Mass Media Revolution

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  • Copyright: 2011-01-07
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Debuting in its first edition Mass Media Revolutionis a revolutionary learning and teaching tool designed to reflect the way students experience mass media today .With a storytelling narrative and chapter-specific videos, Mass Media Revolutionhelps students experiencemass media, enhancing their development as critical consumers. They can study, read, interact and consume their course material in print and online in a way that best suits their individual learning needs

Author Biography

J. Charles Sterin is an award-winning documentary filmmaker, investigative television journalist,  and screenwriter. Over the course of his 35-year career, Sterin has produced over 60 hours  of television documentaries, including episodes of A&E Network’s primetime series Investigative Reports and Ancient Mysteries, and documentary specials aired on PBS. Sterin co-produced a national media project with ten of the world’s leading humanist thinkers (including anthropologist Margaret Mead, psychologist Carl Rogers, and anthropologist Ashley Montagu) and was selected by the Poynter Institute to produce its seminal PBS documentary series NewsLeaders on the  leading figures of American news media. Sterin is fascinated with the future of media technologies, especially the evolution of the Internet, mass media convergence, and artificial intelligence-based expert systems. He has developed  innovative approaches to producing short-form documentary videos in integrated content delivery platforms for “blended” online training and higher education. In 2001, Sterin joined the faculty of the University of Maryland University College–a world leader in web-enhanced and online college programs–where he has applied his interests in the evolution of mass media and media-based blended learning applications to the creation of a number of UMUC’s mass communication courses. Through these popular courses, Sterin has introduced thousands of students across the country and around the world to the study of mass media. Today, he continues to develop innovative approaches to connect and communicate with a diverse body of students in multimedia-enhanced face-to-face and online teaching environments, as well as pursuing his work as a documentary filmmaker, screenwriter and author.

Table of Contents



Preface xiii

Resources in Print and Online xix

Acknowledgments xx




1 Introduction to the Mass Media Revolution 2

This chapter lays out the book’s approach to the study of mass media in the digital millennium, as well as gives a broad overview of the historical and theoretical context necessary for understanding mass media from a critical perspective.

The Style and Approach of the Mass Media Revolution 6

Media as Storytellers 7

Inspiring Debate Through Bias and Controversy 7

Experience and Scholarship 8

A Sneak Peek at MMR 8

View this movie trailer of things to come as you experience Mass Media Revolution.

Appreciating Historical Context in Mass Media 8

Studying the Mass Media 9

Passive and Active Media 10

Media Framing 11

Models for Filtering Information and Identifying Meaning 11

Mass Communication Models and Theories 12

The Humanistic Approach to Communication 14

Linking the Medium and the Message 15

Marshall McLuhan, Explorations 15

In this 1960 broadcast, mass media theorist Marshall McLuhan predicts where the future of mass media communication and technologies are headed.

Culture and Mass Media: Sharing What We Know 16

The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Communication 16

The Media’s Influence on Religion and Beliefs 17

                Global Access, Global Threats 19

From My Village to the Global Village 20

Proximity and Media Space 21

Media Hegemony 21

Convergence: Understanding Mass Media in the Digital Age 22

Dealing with Information Bombardment 23

Media Access versus Media Overload 24

Audience Trends: What the Consumers Want 25

Why Are Audiences Always Being Researched? 26

How Ratings Work 27

Conclusion: Understanding New Mass Media from a Critical Perspective 28


2 Mass Media: A Brief Historical Narrative 30

This chapter offers a brief survey of the roots of mass media, moving from the earliest storytellers through the dawning of the Digital Age.

The Storytellers 34

Early Mass Media Networks 34

Telling Stories in the Digital Age 35

The Scribes 36

The Visual Artists 37

The Mass-Communication Power of Maps 38

The Arts in the Middle Ages 38

The Renaissance 39

The Printers and the Publishers 40

The Newsmakers 41

The Early Knowledge Industry 42

The Rise of Yellow Journalism and Penny Presses 43

The First Media War in the United States 44

The Photographers 45

The Early Photojournalists 46

Photography’s Golden Age 47

The Music-Makers 49

Music, Culture and Entertainment 49

Music, Patriotism and Revolution 50

The Radio Broadcasters 51

The History of Radio 52

Following three decades of Marconi’s attempt to monopolize the international wireless communication business, and a maze of competing innovations, patent battles and competitions between rival governments, radio at last moved beyond point-to-point communications.

