, this book focuses on the link between social structure and theeveryday livesof people's diverse experiences of marriages, families, and intimate relationships. It shows how contemporary families go well beyond the traditional, heterosexual, two-parent, white, middle class family and heterosexual legally-sanctioned marriage; challenges the assumption that one culture's way of doing things is the "natural" or "right" way; shows how marriage and family life have changed historically over time and from place to place; and how political and economic globalization impacts families worldwide. Features extensive boxed material accompanied by questions for personal reflection.Marriages and Families Over Time. Ways of Studying and Explaining Marriages and Families. Understanding Gender: Its Influence In Intimate Relationships. The Many Faces of Love. Dating, Coupling, and Mate Selection. Sexuality and Intimate Relationships. Nonmarital Lifestyles. The Marriage Experience. Reproduction and Parenting. Evolving Work and Family Structures. Violence and Abuse. The Process of Uncoupling: Divorce in the United States. Remarriage and Remarried Families. Families in Later Life. Marriages and Families in the Twenty-first Century: U.S. and World Trends.For anyone interested in marriage and family dynamics, including individuals, counselors, nurses, social workers, home economists, etc.

Table of Contents

Boxesp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
About the Authorsp. xxiii
Marriages and Families Over Timep. 1
Contemporary Definitions of Marriages and Familiesp. 3
What Is Marriage?p. 3
What Is a Family?p. 4
Race, Class, and Genderp. 5
Family Functions and the Debate over Family Valuesp. 6
Social Functions of Familiesp. 6
Contrasting Views of Familiesp. 8
Debunking Myths about Marriages and Familiesp. 12
The Universal Nuclear Familyp. 14
The Self-Reliant Traditional Familyp. 15
The Naturalness of Different Spheres for Wives and Husbandsp. 15
The Unstable African American Familyp. 15
Families in Early Americap. 16
Colonial Familiesp. 17
African American Families under Slaveryp. 18
Free African American Familiesp. 19
Slavery's Hidden Legacy: Racial Mixingp. 20
Native American Familiesp. 21
Families in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 22
Emergence of the Good Provider Rolep. 22
The Cult of Domesticityp. 22
Changing Views of Childhoodp. 22
The Impact of Class and Ethnicityp. 23
Immigration and Family Lifep. 23
The Economic Roles of Women and Childrenp. 23
Ethnic and Racial Family Patternsp. 23
Mexican American Familiesp. 24
Families in the Twentieth Centuryp. 25
The Emergence of the Companionate Familyp. 25
The Great Depressionp. 25
World War II and Its Aftermathp. 25
Changing Patterns of Immigrationp. 26
Lessons from Historyp. 27
Contemporary Patterns in Marriages and Familiesp. 27
Looking Ahead: Marriages and Families in the Futurep. 28
The Sociological Imaginationp. 28
Writing Your Own Scriptp. 29
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 30
Summaryp. 30
Key Termsp. 31
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 31
Additional Resourcesp. 31
Ways of Studying and Explaining Marriages and Familiesp. 33
The Sociology of Marriages and Familiesp. 36
Studying Marriages and Families: The Link between Research and Theoryp. 36
Methodological Techniques in the Study of Marriages and Familiesp. 37
Surveysp. 40
Observationp. 41
Case Studiesp. 42
Ethnographyp. 43
Scientific Methodologies Used by Feminist Researchersp. 43
A Critical Look at Traditional Research on Marriages and Familiesp. 44
A More Inclusive Sociologyp. 44
Contemporary Marriage and Family Scholarshipp. 46
