Medical Dosage Calculations

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback w/CD
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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The Eight Edition of Medical Dosage Calculations continues to be a user-friendly drug calculation text and workbook. Utilizing a dimensional analysis approach, this comprehensive resource begins with simple arithmetic and progresses to the most complex drug calculation problem. Completely revised and updated to include the latest practices and medications, an updated comprehensive review section, and a new companion website, it provides all of the details for a complete understanding of these most critical calculation skills. NEW-Companion Website- www.prenhall.com/olsen -with critical thinking questions and more. Revised and updated to include the latest practices and medications. Updated questions, critical thinking case studies, practice problem sets, and self-tests. Over 1000 problems throughout. Exercises complete with solutions for a complete look at the step-by-step process. A comprehensive review section is ideal for reference and self-testing. An arithmetic review (Chapter 1) provides a foundation for the calculations that follow throughout the text. Actual drug labels are real-life examples of what is used in health care settings. The most frequently used drugs organized by both generic and trade names.

Author Biography

June Looby Olsen, RN, MS: Professor of Nursing (Emeritus) The College of Staten Island Staten Island, New York Anthony Patrick Giangrasso, PhD: Professor of Mathematics La Guardia Community College Long Island City, New York Dolores M. Shrimpton, RN, MA: Associate Professor Chairperson, Department of Nursing Kingsborough Community College Brooklyn, New York

Table of Contents

Basic Calculation and Administration Skillsp. 1
Review of Arithmetic for Medical Dosage Calculationsp. 2
Objectivesp. 2
Diagnostic Test of Arithmeticp. 3
Changing Decimal Numbers and Whole Numbers to Fractionsp. 4
Changing Fractions to Decimal Numbersp. 5
Rounding Decimal Numbersp. 7
Multiplying and Dividing Decimal Numbersp. 7
Multiplying and Dividing Fractionsp. 10
Complex Fractionsp. 12
Percentagesp. 13
Practice Setsp. 14
Drug Administrationp. 17
Objectivesp. 17
Who Administers Drugs?p. 18
The Drug Administration Processp. 18
The Right Drugp. 18
The Right Dosep. 20
The Right Routep. 20
The Right Timep. 21
The Right Patientp. 21
Drug Ordersp. 22
Drug Labelsp. 24
Drug Package Insertsp. 28
Medication Administration Recordsp. 34
Practice Setsp. 39
Dimensional Analysisp. 49
Objectivesp. 49
Getting Startedp. 50
Practice Setsp. 55
Systems of Measurement for Dosage Calculationsp. 57
The Apothecary, Household, and Metric Systemsp. 59
Objectivesp. 59
The Apothecary Systemp. 60
Liquid Volume in the Apothecary Systemp. 60
Weight in the Apothecary Systemp. 61
Roman Numeralsp. 61
The Household Systemp. 62
Liquid Volume in the Household Systemp. 62
Weight in the Household Systemp. 63
The Metric Systemp. 64
Liquid Volume in the Metric Systemp. 64
Weight in the Metric Systemp. 65
Practice Setsp. 68
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 74
Converting from One System of Measurement to Anotherp. 75
Objectivesp. 75
Equivalents of Common Units of Measurementp. 76
Metric-to-Apothecary Conversionsp. 78
Apothecary-to-Metric Conversionsp. 81
Household-to-Apothecary or Household-to-Metric Conversionsp. 83
Practice Setsp. 86
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 94
Common Medication Preparationsp. 97
Calculating Oral Medication Dosesp. 99
Objectivesp. 99
One-Step Conversionsp. 100
Dosage by Body Weightp. 104
Calculating Dosage by Body Surface Areap. 105
Nomogramp. 106
Multistep Conversionsp. 110
Practice Reading Labelsp. 116
Case Study 6.1p. 133
Practice Setsp. 136
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 141
Syringesp. 143
Objectivesp. 143
Common Types of Syringesp. 144
Other Types of Syringesp. 148
Case Study 7.1p. 153
Practice Setsp. 157
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 166
Preparation of Solutionsp. 169
Objectivesp. 169
Strength of Solutionsp. 170
Pure Drugs in Liquid Formp. 170
Pure Drugs in Dry Formp. 171
Preparing Solutions from Pure Drugsp. 172
Diluting Stock Solutionsp. 175
Case Study 8.1p. 178
Practice Setsp. 180
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 187
Parenteral Medicationsp. 189
Objectivesp. 189
Parenteral Medications Supplied as Liquidsp. 190
Heparinp. 196
Parenteral Medications Supplied in Powdered Formp. 198
Case Study 9.1p. 201
Practice Setsp. 203
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 210
Specialized Medication Preparationsp. 213
Calculating Flow Rates for Enteral Solutions and Intravenous Infusionsp. 215
Objectivesp. 215
Introduction to Intravenous and Enteral Solutionsp. 216
Enteral Solutionsp. 216
Intravenous Fluidsp. 216
Intravenous Solutionsp. 217
Equipment for IV Infusionsp. 220
Calculating the Flow Rate of Infusionsp. 224
Calculating the Flow Rate of Enteral Solutionsp. 229
Case Study 10.1p. 230
Practice Setsp. 232
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 236
Calculating Flow Rates for Intravenous Medications and Duration of Flowp. 239
Objectivesp. 239
Intravenous Piggyback Infusionsp. 240
Intravenous Piggyback Medicationsp. 241
Calculating Flow Rates Based on Body Weightp. 246
Calculating Flow Rates Based on Body Surface Areap. 247
Calculating the Duration of Flow for IV and Enteral Solutionsp. 248
Case Study 11.1p. 252
Practice Setsp. 253
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 262
Calculating Pediatric Dosagesp. 263
Objectivesp. 263
Calculating Drug Dosages by Body Weightp. 264
Calculating Drug Dosages by Body Surface Areap. 270
BSA Pediatric Nomogramp. 271
Pediatric Intravenous Dosagesp. 274
Case Study 12.1p. 275
Practice Setsp. 277
Cumulative Review Exercisesp. 284
Comprehensive Self-Testsp. 287
Appendicesp. 317
Answers Sectionp. 318
Common Abbreviations on Medication Ordersp. 365
Units of Measurement in Metric, Household, and Apothecary Systemsp. 367
Dosage Preparation Forms and Packagingp. 368
Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Conversionsp. 369
Tables of Weight Conversionsp. 371
Nomogramsp. 373
Ratio and Proportion Method for Dosage Calculationp. 375
Indexp. 379
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.