The Filmmakers 53

Motion Pictures Become a Major Part of American Mass Media 53

Early Documentary Films and Newsreels 54

The Television Producers 55

The Birth of Television Broadcast Systems 56

The Advent of News and Entertainment Television 56

    The Evolution of Media Technologies 58

Television Investigative Reporting 60

News Stories 61

Again and again during times of national and international crisis, television news, as established by Edward R. Murrow, plays an essential role.

The Dawning of the Digital Age 61

Computers Get Linked 62

The Birth of the Personal Computer 63

The Emergence of a New World: The Internet 64

Conclusion: Mass Media Converge 64


3 Media Technologies and the Dynamics of Change 66

This chapter covers the evolution of mass media–its vast and wide-ranging content and the constantly evolving technological platforms that deliver it.

The Stages of Technological Innovation 70

The Precursor Stage 70

The Invention and Development Stages 70

Media Technology Format Wars 71

A closer look at the causes and industry effects of the HDDVD and Blu-Ray format wars.

The Maturity Stage 72

The Antiquity Stage 73

Hurtling into the Future: The Effects of Technology on Mass Media 73

Dominating the Media Message 75

Coping with “Future Shock” 76

Converging Technologies 76

Evolving Roles of Mass Media in Society 77

Forming a New Global Culture 78

Paul Levinson on the Future of Mass Media 79

A modern communication and media professor's insight into the future of mass media–after McLuhan’s global village.

The Life or Death of the Printed Word? 79

The Digitization of Libraries 81

World Digital Library Project 82

The LOC’s World Digital Library Project comes to fruition.

Print-on-Demand Publishing 82

Textbook Customization 83

The e-Book Market 83

The Digitization of Newspapers and Magazines 84

Going Green in Publishing 85

Information Revolution: Innovation and Roadblocks 86

The Read-Write Media Culture 87

Conclusion: Adapting to Change 88

Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 90





4 Print Media 92

This chapter traces the history and evolution of the three primary forms of print media: newspapers, magazines and books, as well as explores how advanced media technologies may have altered these media forever. In addition, the chapter examines two contemporary forms of print media–comic books and graphic novels–and the impact they have had on other media industries.

Early American Newspaper Publishing 96

Newspapers Evolve to Dominate Mass Media 96

The Industrial Revolution Alters the Newspaper Business 98

Newspapers Become an Advertising-Based Business 98

Early Communication Technologies Further Change the Industry 99

The Establishment of News Syndicates 101

The Rise of Magazine Publishing 101

Early Business Challenges 102

The Economics of Magazine Publishing 102

Diversification of Magazine Audience, Style and Specialty 103

The Evolution of the Book Industry 104

The Social and Cultural Impact of Books 104

The Birth of the Novel 105

Technologies Extend the Print Media 105

The Birth of Publishing Dynasties 106

Otis Chandler, L.A. Times 107

The late Otis Chandler, former publisher of the L.A. Times, discusses the influence of newspapers and publishing dynasties on American culture and politics.

Print Media Go Visual 108

The Use of Illustrations 108

The Use of Photographs 109

The Photo Magazine 109

The Comic Book Industry 111

Will Eisner Ushers in the Modern Comic Book 111

Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster Introduce the Comic Book Hero 112

Comic Books Influence Society 113

The Comic Book Industry Transitions 114

The Graphic Novel 115

The Newspaper Industry in the 20th Century 116

Early American Newspapers and the Freedom of Information 116

The Fifties 119

The Sixties and the Seventies 119

The Eighties into the Digital Age 120

Al Neuharth, USA Today 121

Al Neuharth, founder of USA Today offers an in-depth analysis of the success and popularity of his paper.

The Magazine Industry in the 20th Century 122

Rob Covey, National Geographic 124

Rob Covey, Managing Editor and Creative Director of National Geographic Online, offers insight

into how the publication and the magazine industry overall is coping with the migration of content to the Web.

The Book Industry in the 20th Century 124

Conclusion: Will Printed Media Survive the Digital Revolution? 126


5 Music and Radio 128

In this chapter we will explore the history, evolution and interconnection of the music recording and radio broadcasting industries.

Matt & Kim 131

Popular indie rock group Matt & Kim recount their story of going up against the major record labels.