Theoretical Perspectivesp. 47
Structural Functionalismp. 47
Conflict Theoryp. 50
Symbolic Interactionismp. 53
Social Constructionismp. 53
Social Exchange Theoryp. 55
The Developmental Family Life Cycle Modelp. 56
Feminist Theories and Perspectivesp. 56
Men's Studies and Marriage and Family Researchp. 59
Men in Familiesp. 59
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 61
Summaryp. 61
Key Termsp. 62
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 62
Additional Resourcesp. 63
Understanding Gender: Its Influence in Intimate Relationshipsp. 64
Distinguishing Sex and Gender Rolesp. 65
The Process of Sex Differentiationp. 65
Gender Differences: The Nature-Nurture Debatep. 67
Traditional Meanings of Femininity and Masculinityp. 69
Traditional Gender Roles: Female and Malep. 69
Gender Variations: Race, Class, and Culturep. 70
Gender Roles in Transitionp. 70
Theories of Gender Role Socializationp. 72
Psychoanalytic/Identification Theoryp. 73
Social-Learning Theoryp. 74
Cognitive-Development Theoryp. 75
Enculturated-Lens Theoryp. 76
Agents of Socializationp. 76
Parentsp. 76
Languagep. 77
Peersp. 78
Play and Organized Sportsp. 78
Teachers and School Organizationp. 79
The Mass Mediap. 80
Consequences of Gender Stereotypingp. 84
Lifestyle Choicesp. 84
Self-Esteemp. 84
Self-Confidencep. 85
Mental Healthp. 86
Women, Men, and Friendsp. 87
Patterns of Communicationp. 88
Changing Realities, Changing Rolesp. 88
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 89
Summaryp. 89
Key Termsp. 89
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 90
Additional Resourcesp. 90
The Many Faces of Lovep. 91
What Is This Thing Called Love?p. 93
Love as a Social Constructionp. 94
How Does Romantic Love Develop in Contemporary Society?p. 94
Love in Western Society: A Historical Perspectivep. 95
The Importance of Lovep. 98
How Do People Express Love?p. 100
Lee's Six Styles of Lovingp. 101
Love Versus Friendship, Infatuation, and Likingp. 102
Close Friendship Versus Lovep. 102
Infatuation Versus Lovep. 104
Liking Versus Lovep. 104
Some Theories of Lovep. 105
The Wheel Theory of Lovep. 105
The Theory of Love as a Storyp. 107
Love Storiesp. 107
Love as a Social Exchangep. 108
Love as Limerencep. 108
Love Across Gender, Sexuality, and Racep. 110
Gender Differences in Love Relationshipsp. 110
Lesbian and Gay Love Relationshipsp. 111
Female-Male Relationships Across Race and Ethnicityp. 112
Obstacles to Love and Loving Relationshipsp. 115
Demographic Factors and Social and Cultural Changep. 115
Traditional Gender Role Socializationp. 116
Patriarchy as an Obstacle to Lesbian Lovep. 116
Lack of Trustp. 117
Jealousy and Envyp. 117
Romantic Love Todayp. 120
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 120
Summaryp. 121
Key Termsp. 122
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 122
Additional Resourcesp. 123
Dating, Coupling, and Mate Selectionp. 125
Mate Selection in Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectivep. 127
Mate Selection Cross-Culturallyp. 127
Mate Selection in the United States: A Historical Perspectivep. 129
Dating Among Later-Life Adultsp. 132
Functions of Dating: Past and Presentp. 133
The Intersections of Race, Gender, Class, and Sexual Orientationp. 135
Dating Patterns Among African Americansp. 135
The Impact of Genderp. 137
The Impact of Social Class on the Dating Processp. 138
Lesbian and Gay Datingp. 139
Theories of Mate Selectionp. 141
Exchange Theoriesp. 141
Filter Theoriesp. 142
Mate Selection: Finding and Meeting Partnersp. 142
The Marriage Market and the Pool of Eligiblesp. 143
Freedom Versus Constraint in Mate Selectionp. 144