In a growing range of health-care settings, nursing and allied health professionals are assuming increasing responsibilities in every aspect of drug administration. The first step in assuming this responsibility is learning to calculate drug dosages accurately. Dosage calculation is not just about math skills, it is an introduction to theprofessional contextof drug administration. Calculation skills and the reason for their application-this is whatMedical Dosage Calculationshas taught thousands of students with unmatched success through seven editions. Medical Dosage Calculationsis a combined text and workbook designed for the student of dosage calculations. Its consistent focus on safety, accuracy, and professionalism make it a valuable part of a dosage calculation course for nursing or allied health-care programs. It is also highly effective for independent study and may be used as a refresher to dosage calculation skills or as a professional reference. Topics introduced and developed inMedical Dosage Calculationsinclude: basic arithmetic skills systems of measurement dosage calculations for all common forms of drug preparations IV and specialized calculations In addition to these topics, this edition includes substantially more information about basic drug administration. Readers will learn how to interpret actual drug labels, package inserts, and various forms of medication orders, as well as how to recognize a wide variety of syringes. Key Features ofMedical Dosage Calculations We have built on the strengths of the previous editions by continuing to provide the thoroughness of a textbook with the practicality and convenience of a workbook. Here are the important features that have madeMedical Dosage Calculationsan effective and popular book through seven editions. Dimensional Analysis Calculation Method.Dimensional analysis is a technique in which the units on the drug package are systematically converted to the units on the drug order. Conversion factors have traditionally been used to simplify complex calculations in physics and chemistry. However, before the first edition of this textbook in 1972, these methods had not been applied to drug calculations. Dosage calculation methods were limited to either theratio-and-proportionmethod or the use ofmemorized formulas.Our innovation in dosage calculation has come to be imitated in many textbooks and accepted by an ever-increasing number of medical professionals over the three decades since we coined the phraseDimensional Analysis. Learn by Example.Each chapter unfolds basic concepts and skills through the use of examples. Case Studies.Realistic case scenarios allow the student to apply concepts and techniques presented in the text to a clinical setting. Problem Sets.This text/workbook offers learners more than 1000 practice opportunities. Answers to all but the Additional Exercises can be found in the book. Answers to the Additional Exercises are in the Instructor's Guide, and on the companion Website. Each chapter's practice opportunities are grouped into four problem sets: Try These for Practice Exercises Additional Exercises Cumulative Review Exercises Comprehensive Self-Tests.Upon completion of this text/workbook, these Self-Tests quiz the students' comprehensive knowledge. Answers to the Self-Tests can be found in the book. Organization.The skills mastered inMedical Dosage Calculationsare arranged into four basic learning units: Unit 1: Basic Calculation and Administration Skills After a review of basic number skills, this section introduces the essentials of drug administration. A separate chapter introduces dimensional analysis using a friendly, commonsense approach.<

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