Mechanical Behavior of Materials : Engineering Methods for Deformation, Fracture, and Fatigue

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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This respected handbook introduces the entire spectrum of mechanical behavior of materials, emphasizing practical engineering methods for testing structural materials to obtain their properties, and predicting their strength and life when used for machines, vehicles, and structures.Features expanded discussions ofsafety factors, stress and strain, bending and torsion tests, unknown fiber fraction, 3-D stresses, and modified-Mohr and Coulomb-Mohr criteria. Also addresses maximum shear and octahedral shear criteria, load factor design, fatigue limits, notch sensitivity,R-ratio effects, mean stress relaxation, cyclic bending, mean stresses, and time-temperature parameters. Coverage of fracture mechanics allows readers to analyze the effect of cracks on strength and life without requiring advanced mathematics. Employs actual laboratory data in illustrations, examples, and problems, giving readers realistic impressions as to the actual values and behavior for the material involved.A useful reference for practicing engineers.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Types of Material Failurep. 2
Design and Materials Selectionp. 10
Technological Challengep. 16
Economic Importance of Fracturep. 18
Summaryp. 19
Referencesp. 20
Problems and Questionsp. 20
Structure and Deformation in Materialsp. 23
Introductionp. 23
Bonding in Solidsp. 25
Structure in Crystalline Materialsp. 29
Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strengthp. 33
Inelastic Deformationp. 38
Summaryp. 44
Referencesp. 45
Problems and Questionsp. 46
A Survey of Engineering Materialsp. 48
Introductionp. 48
Alloying and Processing of Metalsp. 49
Irons and Steelsp. 55
Nonferrous Metalsp. 63
Polymersp. 67
Ceramics and Glassesp. 77
Composite Materialsp. 83
Materials Selection for Engineering Componentsp. 88
Summaryp. 94
Referencesp. 96
Problems and Questionsp. 97
Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Other Basic Testsp. 101
Introductionp. 101
Introduction to Tension Testp. 106
Engineering Stress-Strain Propertiesp. 111
Trends in Tensile Behaviorp. 120
True Stress-Strain Interpretation of Tension Testp. 126
Compression Testp. 135
Hardness Testsp. 140
Notch-Impact Testsp. 147
Bending and Torsion Testsp. 152
Summaryp. 158
Referencesp. 159
Problems and Questionsp. 160
Stress-Strain Relationships and Behaviorp. 171
Introductionp. 171
Models for Deformation Behaviorp. 172
Elastic Deformationp. 182
Anisotropic Materialsp. 195
Summaryp. 204
Referencesp. 206
Problems and Questionsp. 206
Review of Complex and Principal States of Stress and Strainp. 214
Introductionp. 214
Plane Stressp. 215
Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stressp. 225
Three-Dimensional States of Stressp. 233
Stresses on the Octahedral Planesp. 240
Complex States of Strainp. 242
Summaryp. 247
Referencesp. 249
Problems and Questionsp. 249
Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stressesp. 254
Introductionp. 254
General Form of Failure Criteriap. 256
Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterionp. 258
Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterionp. 261
Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterionp. 267
Discussion of the Basic Failure Criteriap. 274
Coulomb-Mohr Fracture Criterionp. 280
Modified Mohr Fracture Criterionp. 290
Additional Comments on Failure Criteriap. 297
Summaryp. 300
Referencesp. 301
Problems and Questionsp. 302
Fracture of Cracked Membersp. 312
Introductionp. 312
Preliminary Discussionp. 315
Mathematical Conceptsp. 322
Application of K to Design and Analysisp. 326
Additional Topics on Application of Kp. 337
Fracture Toughness Values and Trendsp. 349
Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFMp. 359
Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testingp. 368
Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticityp. 369
Summaryp. 376
Referencesp. 379
Problems and Questionsp. 380
Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approachp. 391
Introductionp. 391
Definitions and Conceptsp. 393
Sources of Cyclic Loadingp. 404
Fatigue Testingp. 405
The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damagep. 410
Trends in S-N Curvesp. 413
Mean Stressesp. 426
Multiaxial Stressesp. 438
Variable Amplitude Loadingp. 443
Summaryp. 453
Referencesp. 454
Problems and Questionsp. 456
Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Membersp. 466
Introductionp. 466
Notch Effectsp. 468
Notch Sensitivity and Empirical Estimates of k[subscript f]p. 472
Estimating Long-Life Fatigue Strengths (Fatigue Limits)p. 476
Notch Effects at Intermediate and Short Livesp. 481
Combined Effects of Notches and Mean Stressp. 484
Estimating S-N Curvesp. 494
Use of Component S-N Datap. 502
Designing to Avoid Fatigue Failurep. 510
Discussionp. 516
Summaryp. 517
Referencesp. 519
Problems and Questionsp. 520
Fatigue Crack Growthp. 535
Introductionp. 535
Preliminary Discussionp. 536
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Testingp. 544
Effects of R = S[subscript min]/S[subscript max] on Fatigue Crack Growthp. 549
Trends in Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviorp. 559
Life Estimates for Constant Amplitude Loadingp. 565
Life Estimates for Variable Amplitude Loadingp. 576
Design Considerationsp. 582
Plasticity Aspects and Limitations of LEFM for Fatigue Crack Growthp. 584
Environmental Crack Growthp. 591
Summaryp. 596
Referencesp. 598
Problems and Questionsp. 599
Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materialsp. 612
Introductionp. 612
Stress-Strain Curvesp. 615
Three-Dimensional Stress-Strain Relationshipsp. 623
Unloading and Cyclic Loading Behavior from Rheological Modelsp. 631
Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior of Real Materialsp. 639
Summaryp. 652
Referencesp. 654
Problems and Questionsp. 655
Stress-Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Membersp. 664
Introductionp. 664
Plasticity in Bendingp. 665
Residual Stresses and Strains for Bendingp. 674
Plasticity of Circular Shafts in Torsionp. 678
Notched Membersp. 681
Cyclic Loadingp. 693
Summaryp. 704
Referencesp. 705
Problems and Questionsp. 706
Strain-Based Approach to Fatiguep. 715
Introductionp. 715
Strain Versus Life Curvesp. 718
Mean Stress Effectsp. 728
Multiaxial Stress Effectsp. 736
Life Estimates for Structural Componentsp. 740
Discussionp. 750
Summaryp. 758
Referencesp. 759
Problems and Questionsp. 760
Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Dampingp. 772
Introductionp. 772
Creep Testingp. 774
Physical Mechanisms of Creepp. 779
Time-Temperature Parameters and Life Estimatesp. 790
Creep Failure under Varying Stressp. 802
Stress-Strain-Time Relationshipsp. 804
Creep Deformation under Varying Stressp. 810
Creep under Multiaxial Stressp. 817
Component Stress-Strain Analysisp. 820
Energy Dissipation (Damping) in Materialsp. 825
Summaryp. 834
Referencesp. 836
Problems and Questionsp. 837
Review of Selected Topics from Mechanics of Materialsp. 849
Introductionp. 849
Basic Formulas for Stresses and Deflectionsp. 849
Properties of Areasp. 851
Shears, Moments, and Deflections in Beamsp. 853
Stresses in Pressure Vessels, Tubes, and Discsp. 853
Elastic Stress Concentration Factors for Notchesp. 858
Fully Plastic Yielding Loadsp. 859
Referencesp. 868
Statistical Variation in Materials Propertiesp. 869
Introductionp. 869
Mean and Standard Deviationp. 869
Normal or Gaussian Distributionp. 871
Typical Variation in Materials Propertiesp. 874
One-Sided Tolerance Limitsp. 874
Discussionp. 876
Referencesp. 877
Bibliographyp. 878
Indexp. 891
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