Other Factors that Affect Mate Selectionp. 150
Personal Qualities and Mate Selectionp. 150
Meeting Partners: Where and Howp. 151
School, Church, and Workp. 151
Singles' Bars and Gay Barsp. 153
Self-Advertising: Personal Adsp. 153
Dating Clubs and Dating Servicesp. 154
Computer Dating and the Internetp. 154
Dating in Cyberspacep. 155
The Future of Datingp. 157
Violence in Dating and Intimate Relationshipsp. 158
Physical Abusep. 158
Date and Acquaintance Rapep. 159
Breaking upp. 162
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 162
Summaryp. 164
Key Termsp. 164
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 164
Additional Resourcesp. 165
Sexuality and Intimate Relationshipsp. 166
Human Sexuality: Past and Presentp. 169
Jewish Traditions and Human Sexualityp. 170
Christian Traditions and Human Sexualityp. 170
Sexuality in the United States: An Overviewp. 170
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior in the Twentieth Century and Beyondp. 172
Sexuality as Social Learningp. 179
Sources of Sexual Learningp. 181
Sexual Orientationsp. 188
Heterosexualityp. 188
Homosexualityp. 189
Bisexualityp. 191
Human Sexual Expressionp. 191
Sexual Responsep. 191
Autoeroticismp. 191
Interpersonal Sexual Behaviorp. 193
Sexual Expression Among Lesbians and Gaysp. 194
Sexuality Across the Life Cyclep. 195
Nonmarried Sexuality and Pregnancyp. 195
Marital Sexuality: Does Good Sex Make Good Marriages?p. 199
Extramarital Sexualityp. 199
Postmarital Sexualityp. 202
Sexuality and Agingp. 202
Sexual Dysfunctionsp. 204
Sexual Responsibility: Protecting Yourself from AIDS and Other STDSp. 206
AIDSp. 206
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 212
Summaryp. 212
Key Termsp. 213
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 213
Additional Resourcesp. 213
Living Single, Living with Others: Nonmarital Lifestylesp. 215
Historical Perspectivesp. 217
Singlehood in Early Americap. 217
Singlehood in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuriesp. 218
Singlehood Today: Current Demographic Trendsp. 219
Demystifying Singlehoodp. 220
Individual Decision Makingp. 220
The Influence of Social and Economic Forcesp. 220
Types of Singlesp. 221
Advantages and Disadvantages of Singlehoodp. 221
Single Lifestylesp. 223
Incomep. 224
Support Networksp. 225
Happiness and Life Satisfactionp. 225
The Never-Married in Later Lifep. 226
Heterosexual Cohabitationp. 227
Historical Perspectivesp. 227
The Meaning of Cohabitation Todayp. 228
Reasons for Cohabitationp. 229
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohabitationp. 231
Cohabitation and the Division of Laborp. 231
Cohabitation and Marital Stabilityp. 232
Cohabitation and the Lawp. 232
Lesbian and Gay Relationshipsp. 234
Methodological Issuesp. 234
Demystifying Lesbian and Gay Relationshipsp. 234
Living Together: Domestic Tasks, Finances, and Decision Makingp. 235
The Social and Legal Context of Lesbian and Gay Relationshipsp. 236
Elderly Lesbians and Gaysp. 237
Communal Living and Group Marriagep. 237
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Communal Lifestylep. 237
Communes, Shared Housing, and the Futurep. 238
Group Marriagesp. 239
Supporting Nonmarried Adultsp. 239
Summaryp. 240
Key Termsp. 240
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 240
Additional Resourcesp. 240
The Marriage Experiencep. 242
Why Do People Marry?p. 245
Sociological Perspectivep. 246
The Meaning of Marriagep. 247
Marriage as a Commitmentp. 247
Marriage as a Sacramentp. 247
Marriage as a Legal Contractp. 250
Some Legal Aspects of the Marriage Contractp. 251
Change and Continuity in the Meaning of Marriagep. 255