The Cultural Influence of Music and Sound Recording 132

The Phonograph Advances the Music Industry 132

Musical Tastes Change in Changing Times 133

New Delivery Platforms Emerge 134

The Birth of the Radio Broadcasting Industry 135

The Recording Industry Links with Radio 136

The Pioneers of Radio Broadcasting 136

The Development of Early Radio 137

Watch this to learn about the battle between the early pioneers of radio.

Improved Technology Spurs the Growth of Radio 138

FM Radio 138

Armstrong invents FM radio and changes the future of commercial radio.

Popular Music: The First Cultural Shift 139

Rock ‘n’ Roll Pushes the Social Envelope 139

Payola: Paying for Popularity 140

New Sounds, Old Sounds 141

Motown: The Sounds of Detroit 141

The Beatles and the British Invasion 142

Studio Mixing Changes Popular Music 143

The Music of Revolution: The Second Cultural Shift 144

Folk Music: The Songs of Protest 144

Psychedelic Sound: When the Tide Turns 145

Woodstock 146

Looking back on the Woodstock Festival on its 40th anniversary.

Musical Styles Diversify 146

Two Extremes: Hard Rock to Disco 146

The Singer-Songwriters 147

Punk Rock 147

MTV and the Birth of Music Videos 148

Alternative and Independent Music 150

The Grunge Alternative 151

The Hip-Hop Movement 152

Music and Radio Transition into the Digital Age 153

Deregulation and Consolidation Transform 21st-Century Radio 153

Is the Internet Killing Radio? 155

Commercial Satellite Radio 156

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File Sharing Revolutionizes Music 156

Conclusion: Music and Radio Converge–and Endure 158


6 Film and Television 160

This chapter describes the interconnected development of the film and television industries and the challenges and opportunities created by an empowered audience in the Digital Age.

Narrative in Film 164

Mise-en-Scène 164

An overview on the significance of mise-en-scène in filmic storytelling.

The Early Innovators of Film 165

The Special Effects of Georges Méliès 165

A Trip to the Moon 165

View the special effects–spectacular for its time–of Méliès’ A Trip to the Moon.

The Editing Techniques of Edwin Porter 165

The Great Train Robbery 166

Porter's cross-cutting editing technique made it possible for films to display action happening in multiple locations.

The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System 166

Hollywood’s Golden Age 167

New Sound Technologies Herald the Success of Talkies 167

The Star System Maximizes Studio Profits 169

The Big Five Start to Lose Power 169

The Rise of the Financing-Distribution Model 170

Post-Studio System Distribution and Exhibition Practices 170

The Film Industry After the Golden Age 171

The Influence of International Cinema Styles 171

European Cinema 171

The Maltese Falcon 172

John Huston's The Maltese Falcon (1941) adopted the French film noir style.

Asian Cinema 173

Middle Eastern Cinema 175

Latin American Cinema 175

The Motion Pictures Rating System of 1968 176

The Rise of the Independent Film Movement 176

The Magic of Special Effects 177

Special Effects 178

Audiences love special effects, as depicted in this short video history.

The Film Industry in the Digital Age 179

The Film Industry Suffers Decreased Revenue 179

Narrative in Television 180

The Evolution of Television 181

Early Television Programming 181

The Big Three Networks Become the Big Four 182

Television Genres 183

The Situation Comedy 183

The Drama 184

Sports Programming 184

The Soap Opera 184

Anatomy of a TV Show: The Young and the Restless 185

Take a look behind the scenes of a popular daytime drama in the making.

Reality Television 185

Cable Television Innovates Content 186

Conflicting Visions of the Future of Television 186

Conclusion: The Audience Drives the Future of Film and Television 188


7 New Media 190

This chapter explains what new media is and explores the highlights in its evolution, its contrast to what we now call old media, and new media’s impact on society and culture in the 21st century.

What Are the New Media and Where Did They Originate? 194

The New New Media 195

The New Media Meme 195

Innovators and Visionaries of the Internet 196

The Information Superhighway 197

The Evolution of Web 2.0 198

Rediscovering Text: E-mail and Text Messaging 199

The Language of Texting 200

Investigative report detailing the explosion of text messaging among high school students.

