Mental Health Concepts and Techniques for the Occupational Therapy Assistant

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-02-21
  • Publisher: LWW
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The Fourth Edition of this classic text offers a solid foundation in occupational therapy processes to identify and address the needs of persons with mental health problems. This updated edition reflects important new developments in basic neuroscience, psychopharmacology, occupational therapy theory, and evaluation and treatment methods, and remains the only text of its kind written specifically for the occupational therapy assistant. The reader-friendly format is designed for the two-year college student. New content in this expanded text fulfills criteria set out in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Standards for an Accredited Educational Program for the Occupational Therapy Assistant.

Author Biography

Mary Beth Early, M.S., OTR Professor, Occupational Therapy Assistant Program, LaGuardia Community College, City University of New York, New York, New York

Table of Contents

Prefacep. v
Acknowledgmentsp. vii
List of Figuresp. xiii
List of Tablesp. xv
List of Boxesp. xvii
History and Theory
History and Basic Conceptsp. 2
Mental Health and Mental Illnessp. 3
Relation of Occupation to Mental Healthp. 4
Historical Understandingp. 4
The Role of the Occupational Therapy Assistantp. 10
Medical and Psychological Models of Mental Health and Illnessp. 20
Theory of Object Relationsp. 21
Developmental Theoryp. 26
Behavioral Theoriesp. 30
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapyp. 33
Client-Centered Therapyp. 38
Neuroscience Theoriesp. 41
Psychiatric Rehabilitationp. 44
Some Practice Models for Occupational Therapy in Mental Healthp. 52
Development of Adaptive Skillsp. 54
Role Acquisition and Social Skills Trainingp. 59
Psychoeducationp. 71
Sensory Integrationp. 76
Cognitive Disabilitiesp. 82
The Model of Human Occupationp. 93
The Occupational Therapy Practice Frameworkp. 106
Structure of the Occupational Therapy Practice Frameworkp. 108
Thinking About Mental Health Practicep. 108
Concepts Relevant to Mental Health Practicep. 112
Mental Health Theories and Occupational Therapy Practice Modelsp. 118
Human Occupation and Mental Health Throughout the Life Spanp. 123
Motivation Toward Occupationp. 124
Changes in Occupation over the Life Spanp. 125
Mental Health Factors Throughout the Life Spanp. 129
Understanding Psychiatric Diagnosis: The DSM-IV-TRp. 146
Psychiatric Diagnosis: An Evolving Sciencep. 147
The Diagnostic Categories of the DSM-IV-TRp. 151
Applications of DSM-IV-TR Diagnoses to Occupational Therapyp. 174
Comorbidityp. 176
DSM-V: Plans and Potentialp. 176
Contexts of Intervention, Service, and Carep. 182
The Scope of Patients, Clients, and Consumersp. 183
The Scope of Settingsp. 185
Inpatient Settingsp. 186
Outpatient Settingsp. 192
Consumer-Operated Programsp. 195
Other Community Programsp. 199
Home Health Carep. 201
Community Residencesp. 202
Settings for Children and Adolescentsp. 203
Environmental Conceptsp. 204
Additional Theories and Practice Modelsp. 208
Psychotropic Medications and Other Biological Treatmentsp. 216
Psychotropic Medicationsp. 217
Other Biological Treatmentsp. 230
Herbal and Alternative Therapiesp. 231
Who Is the Consumer?p. 234
Populations by Age Groupp. 235
Family Membersp. 240
Family Caregiversp. 242
Cultural Differencep. 243
Social Problems-Ending the Cycle of Violencep. 250
Medical Problems and Physical Disabilitiesp. 252
Understanding and Supporting Recoveryp. 257
Interacting with Patients and Consumers
Therapeutic Use of Selfp. 264
The Therapeutic Relationshipp. 265
Stages in the Therapeutic Relationshipp. 266
Roles in the Therapeutic Relationshipp. 266
Therapeutic Qualitiesp. 268
Developing Therapeutic Qualitiesp. 270
Techniques for Relating to Patientsp. 272
Issues That Arise in Therapeutic Relationshipsp. 274
Ethicsp. 277
Ending the Therapeutic Relationshipp. 280
Responding to Symptoms and Behaviorsp. 284
A Framework of Concepts About Symptomsp. 285
Response Variablesp. 288
Response Strategiesp. 289
Self-Monitoring for Self-Mastery of Symptomsp. 318
Safety Techniquesp. 324
Universal Precautionsp. 325
Controlling the Environmentp. 327
Medical Emergencies and First Aidp. 330
Psychiatric Emergenciesp. 331
Teaching Consumers About Safetyp. 335
Modifying Environments to Enhance Safetyp. 335
Group Concepts and Techniquesp. 339
Definition and Purpose of Group Treatmentp. 340
Group Dynamics: Review of Basic Conceptsp. 341
Development of Group Skillsp. 346
How Therapy Groups Are Different from Other Groupsp. 348