Provisions of the Modern Marriage Contractp. 255
The Marriage Contract Todayp. 256
Marriage Traditions in the United Statesp. 257
The Weddingp. 262
Marriage and Genderp. 265
"Her" Marriagep. 265
"His" Marriagep. 265
Transitions and Adjustments to Marriagesp. 266
A Typology of Marital Relationshipsp. 266
Heterogamous Marriagesp. 267
Interracial Marriagesp. 267
Interethnic Marriagesp. 273
Interfaith Marriagesp. 274
Marital Satisfaction, Communication, and Conflict Resolutionp. 275
Successful Marriagep. 275
Effective Communicationp. 276
Self-Disclosurep. 278
Conflict and Conflict Resolutionp. 278
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 279
Summaryp. 280
Key Termsp. 282
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 283
Additional Resourcesp. 284
Reproduction and Parentingp. 285
Historical Overview: Fertility Trends in the United Statesp. 287
Current Fertility Patternsp. 288
To Parent or Notp. 289
The Costs of Parenthoodp. 289
The Benefits of Parenthoodp. 289
The Social Pressures to Procreatep. 290
The Child-Free Optionp. 290
Delayed Parentingp. 291
Controlling Fertilityp. 292
Contraceptive Usep. 292
Reasons for Not Using Contraceptivesp. 293
Abortionp. 293
Historical Perspectivesp. 294
Race, Class, and Agep. 295
Public Attitudes toward Abortionp. 296
Infertilityp. 296
Causes of Infertilityp. 296
Consequences of Infertilityp. 297
Medical Treatments and Reproductive Technology: Implications for the Meaning of Parenthoodp. 297
Artificial Inseminationp. 297
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)p. 298
The Choice to Parentp. 299
Conceptionp. 300
Multiple Conception and Birthsp. 300
Sex Preference and Selectionp. 301
Pregnancyp. 302
Prenatal Development and Carep. 302
Prenatal Problems and Defectsp. 303
Expectant Fathersp. 306
The Cultural Double Bindp. 306
Parental Adjustments, Adaptations, and Patterns of Child Rearingp. 307
Parental Rolesp. 308
Gender Differences in the Experience of Parenthoodp. 311
Styles of Parentingp. 312
Race and Classp. 314
Lesbian and Gay Parentsp. 320
Single Parentsp. 321
Teenaged Parentsp. 324
Supporting Parents and Childrenp. 326
Summaryp. 327
Key Termsp. 327
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 328
Additional Resourcesp. 328
Evolving Work and Family Structuresp. 329
The Work-Family Connectionp. 331
The Transformation of Work and Family Rolesp. 333
Variations by Race, Gender, and Marital Statusp. 334
Reasons Women Workp. 334
Work and Family Structuresp. 334
Traditional Nuclear Families, Including Stay-at-Home Dadsp. 334
The Two-Person Careerp. 335
Dual-Earner Familiesp. 336
Commuter Marriagesp. 336
The Impact of Work on Family Relationshipsp. 337
Marital Power and Decision Makingp. 337
Marital Happiness and Satisfactionp. 338
Husbands and the Division of Household Laborp. 339
Child Carep. 342
Inequities in the Workplace: Consequences for Familiesp. 345
Occupational Distributionp. 345
The Race-Gender Gap in Earnings: Good News and Bad Newsp. 346
The Union Differencep. 347
Sexual Harassmentp. 348
The Economic Well-Being of Familiesp. 349
Economic Uncertainty: The Widening Income Gapp. 350
Who Are the Poor?p. 352
Unemployment and Underemploymentp. 353
Unemployment and Marital Functioningp. 353
Balancing Work and Family: Restructuring the Workplacep. 357
Family-Friendly Policies and Benefitsp. 357
Continuing Progress or Retrenchment?p. 358
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 359
Summaryp. 359
Key Termsp. 360
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 360
Additional Resourcesp. 360
Power, Abuse, and Violence in Intimate Relationshipsp. 362
The Roots of Family Violence: A Historical Contextp. 364
