Preface | p. xi |
Acknowledgments | p. xvii |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Types of Material Failure | p. 2 |
Design and Materials Selection | p. 10 |
Technological Challenge | p. 16 |
Economic Importance of Fracture | p. 18 |
Summary | p. 19 |
References | p. 20 |
Problems and Questions | p. 20 |
Structure and Deformation in Materials | p. 23 |
Introduction | p. 23 |
Bonding in Solids | p. 25 |
Structure in Crystalline Materials | p. 29 |
Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strength | p. 33 |
Inelastic Deformation | p. 38 |
Summary | p. 44 |
References | p. 45 |
Problems and Questions | p. 46 |
A Survey of Engineering Materials | p. 48 |
Introduction | p. 48 |
Alloying and Processing of Metals | p. 49 |
Irons and Steels | p. 55 |
Nonferrous Metals | p. 63 |
Polymers | p. 67 |
Ceramics and Glasses | p. 77 |
Composite Materials | p. 83 |
Materials Selection for Engineering Components | p. 88 |
Summary | p. 94 |
References | p. 96 |
Problems and Questions | p. 97 |
Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Other Basic Tests | p. 101 |
Introduction | p. 101 |
Introduction to Tension Test | p. 106 |
Engineering Stress-Strain Properties | p. 111 |
Trends in Tensile Behavior | p. 120 |
True Stress-Strain Interpretation of Tension Test | p. 126 |
Compression Test | p. 135 |
Hardness Tests | p. 140 |
Notch-Impact Tests | p. 147 |
Bending and Torsion Tests | p. 152 |
Summary | p. 158 |
References | p. 159 |
Problems and Questions | p. 160 |
Stress-Strain Relationships and Behavior | p. 171 |
Introduction | p. 171 |
Models for Deformation Behavior | p. 172 |
Elastic Deformation | p. 182 |
Anisotropic Materials | p. 195 |
Summary | p. 204 |
References | p. 206 |
Problems and Questions | p. 206 |
Review of Complex and Principal States of Stress and Strain | p. 214 |
Introduction | p. 214 |
Plane Stress | p. 215 |
Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress | p. 225 |
Three-Dimensional States of Stress | p. 233 |
Stresses on the Octahedral Planes | p. 240 |
Complex States of Strain | p. 242 |
Summary | p. 247 |
References | p. 249 |
Problems and Questions | p. 249 |
Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stresses | p. 254 |
Introduction | p. 254 |
General Form of Failure Criteria | p. 256 |
Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterion | p. 258 |
Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterion | p. 261 |
Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterion | p. 267 |
Discussion of the Basic Failure Criteria | p. 274 |
Coulomb-Mohr Fracture Criterion | p. 280 |
Modified Mohr Fracture Criterion | p. 290 |
Additional Comments on Failure Criteria | p. 297 |
Summary | p. 300 |
References | p. 301 |
Problems and Questions | p. 302 |
Fracture of Cracked Members | p. 312 |
Introduction | p. 312 |
Preliminary Discussion | p. 315 |
Mathematical Concepts | p. 322 |
Application of K to Design and Analysis | p. 326 |
Additional Topics on Application of K | p. 337 |
Fracture Toughness Values and Trends | p. 349 |
Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFM | p. 359 |
Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testing | p. 368 |
Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticity | p. 369 |
Summary | p. 376 |
References | p. 379 |
Problems and Questions | p. 380 |
Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approach | p. 391 |
Introduction | p. 391 |
Definitions and Concepts | p. 393 |
Sources of Cyclic Loading | p. 404 |
Fatigue Testing | p. 405 |
The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage | p. 410 |
Trends in S-N Curves | p. 413 |
Mean Stresses | p. 426 |
Multiaxial Stresses | p. 438 |
Variable Amplitude Loading | p. 443 |
Summary | p. 453 |
References | p. 454 |