Role of the Leader in an Activity Groupp. 349
Program Developmentp. 357
Starting a New Groupp. 365
Adaptations of Groups for Very Regressed Individualsp. 365
Other models for Groupsp. 369
Program Evaluationp. 369
Occupational Therapy Process
Overview of the Intervention Processp. 376
Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Processp. 377
Eight Stages in the Intervention Processp. 378
A Holistic Perspective-A Dynamic Processp. 387
Theory and the Occupational Therapy Processp. 388
Clinical Reasoningp. 389
Evidence-Based Practicep. 392
Evaluation and Data Collectionp. 397
Definition and Purpose of Evaluationp. 398
Assets and Deficitsp. 399
Concepts Central to the Evaluation Processp. 399
Areas for Data Collectionp. 403
Roles of the OT and the OTAp. 403
The OTA's Methods of Data Collectionp. 405
Concepts Related to Assessment and Measurementp. 413
Some Assessments Suitable for OTA Administrationp. 414
The Performance Context for Evaluationp. 428
Documentation and Communication of Evaluation Datap. 428
Treatment and Intervention Planningp. 434
Treatment Planning in Psychiatryp. 435
Using Practice Models to Apply Clinical Reasoning in Planningp. 437
Steps in Intervention Planningp. 437
Partnership with the Client or Consumerp. 439
General Goals of Psychiatric Occupational Therapyp. 441
How to Write an Intervention Goalp. 442
Selecting Appropriate Intervention Principlesp. 449
Selecting Intervention Methodsp. 450
Implementing and Monitoring Interventions and Modifying the Planp. 452
Outcome Assessmentp. 452
Continuity of Care Across Settingsp. 452
Quality Assurancep. 453
Continuous Quality Improvementp. 454
Medical Records and Documentationp. 458
Purpose and Uses of Medical Recordsp. 459
Types of Recordsp. 460
Documentation of Occupational Therapy Servicesp. 462
Essential Content for Occupational Therapy Notesp. 468
Specific Types of Documentationp. 469
Documentation Review and Quality Assurancep. 481
Occupational Therapy Methods
Activities of Daily Livingp. 484
Factors in Learning and Using Skillsp. 485
Daily Living Activities (Basic and Instrumental)p. 487
Practice, Repetition, and Habit Developmentp. 502
Education and Workp. 506
Educationp. 507
Workp. 512
Leisure and Social Participationp. 527
Leisure Explorationp. 528
Leisure Performancep. 529
Leisure Activitiesp. 530
Social Participationp. 533
Management of Emotional Needs: Self-Awareness Skills and Coping Strategiesp. 537
Needsp. 538
Occupational Therapy's Domain of Concernp. 538
Self-Awarenessp. 541
Issues Related to Engagement in Occupationp. 542
Self-Management Skillsp. 544
Cognitive, Sensory, and Motor Factors: Performance Skills and Activitiesp. 554
Cognitive Factorsp. 555
Sensory and Motor Factorsp. 559
Analyzing, Adapting, and Grading Activitiesp. 566
Selection of Activitiesp. 567
Analysis of Activitiesp. 567
Adaptation of Activityp. 568
Gradation of Activityp. 572
Activity Analysis Based on Theory: Cognitive Disabilitiesp. 575
Dynamic Performance Analysisp. 579
Analysis: An Ongoing Processp. 579
Professional Development
Supervisionp. 584
Functions and Definition of Supervisionp. 585
Goals of Supervisionp. 585
Responsibilities of the Supervisorp. 588
Responsibilities of the Superviseep. 589
Factors Affecting Communication in Supervisionp. 591
The Supervisory Contractp. 593
Getting the Most from Supervisionp. 593
Resolving Conflicts in Supervisionp. 595
Emerging Models of Supervisionp. 595
Becoming a Supervisorp. 596
Organizing Yourselfp. 602
Prioritiesp. 603
Schedulingp. 604
Paperworkp. 606
The Electronic Revolution: Myths and Realityp. 607
Management of Supplies and Equipmentp. 609
Organizing Spacep. 611
Delegatingp. 613
Case Examples
A 21-Year-Old Woman with Depressionp. 616
A 72-Year-Old Woman with Alzheimer's Diseasep. 617
A 54-Year-Old Woman with Schizophrenia, Paranoid Typep. 619
A 22-Year-Old Man with Chronic Schizophrenia and Mild Mental Retardationp. 620
A 30-Year-Old Man with Bipolar I Disorderp. 622
A 22-Year-Old Woman with Polysubstance Dependence and Dependent Personality Disorderp. 625
A 37-Year-Old Man with Alcohol Dependence Disorderp. 627
A 21-Year-Old Woman with Cocaine Dependence, Polysubstance Abuse, Bulimia, and Borderline Personality Disorderp. 629
A 12-Year-Old Boy with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorderp. 631
Sample Group Protocols
Homemaker's Management Groupp. 633
Family Recreation Skillsp. 634
Adolescent Cooking Groupp. 635
Dementia Cooking Groupp. 635
Managing Work-Related Stressp. 636
The Green Team (Horticulture Clubhouse Group)p. 637
Indexp. 639
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