The Dynamic New Media 200

Linear versus Nonlinear Information 200

User-Mediated Content 201

Participatory Content Creation 202

Knowledge Sharing: An Open Source Model 203

Consuming New Media: Honing Critical Skills 203

Media Convergence: The Current Wave 204

Current TV and Current.com 205

The Effects of Content Mobility 206

Viral Media 206

YouTube and User-Generated Television 207

Linking Up: The 21st-Century Phenomenon of Social Networking 207

Digital Meeting Places 209

The Dark Side of Online Social Networking 210

Follow My Twitter 211

Life-blogging 212

Activism and Citizen Journalism 213

The New Media Politics: Grassroots to Mainstream 214

The Net Roots Movement 214

Politics in Cyberspace 215

New media pioneer Robert Greenwald looks at the impact of new media journalism on politics and democracy.

Technology and Participatory Democracy 215

The Gaming Generation 216

War Games Lead to Video Games 217

The Development of PC and Console Games 218

Video Games Converge with Hollywood Movies 219

The History of Video Games 220

A tour of some of the highlights of the evolution of video games.

Virtual Worlds: Playing in Alternate Realities 220

Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games 223

Conclusion: New New Media and the Impact on Society and Culture 224

Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 226





8 Advertising and Public Relations 228

Learn about the allied fields of advertising and public relations in this chapter, and discover how they influence the public’s attitudes and beliefs about everything from products and brands, to political leaders, to government policies and the media.

Tracing the History of American Advertising 232 Advertising Is All Around Us 232

Mini-Stories 233

This video montage of Mobius Award—winning commercials illustrates how successful advertising draws us into the story, despite how impractical or unreasonable it may be.

Product Affinity: Making Us Want It 233

Unlocking the Code to Our Desires 234

Relying on Universal Appeal 235

Ejector Pew 236

Provocative religious commercials, such as this one, can cast religious messages using trendy and even humorous imagery.

Suspend Reality 236

Commercial advertising asks us to suspend reality and accept that we can be part of the story it is presenting.

Teaching and Informing 236

Narrowcasting: Connecting Consumers and Products 238

Product Placement: Advertising Without Advertising 239

Breaking the Rules: Advertising in the 21st Century 240

Humor 242

Humor is an effective way of engaging audience attention or “capturing eyeballs.”

The Influences of Commercial Advertising 242

Dove Evolution 244

Dove brand produced a series of commercials that, rather than promote artificial beauty, encouraged young women to embrace and nurture their natural beauty, body and self esteem.

Political Advertising: Making Us Vote for It 245

Johnson Daisy Girl 245

Sometimes negative messages are far from subtle, as depicted in this 1964 Lyndon Johnson ad, which played on the Cold War fears of most Americans at the time.

Kerry Swift Boat Vets 246

The Republican political action group called the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, created a series of television ads questioning the actions of 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry.

Clinton 3 A.M. 247

When then Senator Barack Obama tenaciously held on to the lead in the closely contested Democratic primary race, then Senator Hillary Clinton came out with this ad spot.

Public Relations: Building and Managing Image 247

Tracing the History of American Public Relations 248

Public Relations Today 249

Fair Advocacy 249

Content Creation 249

360-Degree Campaigning 250

Developing Public Interest: Paparazzi and Promoters 251

Developing Public Trust: PR Ethics 251

Raising Social Awareness: The PSA 252

Sample PSAs 254

Anti-drinking and anti-smoking ads, such as the ones shown in this video, reinforce the health and safety risks of alcohol and tobacco use, especially to younger audiences.

Facilitating Communication: Diversity in New PR 255

Conclusion: Selling Ideas, Framing Perceptions 256


9 Media Industry 258

In this chapter we take a look inside the fascinating and often complex world of the business and economics of the media industry and the forces and challenges driving the industry in the 21st century.

Tracing American Media Ownership 262

Vertical Integration: Process and Impact 263

Public Corporations and Private Ownership 264

Localism: A Model Alternative 265

Content Control from the Boardroom 266

News Corporation: Agenda or Profit? 266

Corporate Influence on the News 267

An excerpt from Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism, highlighting public concerns over corporate control over news.

Catering to the Local Audiences 267

The Economics of Media: Three Models 268

The American Commercial Model 269

The Public Sphere Model 271

The New Media Model: The Internet Alternative 272

Arianna Huffington 274

The Huffington Post’s successful business model is helping to drive the migration of newspapers and news organizations onto the Web.