Violence against Womenp. 364
Violence against Childrenp. 365
Violence against the Elderlyp. 365
Violence against Siblingsp. 366
Myths About Violence and Abusep. 366
Family Violence and U.S. Culturep. 367
The Mediap. 368
Physical Assault: The Case of Battered Womenp. 370
What Is Woman Battering?p. 372
How Prevalent Is Woman Battering?p. 373
Theories of Spousal or Partner Abusep. 375
Why Do Women Remain in Abusive Relationships?p. 377
Confronting Intimate Violencep. 378
The Sexual Assault of Womenp. 379
Rape Mythsp. 380
Rape and Racep. 380
Blaming the Victimp. 380
Marital Rapep. 380
The Criminal Justice Response to Woman Assaultp. 382
Attitudes and Behaviorsp. 382
Have We Made Progress?p. 384
The Effects of Physical and Sexual Assault on Womenp. 385
Coping and Survival Strategiesp. 385
Psychological and Emotional Strategiesp. 385
Self-Destructive Strategiesp. 385
Fighting Backp. 386
A Comparative Look at Battered Menp. 386
Child Assault and Abusep. 387
The Physical Assault of Childrenp. 389
The Sexual Assault of Childrenp. 391
Elder Abuse in the United Statesp. 393
What Is Elder Abuse?p. 394
Who Are the Abused and the Abusers?p. 394
Sibling Abusep. 395
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 396
Summaryp. 397
Key Termsp. 397
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 397
Additional Resourcesp. 398
The Process of Uncoupling: Divorce in the United Statesp. 399
Historical Perspectivesp. 402
Divorce in Early Americap. 402
Divorce in Nineteenth-Century Americap. 402
Twentieth-Century America: Efforts at Reformp. 403
Current Trends: How Many Marriages End in Divorce?p. 404
Who Is Likely to Divorce?p. 406
Divorce Among African Americansp. 406
Divorce Among Latinas/osp. 406
Divorce Among Asian Americansp. 407
Factors Affecting Marital Stabilityp. 407
Age at First Marriagep. 408
Educationp. 408
Incomep. 408
Religionp. 408
Parental Divorcep. 409
Cohabitationp. 409
Presence of Childrenp. 409
The Process of Divorcep. 410
Stages in the Divorce Processp. 410
The Six Stations of Divorcep. 412
Other Forms of Marital Disruptionp. 413
The Causes of Divorcep. 413
Societal Factorsp. 413
From the Perspective of Divorced Peoplep. 414
From the Perspective of Family Therapists and Matrimonial Lawyersp. 415
The Impact of Divorce on Spousesp. 416
Common Consequences of Divorcep. 416
Gender Differences in Divorcep. 418
Recovering from Divorcep. 421
The Impact of Divorce on Childrenp. 422
Short-Term versus Long-Term Effects of Divorce on Childrenp. 422
Children and Divorce in Other Countriesp. 423
Changing Patterns in Child Custodyp. 424
Sole Custodyp. 424
Joint Custodyp. 424
Which Is Better, Sole or Joint Custody?p. 425
When Things Go Wrong: Family Abductionp. 427
Reaching Accord: Counseling, Collaborative Law, and Mediationp. 427
The Renewed Debate: Should Parents Stay Married for the Sake of Their Children?p. 428
Supporting Marriages and Familiesp. 428
Summaryp. 429
Key Termsp. 429
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 429
Additional Resourcesp. 430
Remarriage and Remarried Familiesp. 431
Historical Perspectivep. 435
Cultural Images of Stepfamiliesp. 435
The Process of Remarriagep. 436
Dating and Courtship Patternsp. 436
The Decision to Remarryp. 437
Patterns of Remarriagep. 437
The Stations of Remarriagep. 439
Remarrying a Former Spousep. 441
The Development of Remarried Familiesp. 441
Remarried Families: Roles, Interactions, and Reactionsp. 441
Children and the Remarriage Servicep. 441
Children and the Honeymoonp. 444
Children in Remarried Familiesp. 444
Adult Children's Reaction to Parental Later-Life Remarriagesp. 449
Stepmothers: A Bad Rap?p. 449
