Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-02-22
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Mesoscale Meteorology in Mid-Latitudes presents the dynamics of mesoscale meteorological phenomena in a highly accessible student- friendly way, with mathematical treatments complimented by eye-catching photographs and illustrations. Topics include boundary layer convection, nocturnal low-level jets, air mass boundaries (e.g., drylines, gust fronts, sea breezes), deep moist convection, convection initiation, tornadoes and tornado genesis, mountain meteorology (e.g., topographic gravity waves, downslope windstorms, gap flows, wake vortices), lake-effect snow, cold-air damming, and mesoscale gravity waves. A Survey of Mesoscale Meteorology functions as a well-rounded undergraduate textbook whilst also serving as a reference for graduate students, weather forecasters, and research scientists.The book will provide a comprehensive coverage of the subject and will, in effect, be a one-stop-shop for all students taking a mesoscale meteorology course. The book includes chapters on boundary layer mesoscale phenomena, orographic phenomena, and deep convection with the coverage of deep convection and its initiation more comprehensive than can be found in any other text. The book brings together the latest developments in the field from recent mesoscale field experiments such as the Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment (BAMEX), the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX), and the International H2O Project (IHOP)] and is richly illustrated throughout in full colour.

Table of Contents

Series Forewardp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
List of Symbolsp. xvii
General Principlesp. 1
What is the Mesoscale?p. 3
Space and time scalesp. 3
Dynamical distinctions between the mesoscale and synoptic scalep. 5
Basic Equations and Toolsp. 11
Thermodynamicsp. 11
Mass conservationp. 16
Momentum equationsp. 17
Vorticity and circulationp. 21
Pressure perturbationsp. 25
Thermodynamic diagramsp. 32
Hodographsp. 34
Mesoscale Instabilitiesp. 41
Static instabilityp. 41
Centrifugal instabilityp. 48
Inertial instabilityp. 49
Symmetric instabilityp. 53
Shear instabilityp. 58
Lower Tropospheric Mesoscale Phenomenap. 71
The Boundary Layerp. 73
The nature of turbulent fluxesp. 73
Surface energy budgetp. 82
Structure and evolution of the boundary layerp. 83
Boundary layer convectionp. 88
Lake-effect convectionp. 93
Urban boundary layersp. 103
The nocturnal low-Level wind maximump. 105
Air Mass Boundariesp. 115
Synoptic frontsp. 117
Drylinesp. 132
Outflow boundariesp. 140
Mesoscale boundaries originating from differential surface heatingp. 149
Mesoscale Gravity Wavesp. 161
Basic wave conventionsp. 161
Internal gravity wave dynamicsp. 165
Wave reflectionp. 170
Critical levelsp. 172
Structure and environments of ducted mesoscale gravity wavesp. 173
Boresp. 175
Deep Moist Convectionp. 181
Convection Initiationp. 183
Requisites for convection initiation and the role of larger scalesp. 183
Mesoscale complexities of convection initiationp. 189
Moisture convergencep. 195
Elevated convectionp. 197
Organization of Isolated Convectionp. 201
Rote of vertical wind shearp. 201
Single-cell convectionp. 206
Multicellular convectionp. 209
Supercellular convectionp. 213
Mesoscale Convective Systemsp. 245
General characteristicsp. 245
Squall line structurep. 249
Squall line maintenancep. 253
Rear inflow and bow echoesp. 260
Mesoscale convective complexesp. 265
Hazards Associated with Deep Moist Convectionp. 273
Tornadoesp. 273
Nontornadic, damaging straight-Line windsp. 292
Hailstormsp. 306
Flash floodsp. 309
Orographic Mesoscale Phenomenap. 315
Thermally Forced Winds in Mountainous Terrainp. 317
Slope windsp. 317
Valley windsp. 320
Mountain Waves and Downslope Windstormsp. 327
Internal gravity waves forced by two-dimensional terrainp. 327
Gravity waves forced by isolated peaksp. 332
Downslope windstormsp. 333
Rotorsp. 342
Blocking of the Wind by Terrainp. 343
Factors that govern whether air flows over or around a terrain obstaclep. 343
Orographically trapped cold-air surgesp. 346
Lee vorticesp. 351
Gap flowsp. 358
Appendixp. 367
A Radar and Its Applicationsp. 369
Radar basicsp. 369
Doppler radar principlesp. 371
Applicationsp. 374
Referencesp. 389
Indexp. 399
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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