The Federal Communication Commission 276

Regulation 277

Deregulation 277

The Business of Music and Sound Recording 278

Technology Turns the Tide: Music Makes Money 278

The Recording Industry 279

Race Music: The Predecessor to Rhythm and Blues 280

The Business of Radio 281

Commercial Radio: Beginnings 281

Recording Technologies Drive Radio Content 282

Going Digital: The Demise of Music on the Radio 283

The Business of Television and Film 285

The Audience Is “King” 287

Finding the Right Audience: Targeting Factors 287

Audiences Under the Influence: Media Effects 288

Researching the Audience: Identifying Trends 289

Targeting the Children’s Audience 290

Empowering the Passive Media Consumer 291

The Effects of Media Globalization 292

Trade-offs 292

Distribution 294

Conclusion: Surviving the Business of Mass Media in the Digital Age 294


10 Media Bias 296

This chapter explores why some media outlets show specific bias and identifies the different forms of bias that exist; it also takes a critical look at the audience’s role in driving bias in the media.

The Building Blocks of Bias 300

Catherine Crier on Media Bias 301

Catherine Crier, former State Supreme Court judge, author, and TV host discusses media bias.

Are the Media Always Biased? 301

Packaging Media Bias 302

Types of Media Bias 304

Bias by Selection 305

Bias by Extraordinary Experiences 305

Bias by Market Demand 306

Perspectives on Media Bias 307

Multiple perspectives on bias in the media from top personalities in the field.

The Economics of Media Bias 308

Corporate Control of the Media Message 309

Federal Control of the Media Message 309

Bias in Films and Television 310

The Liberal Rebel 311

The Global Evangelist 311

The Missionary Filmmaker 312

The Civics Lesson 312

The Newsman-Comic 313

The Protector 313

Bias in Blogs 314

Are Mainstream Media Liberally Biased? 315

Drawing the Line Between Fact and Opinion 316

REM, “Bad Day” 318

Michael Stipe’s satirical musical commentary on the 24/7 news cycle.

Conclusion: What Is the Impact of Bias in American Media? 318


11 Mass Media Law and Ethics 320

This chapter explores the inextricable links between mass media, law, and the advance of technological innovation, as well as how we should define media ethics in our rapidly evolving global culture.

Brief History of Mass Media Law 323

The Printing Press Challenges Early Regulation 323

Benjamin Franklin and the Fourth Estate 324

The First Amendment 325

Robert Wuhl, Assume the Position 325

Excerpts from the HBO series Assume the Position with Robert Wuhl.

Early Attempts at Censorship 326

Regulatory Censorship in the 21st Century 327

Defamation: Libel and Slander 328

Media and Privacy 329

Privacy on the Internet 329

Invasion of Privacy Laws 330

The Privacy of Public Figures and in

Public Places 331

Privacy in Public Places 332

The widespread use of security monitoring technology in public places is challenging previous legal limitations on the protection of individual privacy.

Mass Media Law and National Security 333

The Freedom of Information Act 334

Historical Roots of Copyright Law 335

Lawrence Lessig on Copyright History 336

Stanford University Law Professor Lawrence Lessig explores the historic roots and present 21st-century challenges of U.S. Copyright Law.

Fair Use Doctrine 336

Copyright and Ownership of Digital Properties 337

Enforcing Copyright Law in a Digital World 337

Copyright Basics 339

An animated quick tutorial on how copyright works.

Alternative Approaches to Copyright Protection 340

Creative Commons 340

Introduction to the Creative Commons alternative to traditional copyright law.

Enforcing Copyright Law on a Global Playing Field 341

International Models of Intellectual Property Law 342

International Broadcast Law and Regulation 342

Confidentiality in Newsgathering 343

Reporting on Government Officials and Agencies 344

Reporting on the Judiciary 345

Pornography: Free Expression or Obscenity? 345

Distinguishing Between Obscenity and Pornography 346

The Miller Test 347

Ethics and Mass Media 348

The Philosophy Behind Mass Media Ethics 349

Self-Regulation in the Media 350

Journalistic Ethics 351

Former White House correspondent Lee Thornton on journalistic ethics and the Jayson Blair case.

The Ethical Challenges of a Converged World 352

The Public as Media Producers: Ethical Responsibilities 352

Critical Models for Mass Media Ethics 353

Conclusion: We Are Legally and Ethically Responsible 354

Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 356




12 The Power of Photography in Mass Media 358


This chapter concentrates on photography as a visual mass medium and how technological advances in photography have contributed to a more active media-consumer culture.

