Mechanisms of Transcription

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-05-01

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Complex macromolecular machinery is responsible for gene-specific and cell-type selective patterns of gene expression. How it works is being revealed by increasingly sophisticated molecular dissection of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This volume reviews the results and conclusions of recent studies in gene transcription. It covers events ranging from activation, through promoter recognition, repression, chromosome structure, chromatin remodelling, initiation and elongation, and the regulation of stopping and starting.

Table of Contents

Symposium Participantsp. v
Forewordp. xix
Dedicationp. xxv
Promoter Recognition and Initiation
Transcription Regulation by Repressosome and by RNA Polymerase Contactp. 1
RNA Polymerase-DNA Interaction: Structures of Intermediate, Open, and Elongation Complexesp. 11
The Initiator Element: A Paradigm for Core Promoter Heterogeneity within Metazoan Proteincoding Genesp. 21
X-ray Crystallographic Studies of Eukaryotic Transcription Factorsp. 33
Transcription in Archaeap. 41
Polarity of Transcription on Pol II and Archaeal Promoters: Where Is the "One-way Sign" and How Is It Read?p. 53
Transcriptional Regulation by DNA Structural Transitions and Single-stranded DNA-binding Proteinsp. 63
The DPE, a Conserved Downstream Core Promoter Element That Is Functionally Analogous to the TATA Boxp. 75
The RNA Polymerase II General Transcription Factors: Past, Present, and Futurep. 83
Ten Years of TFIIHp. 105
Crossing the Line between RNA Polymerases: Transcription of Human snRNA Genes by RNA Polymerases II and IIIp. 111
Transcription Factor IIIB: The Architecture of Its DNA Complex, and Its Roles in Initiation of Transcription by RNA Polymerase IIIp. 121
Strength and Regulation without Transcription Factors: Lessons from Bacterial rRNA Promotersp. 131
The Functional and Regulatory Roles of Sigma Factors in Transcriptionp. 141
The Bacterial Enhancer-binding Protein NtrC as a Molecular Machinep. 157
Gene Transcription by Recruitmentp. 167
Use of Artificial Activators to Define a Role for Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Contacts in Transcriptional Activationp. 173
Activation and the Role of Reinitiation in the Control of Transcription by RNA Polymerase IIp. 181
Cofactor Requirements for Transcriptional Activation by Sp1p. 189
Role of General and Gene-specific Cofactors in the Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcriptionp. 201
Functional Analysis of TFIID Componentsp. 219
Mechanism and Regulation of Yeast RNA Polymerase II Transcriptionp. 229
Functional and Structural Analysis of the Subunits of Human Transcription Factor TFIIDp. 233
Mechanisms of Viral Activatorsp. 243
Cooperative Assembly of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Complexesp. 253
RNA Polymerase
Transcription Regulation, Initiation, and "DNA Scrunching" by T7 RNA Polymerasep. 263
Structural Studies of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerasep. 269
Interaction of Escherichia coli [sigma superscript 70] with Core RNA Polymerasep. 277
The Transition from Initiation to Elongation by RNA Polymerase IIp. 289
Role of RNA Polymerase II Carboxy-terminal Domain in Coordinating Transcription with RNA Processingp. 301
Fractions to Functions: RNA Polymerase II Thirty Years Laterp. 311
Elongation and Termination
Antitermination by Bacteriophage [lambda] Q Proteinp. 319
Structure and Mechanism in Transcriptional Antitermination by the Bacteriophage [lambda] N Proteinp. 327
Mechanistic Model of the Elongation Complex of Escherichia coli RNA Polymerasep. 337
Promoter-associated Pausing in Promoter Architecture and Postinitiation Transcriptional Regulationp. 347
Mechanism of Promoter Escape by RNA Polymerase IIp. 357
RNA Polymerase II Elongation Controlp. 365
HIV-1 Tat Interacts with Cyclin T1 to Direct the P-TEFb CTD Kinase Complex to TAR RNAp. 371
The Yeast RNA Polymerase III Transcription Machinery: A Paradigm for Eukaryotic Gene Activationp. 381
Repression Mechanisms
The Regulation of Gene Activity by Histones and the Histone Deacetylase RPD3p. 391
Targeting Sir Proteins to Sites of Action: A General Mechanism for Regulated Repressionp. 401
Activation and Repression Mechanisms in Yeastp. 413
The Mad Protein Family Links Transcriptional Repression to Cell Differentiationp. 423
Histone Deacetylase Directs the Dominant Silencing of Transcription in Chromatin: Association with MeCP2 and the Mi-2 Chromodomain SWI/SNF ATPasep. 435
Gene Regulation by the Yeast Ssn6-Tup1 Corepressorp. 447
In Vivo Functions of Histone Acetylation/Deacetylation in Tup1p Repression and Gcn5p Activationp. 459
Chromosome Structure and Transcription
Signaling to Chromatin through Histone Modifications: How Clear Is the Signal?p. 469
Regulation of Transcription by Multisubunit Complexes That Alter Nucleosome Structurep. 483
TBP-associated Factors in the PCAF Histone Acetylase Complexp. 493
Structure of the Yeast Histone Acetyltransferase Hat1: Insights into Substrate Specificity and Implications for the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase Superfamilyp. 501
The Establishment of Active Chromatin Domainsp. 509
Nuclear Matrix Attachment Regions Confer Long-range Function upon the Immunoglobulin [mu] Enhancerp. 515
Remodeling Chromatin
ATP-dependent Remodeling of Chromatinp. 525
A Model for Chromatin Remodeling by the SWI/SNF Familyp. 535
SWI/SNF Complex: Dissection of a Chromatin Remodeling Cyclep. 545
The SAGA of Spt Proteins and Transcriptional Analysis in Yeast: Past, Present, and Futurep. 553
Specificity of ATP-dependent Chromatin Remodeling at the Yeast PH05 Promoterp. 563
Role of Chromatin Structure and Distal Enhancers in Tissue-specific Transcriptional Regulation In Vitrop. 569
Regulatory Complexes and Pathways
The Transcriptional Basis of Steroid Physiologyp. 577
Building Transcriptional Regulatory Complexes: Signals and Surfacesp. 587
The Herpes Simplex Virus VP16-induced Complex: Mechanisms of Combinatorial Regulationp. 599
Structure and Function of the Interferon-[beta] Enhanceosomep. 609
Autoinhibition as a Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanismp. 621
Mechanisms of Activation by CREB and CREM: Phosphorylation, CBP, and a Novel Coactivator, ACTp. 631
Regulation of SRF Activity by Rho Family GTPasesp. 643
Summary: Three Decades after Sigmap. 653
Author Indexp. 667
Subject Indexp. 669
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