Stepfathers: Polite Strangers?p. 450
Lesbian and Gay Stepfamiliesp. 451
Ex-Spouses: Do They Fade Away?p. 452
The Strengths and Benefits of Remarried Familiesp. 452
The Quality of the Remarital Relationshipp. 453
Stability in Remarriagep. 454
Supporting Remarriage and Remarried Familiesp. 455
Summaryp. 456
Key Termsp. 457
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 457
Additional Resourcesp. 457
Marriages and Families in Later Lifep. 459
Characteristics of Later-Life Familiesp. 461
The Sandwich Generationp. 461
Diversity in the Family Life Cyclep. 462
Changing Age Normsp. 462
The Demographics of Aging: Defining "Old"p. 463
Age Categories of the Elderlyp. 463
Gender and Marital Statusp. 463
Race, Ethnicity, and Classp. 464
Poverty Among the Elderlyp. 465
Living Arrangementsp. 465
Housing Patternsp. 467
Marriages in Later Lifep. 467
Marital Quality and Satisfactionp. 468
Adjustment to Retirementp. 468
Intergenerational Relationships: Contact and Social Exchangesp. 470
Quality of Relationshipsp. 470
Evolving Patterns of Kinship: Grandparenthoodp. 470
Styles of Grandparentingp. 471
Benefits and Conflictsp. 472
Great-Grandparenthoodp. 474
The Child-Free Elderlyp. 474
Sibling Relationshipsp. 475
Health and Illnessp. 475
Family Caregivingp. 477
The Spouse as Caregiverp. 477
Adult Children as Caregiversp. 478
Children as Caregiversp. 479
The Stresses and Rewards of Elderly Caregivingp. 480
The Experience of Widowhoodp. 480
Stages of Widowhoodp. 480
Gender Differences in Widowhoodp. 482
Beyond Widowhoodp. 483
Lesbian and Gay Elderlyp. 484
Supporting Families in Later Lifep. 485
Summaryp. 485
Key Termsp. 485
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 486
Additional Resourcesp. 486
Marriages and Families in the Twenty-First Century: U.S. and World Trendsp. 487
Globalization: Its Economic Impact on Children and Familiesp. 489
Inequities in Income and Wealthp. 490
Health and Health Carep. 491
Access to Health Carep. 492
Trends in Drug Use and Associated Health Problemsp. 495
Alcohol Use and Abusep. 497
Addiction: A Family Problemp. 497
Differential Life Chances: Death and Diseasep. 498
Families Coping with Loss: Dying and Deathp. 499
The Process of Dyingp. 500
The Needs and Tasks of the Dyingp. 500
National Mourningp. 501
Death of a Childp. 501
Death of a Siblingp. 501
Death of a Parentp. 501
Death of a Spouse or Partnerp. 502
Suicidep. 502
AIDSp. 502
Disenfranchised Griefp. 503
The Right-to-Die Movementp. 503
The Challenge of Racism and Ethnic and Religious Discrimination in Family Lifep. 503
Racism at Home and Abroadp. 504
The Domestic and Global Challenge: Immigration, Migration, and Mass Displacementp. 507
Safety and Security: Gangs, Street Violence, and Violence in America's Schoolsp. 512
Gangsp. 512
Street Violencep. 513
Youth Violencep. 513
Violence in Schoolsp. 514
Terrorism and Warp. 514
Terrorism in the United Statesp. 515
Warp. 515
Meeting the Needs of Children: Foster Care and Adoptionp. 520
Problems Confronting Foster Carep. 520
Becoming Parents through Adoptionp. 521
Who Can Adopt? Characteristics and Current Controversiesp. 521
International Adoptionsp. 522
Transracial (Interracial) Adoptionsp. 522
Supporting Children and Families Here and Abroadp. 524
Summaryp. 525
Key Termsp. 526
Questions for Study and Reflectionp. 526
Additional Resourcesp. 527
Sexual Dysfunctions and Sexually Transmitted Diseasesp. 528
Human Anatomy and Reproductionp. 532
Methods of Abortionp. 535
Methods of Birth Controlp. 536
Glossaryp. 540
Referencesp. 547
Photo Creditsp. 598
Name Indexp. 599
Subject Indexp. 603
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