Visual Communication in Mass Media 362

Understanding Visual Literacy 362

Finding Meaning in Visual Media 363

The Visual Form 363

The Subject Matter 364

The Media Environment 364

Photography and Modern Culture 366

History of Photography–Part I 367

Learn how photography throughout its over 150-year history has played an important role in helping to define our sense of culture.

Manufactured Realities 367

Framed Realities 369

History of Photography–Part II 370

Watch this segment on the impact of photography on major events in American history from the late 19th century forward.

Sexuality as Subject 370

Photojournalism: The Image as a Mass Medium 371

Photojournalism Covers Major Events 373

Photojournalism Profiles Faces of the Great Depression 373

Photojournalism During World War II 374

Photojournalism in the Post—World War II Years 376

Photojournalism Covers Science and Nature 377

History of Photography–Part III 379

A look at the work and influence of some of America’s photography masters.

Photography in the Digital Age 379

Conclusion: The Mass Media Effects of the Photographic Image 380


13 Journalism in the Digital Millennium 382

In this chapter we will explore New Journalism and the special trends and challenges facing journalists in the

21st century and the new skill sets required to meet these new challenges.

Reinventing Journalism for the Digital Millennium 386

The New Wave of “New Journalism” 387

From Short-Tail to Long-Tail Journalism 388

The 24/7 News Cycle: All the News, All the Time 388

Journalism in the Online World: Alternative Forms and Methods 392

Blogging 392

News Aggregator Sites 393

Hyperlocal News Sites 394

The New World of Reporting, Writing and Editing the News 396

Mediated Content in the Digital World: We Still Need Editors 398

Journalism Produced Directly for the Web 399

Penniman on News for the Web 399

American News Project’s Nick Penniman on the unique nature of video news stories produced directly for the Web.

Backpack Journalism: Delivering More with Fewer Resources 400

Penniman on Backpack Journalism 401

View how the American News Project applies backpack-style journalism to muckrake (investigative) reporting.

Gentile on Backpack Journalism 402

Backpack journalism pioneer Bill Gentile shares his experiences working as an embedded journalist on the frontlines.

Trade-offs and Risks of Backpack Journalism 403

Unique Ethical Challenges of New Journalism 405

Conclusion: The Mission of Journalism Remains the Same 406


14 Media Impact on the Global Stage 408

This chapter looks at how mass media have led to the growth of democracies, and the role mass media systems have played on societies and cultures throughout the world in the 21st century.

The Role of Mass Media 412

Setting the Public Agenda 412

Inspiring Democracy 414

Global Mass Media Systems 417

The Libertarian (Free Press) System 417

The Social-Responsibility System 418

The Authoritarian System 418

The Soviet-Communist System 418

Mass Media Systems in Development 420

Women on the Frontlines 421

Jeanine Nahigombeye, director of Radio Isanganiro, explains her sometimes risky efforts, and the efforts of other women like her, to present fair and balanced journalism promoting peace in civil-war torn Burundi.

Radio Paves the Way 421

The Influence of Satellite Television 422

Arthur C. Clarke 422

Clarke’s groundbreaking work continues to serve as a model for the important role mass media technology plays in social and cultural development.

The Role of the Internet 423

Mass Media and Cultural Context 424

The Influence of High- and Low-Context Cultures 424

The Cultural Divide Plays Out in the Media 425

Cyberspace Globalizes Media and Culture 426

Media Cultures Compete for Survival 426

Culture Conflict 427

Excerpt from Hollywood and the Muslim World, a film by Charles C. Stuart, which features a Muslim perspective of how American media are affecting the Muslim cultural identity.

Blaming American Media 428

Another excerpt from Hollywood and the Muslim World that features students from American University in Cairo expressing their views on how American culture has deeply influenced Arabs’ self identity.

Media Dominance and the Global Marketplace 428

Al Jazeera 429

Charles C. Stuart explores the heart of the controversial Al Jazeera Network from Doha, Qatar.

Mass Media and Global Diplomacy 430

Information Immediacy and Its Effects on Diplomacy 430

National Security and the World Wide Web 431

Equalizing the Global Community Through Media Technology 432

Conclusion: The Transformative Power of Mass Media 434


15 Stories of Diversity in American Media 436

In this chapter we will explore the sometimes conflicting roles that the media play to advance the cause of ethnic, racial, cultural and sexual diversity, and follow the stories of pioneering figures who have used the media to push against cultural barriers and move into the mainstream.