Problems and Questions | p. 456 |
Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Members | p. 466 |
Introduction | p. 466 |
Notch Effects | p. 468 |
Notch Sensitivity and Empirical Estimates of k[subscript f] | p. 472 |
Estimating Long-Life Fatigue Strengths (Fatigue Limits) | p. 476 |
Notch Effects at Intermediate and Short Lives | p. 481 |
Combined Effects of Notches and Mean Stress | p. 484 |
Estimating S-N Curves | p. 494 |
Use of Component S-N Data | p. 502 |
Designing to Avoid Fatigue Failure | p. 510 |
Discussion | p. 516 |
Summary | p. 517 |
References | p. 519 |
Problems and Questions | p. 520 |
Fatigue Crack Growth | p. 535 |
Introduction | p. 535 |
Preliminary Discussion | p. 536 |
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Testing | p. 544 |
Effects of R = S[subscript min]/S[subscript max] on Fatigue Crack Growth | p. 549 |
Trends in Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior | p. 559 |
Life Estimates for Constant Amplitude Loading | p. 565 |
Life Estimates for Variable Amplitude Loading | p. 576 |
Design Considerations | p. 582 |
Plasticity Aspects and Limitations of LEFM for Fatigue Crack Growth | p. 584 |
Environmental Crack Growth | p. 591 |
Summary | p. 596 |
References | p. 598 |
Problems and Questions | p. 599 |
Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materials | p. 612 |
Introduction | p. 612 |
Stress-Strain Curves | p. 615 |
Three-Dimensional Stress-Strain Relationships | p. 623 |
Unloading and Cyclic Loading Behavior from Rheological Models | p. 631 |
Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior of Real Materials | p. 639 |
Summary | p. 652 |
References | p. 654 |
Problems and Questions | p. 655 |
Stress-Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Members | p. 664 |
Introduction | p. 664 |
Plasticity in Bending | p. 665 |
Residual Stresses and Strains for Bending | p. 674 |
Plasticity of Circular Shafts in Torsion | p. 678 |
Notched Members | p. 681 |
Cyclic Loading | p. 693 |
Summary | p. 704 |
References | p. 705 |
Problems and Questions | p. 706 |
Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue | p. 715 |
Introduction | p. 715 |
Strain Versus Life Curves | p. 718 |
Mean Stress Effects | p. 728 |
Multiaxial Stress Effects | p. 736 |
Life Estimates for Structural Components | p. 740 |
Discussion | p. 750 |
Summary | p. 758 |
References | p. 759 |
Problems and Questions | p. 760 |
Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Damping | p. 772 |
Introduction | p. 772 |
Creep Testing | p. 774 |
Physical Mechanisms of Creep | p. 779 |
Time-Temperature Parameters and Life Estimates | p. 790 |
Creep Failure under Varying Stress | p. 802 |
Stress-Strain-Time Relationships | p. 804 |
Creep Deformation under Varying Stress | p. 810 |
Creep under Multiaxial Stress | p. 817 |
Component Stress-Strain Analysis | p. 820 |
Energy Dissipation (Damping) in Materials | p. 825 |
Summary | p. 834 |
References | p. 836 |
Problems and Questions | p. 837 |
Review of Selected Topics from Mechanics of Materials | p. 849 |
Introduction | p. 849 |
Basic Formulas for Stresses and Deflections | p. 849 |
Properties of Areas | p. 851 |
Shears, Moments, and Deflections in Beams | p. 853 |
Stresses in Pressure Vessels, Tubes, and Discs | p. 853 |
Elastic Stress Concentration Factors for Notches | p. 858 |
Fully Plastic Yielding Loads | p. 859 |
References | p. 868 |
Statistical Variation in Materials Properties | p. 869 |
Introduction | p. 869 |
Mean and Standard Deviation | p. 869 |
Normal or Gaussian Distribution | p. 871 |
Typical Variation in Materials Properties | p. 874 |
One-Sided Tolerance Limits | p. 874 |
Discussion | p. 876 |
References | p. 877 |
Bibliography | p. 878 |
Index | p. 891 |
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