Pioneers of Latino Media in America 440

The Spanish-Language Press Offers Voice to the Exiled 440

Latino Radio Attracts Business 441

Latino Television Unites, Educates and Empowers 442

The Emergence of Latino TV 443

Univision’s Maria Elena Salinas explores the impact of Univision and Latino Television on today’s Latin American communities.

Latino Entertainment Enters the Mainstream 443

Pioneers of Black Media in America 444

The Black Press Restores Black Identity 445

The Black Press Exposes Inequality 445

The Black Press Promotes Civil Rights 446

John Sengstacke and the Chicago Defender 447

Groundbreaking black newspaper publisher John Sengstacke, tells the story of the role of the ChicagoDefender in the Great Migration of Blacks to the North.

Black Radio–The Voice of The People 448

Black Entertainers Dismantle Stereotypes 448

Pioneering Women in Early American Media 449

Women Stereotypes 450

A critical look at historical and contemporary portrayals of women in the media, particularly through film.

The First Black Woman Newspaper Editor 450

World War II Alters Women’s Roles 451

A Woman Becomes a Television News Broadcaster 451

Women Struggle with Tradition in the 1950s 452

Women Liberate in the 1960s 453

The Doors Widen for Women in the 1970s 453

Women Continue to Seek Equal Opportunity in the 1980s to Now 454

The Impact of Women in Media 454

Filmmaker and author Patricia Melton explores the global impact of women on television.

Pioneers of Asian American Media 455

The Mainstream Media Portray Asians in America 455

Asian American Media Begin with Chinese Immigration 456

Media Stereotypes Plague Asians in the Early 20th Century 457

Asian Americans Break Through in 21st-Century Media 458

Pioneers of Gay and Lesbian American Media 459

Gay Rights Are Human Rights 459

The Sexual Revolution Gives Gay Rights Momentum 460

Gay and Lesbian Media Enter the Mainstream 461

Conclusion: On the Path Toward Greater Future Diversity 462


16 Working in the Mass Media in the Digital Age 464

This chapter talks about the multiple career opportunities one can pursue in the mass media field; videos feature days in the lives of various media professionals.

Employment Trends in Mass Media 468

Hourly and Salaried Wage Earners 468

Contract Professionals 468

Freelance Professionals 469

Survey of Selected Media Industries 470

Newspapers and Magazines 470

Newspaper Editor 471

Loretta Harring, the managing editor of one of the oldest continually-published regional newspapers in America, discusses what she looks for when hiring recent journalism school graduates and the important roles still played by regional and local newspapers.

Television and Radio Broadcasting 472

TV Sports Anchor 472

Joe Fonzi, sports reporter and anchor at San Francisco television station KTVU, shares the challenges and excitement of working as a broadcast sports reporter.

NPR Radio News Host 473

Michel Martin, talk radio host of the NPR news program “Tell Me More,” explains how she decides the day’s agenda, which includes carefully selecting the most important news stories of the day.

Film and Video Production 473

Documentary Film Producer, MTV 474

Cheryl Horner Sirulnick, founder and executive producer ofGigantic! Productions for MTV, describes the creative andtechnical process of developing documentary projects.

Advertising and Public Relations 475

Entertainment Public Relations Agent 476

Marcus Bass, of Spelling Communications, describes his career and his experiences working as an entertainment public relations professional in Hollywood.

Music Industry 476

Radio DJ 477

Sam Diggedy, popular radio DJ at KDON Top-40 radio in Northern California describes what it is like to be a popular radio DJ.

Photography 478

Magazine Photo Editor, National Geographic 479

Elizabeth Krist, senior photo editor at National Geographic, describes the fairly involved and complex process of developing a photographic narrative to accompany an approved story.

Video Game Industry 480

Video Game Developer 481

The founder of a leading video game company gives a tour of the process of video gave development and a glimpse inside what it is really like to work on a video game development team.

Achieving Success in the Media Industry 481

Soft Skills, Hard Skills 481

The Power of Portfolios 482

Conclusion: Make the Industry Want You 484

Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 486


Notes 488

Glossary 493

Bibliography 503

Index 515


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